At the beginning of the Spanish Civil War a battlefront was established at Aragón. The first major campaign took place at Aragón in June 1937. The purpose of the Republican offensive was to draw the Nationalist Army from Bilbao. The first battle took place at Huesca where the Republicans suffered 1,000 casualties. The campaign was a failure and General Francisco Franco was able to enter Bilbao on 19th June.

We moved into the trenches one morning before light and, as soon as dawn came, the crap began to fly. Then started my education. Some of the old-timers explained the various sounds to me. At first anytime anything whizzed, whistled, or buzzed, I would duck. Then I found out that any bullet which passes anywhere near you will whistle. Ricochets, that is, bullets which have already hit the ground or a rock or something and bounce off in a different direction, buzz when they go by. When bullets come very close they sound more like a whine than a whistle.

But the most important thing of all about these bullet sounds is never to worry about any bullet you hear. Bullets travel much faster than sound, strange as that may seem, and the bullet is way past you by the time you hear it. As it's put out here, "You'll never hear the slug that gets you."

Of course, it's pretty hard to control your instinctive tendency to duck when you hear a loud noise, but the only time it really pays to duck is when you hear a burst of machine gun fire and hear them come over you. You can't, of course, duck the first few if they're coming at you, but you can get out of the way of the rest of the burst.

Well, the first morning I'm keeping low in the trench and not too much interested in the intricacies of military education, when these trench mortars start coming over. They whistle for a long time before they hit and that just increases the agony, waiting for them to land. When these things start coming the battle commander shouts "Everybody down in the trench." So I stick my nose six inches below the level of my heels and then the commander finishes his sentence, "That doesn't go for the observational staff. Locate that gun."

So I found out what observing under fire meant. Poor me has got to spend my time sticking my nose through peep holes when it's much more comfortable two feet below, and my head and shoulders over the parapet half the night, and when the big bastards come over instead of dropping we've got to watch. It was pretty tough the first morning but I soon got used to it.

You see, after a while you get the feeling that what's going to happen to you, if anything, will happen pretty much in spite of anything you do. That doesn't mean we become dauntless heroes and walk out of our way to take risks because we like to watch the patterns the bullets kick up in the dust, but it does mean that we don't become nervous wrecks bobbing up and down every time a mosquito buzzes around your left ear. It's the only kind of defense mechanism you can adopt.

Shortly after noon that first day we went over the top. For about three quarters of an hour after the beginning of the attack I didn't think I'd get a chance to climb over that hump. I was stationed next to the commander in a pretty exposed observation post keeping wise to how our boys were going, so that the attack could be properly directed. The commander, you understand, does not move up until the troops have taken up a position, even a temporary one, in advance of the original lines. But if you think that's safe, you're cock-eyed. He's got to keep calm and see everything that's going on when every instinct is pulling him down to a covered position.

Communication with the men out front is maintained by runners. Pretty soon we ran out of runners, so I got my chance. But the company I had been sent out to contact had had some tough going and was pretty well scattered and difficult to find. I went out, couldn't find the company commander nor anyone else who knew where he was. So I was in a fix. I didn't want to return until I had contacted them and I couldn't find them. I roamed around that god-damned no-man's land, sometimes running, sometimes crawling, sometimes snake-bellying, and holy cow, was that a time. I didn't of course know where in hell my men were and one time I crawled up to within fifty meters of the fascist lines before a sniper reminded me where I was.

Aragon - History

Aragon is the convergence of art and engineering executed with elegant simplicity.

Aragon components are characterized by:

  • extreme performance
  • authentic reproduction
  • elegant aesthetic
  • reliable construction
  • intuitive operation

From the purity and power of the sound to the feel of the sculpted aluminum chassis, the Aragon experience is unforgettable. Aragon is designed and handcrafted in America and has received international acclaim as the highest quality and finest experience attainable in performance audio.

Starting with the Iridium, our flagship 400W monoblock amplifier, and continuing with the Titanium, our 200W dual monoblock amplifier, Aragon products represent a no-compromise, high-value approach to modern entertainment electronics.

About Indy Audio Labs

Acurus and Aragon are wholly owned brands of Indy Audio Labs. Aragon was originally founded in 1984 by Mondial Designs and is a high-end option to its critically-acclaimed sister brand, Acurus.

Indy Audio Labs was founded in 2009 by an audio electronics engineer and a physicist who executed a vision for 21st century audio electronics that combine professional-grade audio performance, state-of-the-art control and connectivity, and simplified access to today&rsquos content sources.

Indy Audio Labs manufactures all of its audio components in the USA using custom fabricated parts and assemblies based on its proprietary electronic, mechanical, and software designs. Our technology solutions in high performance audio are completely unique and possess intrinsic rock-solid reliability.

History & Vision

Luis and Jorge have been dreaming of a decentralized world for years. They met via Twitter when they were only 15 years old, and immediately started building products together.

At the age of 17, they prototyped a fully decentralized Internet replacement by using mesh networks, blockchain technology, and protocols like Bluetooth LE and WiFi Direct.

Stampery—Luis’ latest company—made blockchain timestamping accessible, and has worked with institutions like the Estonian government, Microsoft and Telefonica. It participated in TechCrunch Disrupt and was backed by billionaire Tim Draper.

Before building Aragon, Luis and Jorge were in Silicon Valley working on solving the problem of patent trolls with Unpatent. After figuring out how broken the underlying infrastructure of innovation is—patent trolls thriving, Donald Trump winning the elections, bureaucracy eating entrepreneurship—they decided to focus all of their time in building the infrastructure that new companies and organizations will run on top of.

When talking about Aragon, taking a step back and thinking about the why of organizational structures like companies is a sane move.

Firms or companies exist in order to create value by using resources to create products or provide services. However, intermediaries and third parties such as governments decrease the output of those organizations by imposing restrictions and creating complex regulatory frameworks.

Aragon was born to disintermediate the creation and maintenance of companies and other organizational structures.

Luis and Jorge were very inspired by Nobel prize Ronald Coase and his amazing paper The Nature of the Firm and Yochai Benkler's Linux and the Nature of the Firm. Both explore the concept of companies.

At Aragon, we believe that the blockchain and the Internet are changing the incentives for companies to exist, and we are building tools for the next generation of companies that will take advantage of these changes.

However, for decentralized organizations to be widespread, we need to make sure that they are easy to use, upgradeable/durable, and able to resolve human disputes.

We want to solve—either us or partnering with others—those points in order to make decentralized organizations widespread.

And, thanks to the Aragon client and the Aragon Network, we can solve those points.

Facts About Aragon, The Historic Region In Spain

Aragon, a region in northeastern Spain that was formerly a medieval kingdom. In 1833 it was divided into the provinces of Huesca, Zaragoza (Saragossa), and Teruel. Its area of 18,400 square miles (47,670 sq km) is bounded on the north by the Pyrenees Mountains and on the south by the Iberian Mountains. The region is drained by the Ebro River and its tributaries. The climate is characterized by little rainfall, extremes in temperature, and high winds. Aragon has a population of 1,204,215 (2001 census).

Although sheep and some cattle are raised, farming is the main occupation, with wheat and sugar beets

In constant conflict with the Moors, Aragon gradually expanded its territory, capturing Zaragoza in 1118. In 1137 it was joined to Catalonia. During the next two centuries, Aragon extended its rule to the Balearic Islands and at various times governed Sardinia, Sicily, and Naples. In 1479, ten years after the marriage of Isabella of Castile to Ferdinand of Aragon, the two crowns were united. When Charles I ascended the throne in 1516, the kingdom of Aragon became part of a unified Spain, but it preserved its fueros (regional systems of justice, taxation, military service, and currency) until the early 18th century.

Aragon - History

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Since the birth of the company in 1991, Wing Liang, lead designer and CEO of ARAGON WATCHES USA, has been driven by a constant desire to meet the expectations of the watch loving community. Liang has a unique talent of crafting timepieces that are visually and aesthetically astounding.

With a degree in International Business from Florida Atlantic University under his belt and an intangible love of a fine time pieces, Wing joined forces with his eldest sibling Angela, to create a company that would challenge traditional timepiece making.

Their wish to create a contemporary line that was affordable to every watch connoisseur was set in motion with their motto:

‘Building into the future by respecting our past.’

A slogan the company has stayed true to from its founding.

Wing, as the sole designer, drew inspiration from music, cars, movies and machines and often his earlier pieces entailed fun and funky twists. (Attracting the likes of sci-fi movie makers with his ‘Alien’ design and a cult underground following with timepieces such as the ‘HYDRO’)

As the company has matured, so has Liang’s designs and use of materials, which are comparable to that of any leading luxury timepiece company. His motivation remains unchanged however, to incorporate his real love of fine watch designs, his creations today lean more towards building specific case designs to house select Swiss and Japanese movements.(However the twists are still evident keeping the brand fresh and exciting) And his use of high quality materials, such as ceramic and tungsten, have watch enthusiasts salivating for more.

It is very rare to see such a young company mature so quickly. However from day one Wing and Angela have poured their heart and soul into making Aragon the timepiece powerhouse it is today and have always stayed true to their beliefs of creating modern, luxury designs that are accessible to everyone. Wings conventional, unisex designs are constantly featured in the media and continue to receive international acclaim.

What did your Aragon ancestors do for a living?

In 1940, Laborer and Housework were the top reported jobs for men and women in the US named Aragon. 36% of Aragon men worked as a Laborer and 13% of Aragon women worked as a Housework. Some less common occupations for Americans named Aragon were New Worker and Housewife .

*We display top occupations by gender to maintain their historical accuracy during times when men and women often performed different jobs.

Top Male Occupations in 1940

Top Female Occupations in 1940

The History of Aragon

To a translation services worker like me, however, Aragon has a deep and rich history, a history you have to know fairly well if you have any hope of translating anything from old Aragonese to a modern language, or who wants to understand a private document written by someone living in the Aragon area who has been influenced by family or friends who still speak Aragonese. It's not a dead language, after all - so it has the potential to inform and influence the modern world, and as such is worth studying.

From Many, One

Like France and German, Aragon formed from several tribal mini-kingdoms. Up until the 11th century, these tiny units were subject to constant invasion and deprecations by the Franks to the north and the Moors to the south, and in the earliest years of the 11th century banded together for mutual protection and profit. Initially the kingdoms of Aragon, Sobrarbe, Ribagorza, and the duchy of Castile united under the name Kingdom of Navarre. In 1035 the King of Navarre, Sancho, died and the kingdom split into two. Sancho's son Ramiro I was named king of Aragon, and the modern sense of Aragon began.

Aragon was a belligerent country then and quickly conquered many of the surrounding territories. Curiously, Aragon had a strong sense of Rule of Law in a time when most monarchs cited God as their authority and claimed autocratic powers.

But in Aragon the King was required to swear to uphold the laws, was considered officially simply the first among peers in the nobility, and there was actually an official who judged all of the king's orders against the laws. The motto of Aragon at the time was "Before the king, there was the law."

From Two, Spain

Aragon continued to be a major European power until the dynastic union with Castile in 1469. King Ferdinand of Aragon married Queen Isabella of Castile, uniting their kingdoms under one family. This formed the foundation of the modern state of Spain, and Aragon's importance as an independent region declined as Spain's prominence grew, but Aragon remained ostensibly a separate kingdom until 1707, when King Philip V of Spain invaded the area and subjugated Aragon to Spanish rule officially.

In the modern era, Aragon has remained part of Spain but has continuously indulged its independent character. During the Spanish Civil War Aragon never officially declared independence but hosted many enemies of the Spanish government and anarchist communes, working actively against official Spanish interests.

In 1982, when Spain was reorganised under more democratic principles, Aragon became an "autonomous state" within Spain. This appropriate situation continues today.

The ANT token launched with an ICO in May 2017. At the time, it was among the most successful ICOs ever. It raised $24 million in fifteen minutes.

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The price of ANT hasn’t seen the massive growth that we’ve seen in other cryptocurrencies. Since its launch, ANT has flown under the radar. It’s currently among the top 200 cryptos by market cap.

ANT peaked with the rest of the crypto market in January 2018 at $7.73, but hit another high point more recently in May 2018 at $4.88 as well. It’s unclear what may have caused the April-May rise in price. After this ANT’s value continued to decline, leveling off over the past couple months around


Making it easy to create and manage organizations on the blockchain is an important step for blockchain usability. Aragon has taken steps forward in its mission to get many organizations on its platform and the network effects for transactions and efficiency between organizations could be enormous. We will have to wait and see if full decentralization is achieved, and what the results of the Aragon 0.6 launch will be.

Editor’s Note: This article was updated by Rachel Lantz on November 3, 2018, to reflect the recent changes in the project.

.75, a significant drop even from its ICO price.

Surprisingly, the launch of the Aragon mainnet had little to no effect on the price. This lack of movement may be a sign that the days of speculative investing are over for the crypto community. Moving forward, the only thing that might positively affect the price is simply adoption.

History of Aragón, Spain

Aragón, Spain | ©Jrpvaldi / Wikimedia Commons

In 1469, in the capital city of Valladolid (Castile and León), Ferdinand II of Aragón and Isabella I of Castile were married. Seventeen and eighteen, respectively, these two monarchs were known as the “Catholic Monarchs” (los Reyes Católicos) and, one falsified papal bull later, Isabella and Ferdinand went on to rule an Iberian peninsula many historians credit as being unified under their influence.

Americans, Barcelona tour guides, and other history buffs may also recognize them as being the monarchs that Christopher Columbus sought financial support from in his mission to colonize the Indies, originally, and whose trips and conquests would end up for the benefit of the Spanish crown. Or rather, the Castilian crown, since it was Isabella who had provided the money, not Ferdinand and his Aragonese court.

The imbalance in the power of their kingdoms, Castile and León richer and more powerful, was heightened by the fact that both Castile and Aragón retained their respective autonomy despite Isabella and Ferdinand’s marriage. So to amend an earlier, arguable statement, perhaps it is better said that Aragón was a part of the most powerful and important union in Spain.

A pledge to fight for freedom

We believe that the fate of humanity will be decided at the frontier of technological innovation.

We will either see technology lead to a more free, open, and fair society or reinforce a global regime of centralized control, surveillance, and oppression. Our fear is that without a global, conscious, and concerted effort, the outlook is incredibly bleak.

The Internet has opened the doors for universal, cross-border, and non-violent collaborative effort to fight for our freedom.

However, the Internet has also opened the doors for global surveillance and manipulation.

We believe humankind should use technology as a liberating tool to unleash all the goodwill and creativity of our species, rather than as a tool to enslave and take advantage of one another.

Thus, Aragon is a fight for freedom. Aragon empowers freedom by creating liberating tools that leverage decentralized technologies.

Building organizational forms that defend self-sovereignty — where a user can always exercise choice, either by participating or exiting.

Creating collaboration mechanisms in which violence is not only disincentivized, but impossible.

Decentralizing power in order to dismantle unjustified power — which usually springs from centralization.

The creation of long-term value versus short-term profit — which in turn, advances sustainability.

A world in which every person can participate in these new organizational structures.

Decentralized technologies provide users unparalleled power to transact and interact with a level of security never seen before. Thanks to cryptography and economic incentives, users can now own truly sovereign assets, create fully sovereign entities, and build truly sovereign identities.

They solidify freedoms that cannot be taken away, not even by actors with sizeable resources. This tectonic shift requires a new method for organizing these sovereign individuals: decentralized organizations.

Decentralized organizations change our relationship with governance: from something that is imposed upon us by others, into something we choose to opt into. Where we are equally serving and served, rather than just serving.

Building tools to create and manage decentralized organizations will unleash a Cambrian explosion of new governance forms, and the competition among them will raise the bar globally.

It will finally allow us to experiment with governance at the speed of software.

For the first time in history, thanks to blockchain technology and smart contracts, we can now create fully decentralized organizations, which are truly autonomous and unstoppable.