Justin II IX-228 - History

Justin II IX-228 - History

Justin

II

(IX-228: dp. 3,381; 1. 441'6"; b. 56'11"; dr. 27'11"; s. 11 k.; cpl. 210; a. 13", 15", 3 20mm.; T. EC2-S-Cl)

The second Justin (IX-228), formerly liberty ship Gus W. Darnell, was built by Todd-Houston Shipbuilding Corp., Houston, Tex., in 1944; operated as a cargo ship in the Pacific; was acquired by the Navy 2 September 1945; and commissioned at Guiuan Roadstead, Philippine Islands 4 September 1945, Lt. William T. Hamilton in command.

Justin departed for Shanghai, China, 20 October where she embarked naval passengers for transport to the United States. She picked up a cargo of 3,000 bags of mail at Guam before arriving San Francisco 23 December 1945. Justin decommissioned at San Francisco 23 January 1946 and was turned over to the WSA. She was placed in the National Defense Reserve Fleet at Suisun Bay, Calif., until being sold 25 May 1954 to Boston Metals Corp. and scrapped. American activity in the Orient. She returned to San Francisco 23 November 1907 via Guam and Honolulu. From 1907 to 1915 Justin carried coal to units of the Pacific Fleet stationed at widely scattered points from the West Coast to South America. She decommissioned at Mare Island 20 December 1915.


Eisenhower takes command

Following his arrival in London, Major General Dwight D. Eisenhower takes command of U.S. forces in Europe. Although Eisenhower had never seen combat during his 27 years as an army officer, his knowledge of military strategy and talent for organization were such that Army Chief of Staff General George C. Marshall chose him over nearly 400 senior officers to lead U.S. forces in the war against Germany. After proving himself on the battlefields of North Africa and Italy in 1942 and 1943, Eisenhower was appointed supreme commander of Operation Overlord–the Allied invasion of northwestern Europe.

Born in Denison, Texas, in 1890, Eisenhower graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1915. Out of a remarkable class that was to produce 59 generals, Eisenhower ranked 61st academically and 125th in discipline out of a total of 164 graduates. As a commissioned officer, his superiors soon took note of his organizational abilities, and appointed him commander of a tank training center after the U.S. entrance into World War I in 1917. In October 1918, he received the orders to take the tanks to France, but the war ended before they could sail. Eisenhower received the Distinguished Service Medal but was disappointed that he had not seen combat.

Between the wars, he steadily rose in the peacetime ranks of the U.S. Army. From 1922 to 1924, he was stationed in the Panama Canal Zone, and in 1926, as a major, he graduated from the Army’s Command and General Staff School at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, at the top of a class of 275. He was rewarded with a prestigious post in France and in 1928 graduated first in his class from the Army War College. In 1933, he became aide to Army Chief of Staff General Douglas MacArthur, and in 1935 he went with MacArthur to the Philippines when the latter accepted a post as chief military adviser to that nation’s government.

Promoted to the rank of lieutenant colonel while in the Philippines, Eisenhower returned to the United States in 1939 shortly after World War II began in Europe. President Franklin Roosevelt began to bring the country to war preparedness in 1940 and Eisenhower found himself figuring prominently in a rapidly expanding U.S. Army. In March 1941, he was made a full colonel and three months later was appointed commander of the 3rd Army. In September, he was promoted to brigadier general.

After the United States entered World War II in December 1941, Army Chief of Staff Marshall appointed Eisenhower to the War Plans Division in Washington, where he prepared strategy for an Allied invasion of Europe. Promoted to major general in March 1942 and named head of the operations division of the War Department, he advised Marshall to create a single post that would oversee all U.S. operations in Europe. Marshall did so and on June 11 surprised Eisenhower by appointing him to the post over 366 senior officers. On June 25, 1942, Eisenhower arrived at U.S. headquarters in London and took command.

In July, Eisenhower was appointed lieutenant general and named to head Operation Torch, the Allied invasion of French North Africa. As supreme commander of a mixed force of Allied nationalities, services, and equipment, Eisenhower designed a system of unified command and rapidly won the respect of his British and Canadian subordinates. From North Africa, he successfully directed the invasions of Tunisia, Sicily, and the Italian mainland, and in December 1943 was appointed Supreme Allied Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force. Operation Overlord, the largest combined sea, air, and land military operation in history, was successfully launched against Nazi-occupied Europe on June 6, 1944. On May 7, 1945, Germany surrendered. By that time, Eisenhower was a five-star general.

After the war, Eisenhower replaced Marshall as army chief of staff and from 1948 to 1950 served as president of Columbia University. In 1951, he returned to military service as supreme commander of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Pressure on Eisenhower to run for U.S. president was great, however, and in the spring of 1952 he relinquished his NATO command to run for president on the Republican ticket.

In November 1952, “Ike” won a resounding victory in the presidential elections and in 1956 was reelected in a landslide. A popular president, he oversaw a period of great economic growth in the United States and deftly navigated the country through increasing Cold War tensions on the world stage. In 1961, he retired with his wife, Mamie Doud Eisenhower, to his farm in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, which overlooked the famous Civil War battlefield. He died in 1969 and was buried on a family plot in Abilene, Kansas.


Liberty Matters: A Forum for the Discussion of Ideas About Liberty Liberty and Virtue: Frank Meyer's Fusionism (June 2021)

Welcome to our June 2021 edition of Liberty Matters. This month Stephanie Slade, managing editor at Reason magazine, has written our lead essay on Frank Meyer. Liberty Fund publishes Meyer’s most widely cited book In Defense of Freedom and related essays which also includes a number of Meyer’s more well known essays. Meyer was one of the founders, along with William F. Buckley, of National Re.


3. Lenny Bruce

Michael Ochs Archives/Getty Images

Before he became a countercultural icon with his no holds barred stand-up comedy, the man who pushed the limits of free speech in entertainment was serving as a turret gunner aboard a Navy vessel in the Mediterranean. Born in Mineola, New York, Lenny Bruce dropped out of high school at age sixteen and enlisted shortly after the United States entered World War II. He spent the next several years working as a shell passer aboard the U.S.S. Brooklyn, a light cruiser that acted as a fire support vessel in North Africa and in Italy during the Allied invasions of Sicily and Anzio. Bruce served honorably for most of the war, but by 1945 he had grown tired of life at sea, and he eventually secured an early discharge after he falsely claimed to have homosexual desires for his fellow sailors. Bruce got his start in stand up shortly after returning stateside, and later won widespread acclaim𠅊nd frequent arrests on obscenity charges𠅏or his satirical and profanity-laced stage performances.


Common Misconceptions About World War II

As the story goes, German troops rolled their tanks into Poland in September 1939 and were eventually met by Polish soldiers on horseback. This matchup is often mentioned as a way to illustrate just how ill-prepared Poland was to defend itself against Germany’s high-tech military prowess. But while there were Polish soldiers on horses and German soldiers in tanks at the time, it wasn’t exactly the animal-versus-machine face-off most people picture.

In this episode of Misconceptions, Mental Floss’s Justin Dodd is sharing what really happened at that battle—and also covering several other stories from World War II that you might think you know better than you do. Did kamikaze pilots really volunteer? Did the U.S. really declare war against the Axis powers directly after Pearl Harbor? And did the Polish army really have a bear in the ranks? (For that last one: Yes, they did. His name was Wojtek.)

Press play below to learn all the details about those queries and more.

For more fascinating videos, subscribe to the Mental Floss YouTube channel here.


Loeb Classical Library

&ldquoHere is 1,400 years of human culture, all the texts that survive from one of the greatest civilizations human beings have ever built&mdashand it can all fit in a bookcase or two. To capture all the fugitive texts of the ancient world, some of which survived the Dark Ages in just a single moldering copy in some monastic library, and turn them into affordable, clear, sturdy accurate books, is one of the greatest accomplishments of modern scholarship&mdashand one of the most democratic.&rdquo &mdashAdam Kirsch

The Loeb Classical Library ® is the only existing series of books which, through original text and English translation, gives access to all that is important in Greek and Latin literature. Epic and lyric poetry tragedy and comedy history, travel, philosophy, and oratory the great medical writers and mathematicians those Church fathers who made particular use of pagan culture&mdashin short, our entire classical heritage is represented here in convenient and well-printed pocket volumes in which an up-to-date text and accurate and literate English translation face each other page by page. The editors provide substantive introductions as well as essential critical and explanatory notes and selective bibliographies.

In honor of the 100 th anniversary of the Loeb Classical Library, celebrated in 2011, Adam Kirsch wrote a three-part essay in the Barnes & Noble Review . Read parts one, two, and three.

And, in the pages of Buried History , G. H. R. Horsley, Professor of Classics at the University of New England in New South Wales, Australia, and a Loeb Classical Library translator, assessed the library&rsquos achievements, innovations, and shifts in emphasis across its first hundred years. Download the article [PDF, 4 MB].

Now Available: The digital Loeb Classical Library (loebclassics.com) extends the founding mission of James Loeb with an interconnected, fully searchable, perpetually growing virtual library of all that is important in Greek and Latin literature. Read more about the site&rsquos features »

The Loeb Classical Library ® is published and distributed by Harvard University Press. It is a registered trademark of the President and Fellows of Harvard College. All rights reserved.

Below is a list of in-print works in this collection, presented in series order or publication order as applicable.

This selection of lapidary nuggets drawn from 33 of antiquity&rsquos major authors includes poetry, dialogue, philosophical writing, history, descriptive reporting, satire, and fiction&mdashgiving a glimpse at the wide range of arts and sciences, thought and styles, of Greco-Roman culture.

The digital Loeb Classical Library&rsquos modern, elegant interface allows readers to browse, search, bookmark, annotate, and share content across more than 530 volumes of Latin, Greek, and English texts, anywhere in the world. The entire Classical Greek and Latin heritage is represented here with up-to-date texts and accurate English translations.

Apollonius Rhodius
Race, William H.

Apollonius Rhodius&rsquo Argonautica, composed in the third century BCE, is an epic retelling of Jason&rsquos quest for the golden fleece. It greatly influenced Roman authors such as Catullus, Virgil, and Ovid, and was imitated by Valerius Flaccus.

Appian (ca. AD 95&ndash161) is a principal source for the history of the Roman Republic. His theme is the process by which Rome achieved her contemporary prosperity, and his method is to trace in individual books the story of each nation&rsquos wars with Rome up through her own civil wars. This Loeb edition replaces the original (1912&ndash13) by Horace White.

Appian (ca. AD 95&ndash161) is a principal source for the history of the Roman Republic. His theme is the process by which Rome achieved her contemporary prosperity, and his method is to trace in individual books the story of each nation&rsquos wars with Rome up through her own civil wars. This Loeb edition replaces the original (1912&ndash13) by Horace White.

Appian (ca. AD 95&ndash161) is a principal source for the history of the Roman Republic. His theme is the process by which Rome achieved her contemporary prosperity, and his method is to trace in individual books the story of each nation&rsquos wars with Rome up through her own civil wars. This Loeb edition replaces the original (1912&ndash13) by Horace White.

Appian (ca. AD 95&ndash161) is a principal source for the history of the Roman Republic. His theme is the process by which Rome achieved her contemporary prosperity, and his method is to trace in individual books the story of each nation&rsquos wars with Rome up through her own civil wars. This Loeb edition replaces the original (1912&ndash13) by Horace White.

Catullus
Tibullus
Cornish, F. W.
Postgate, J. P.
Mackail, J. W.

Catullus (84&ndash54 BCE) couples consummate poetic artistry with intensity of feeling. Tibullus (c. 54&ndash19 BCE) proclaims love for Delia and Nemesis in elegy. The beautiful verse of the Pervigilium Veneris (fourth century CE?) celebrates a spring festival in honour of the goddess of love.

Cicero
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

In letters to his friend Atticus, Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE) reveals himself as to no other of his correspondents except, perhaps, his brother, and vividly depicts a momentous period in Roman history, marked by the rise of Julius Caesar and the downfall of the Republic.

Cicero
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

In letters to his friend Atticus, Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE) reveals himself as to no other of his correspondents except, perhaps, his brother, and vividly depicts a momentous period in Roman history, marked by the rise of Julius Caesar and the downfall of the Republic.

Euripides (c. 485&ndash406 BCE) has been prized in every age for his emotional and intellectual drama. Eighteen of his ninety or so plays survive complete, including Medea, Hippolytus, and Bacchae, one of the great masterpieces of the tragic genre. Fragments of his lost plays also survive.

Euripides (c. 485&ndash406 BCE) has been prized in every age for his emotional and intellectual drama. Eighteen of his ninety or so plays survive complete, including Medea, Hippolytus, and Bacchae, one of the great masterpieces of the tragic genre. Fragments of his lost plays also survive.

Euripides (c. 485&ndash406 BCE) has been prized in every age for his emotional and intellectual drama. Eighteen of his ninety or so plays survive complete, including Medea, Hippolytus, and Bacchae, one of the great masterpieces of the tragic genre. Fragments of his lost plays also survive.

Euripides (c. 485&ndash406 BCE) has been prized in every age for his emotional and intellectual drama. Eighteen of his ninety or so plays survive complete, including Medea, Hippolytus, and Bacchae, one of the great masterpieces of the tragic genre. Fragments of his lost plays also survive.

The surviving works of the Roman Emperor Julian &ldquothe Apostate&rdquo (331 or 332&ndash363 CE) include eight Orations Misopogon (Beard-Hater), assailing the morals of the people of Antioch more than eighty Letters and fragments of Against the Galileans, written mainly to show that the Old Testament lacks evidence for the idea of Christianity.

Lucian (c. 120&ndash190 CE), apprentice sculptor then traveling rhetorician, settled in Athens and developed an original brand of satire. Notable for the Attic purity and elegance of his Greek and for literary versatility, he is famous chiefly for the lively, cynical wit of the dialogues in which he satirizes human folly, superstition, and hypocrisy.

Petronius
Seneca
Schmeling, Gareth

The Satyrica, traditionally attributed to the Neronian courtier Petronius, is a comic-picaresque fiction recalling the narrator&rsquos adventures in the early imperial demimonde, including Trimalchio&rsquos banquet. Apocolocyntosis (Pumpkinification) is a satirical pamphlet lampooning the death and deification of the emperor Claudius.

Philostratus
Jones, Christopher P.

In his Life of Apollonius, Philostratus (second to third century CE) portrays a first-century CE teacher, religious reformer, and perceived rival to Jesus. Apollonius&rsquos letters, ancient reports about him, and a letter by Eusebius (fourth century CE) that is now central to the history of Philostratus&rsquos work add to the portrait.

Philostratus
Jones, Christopher P.

In his Life of Apollonius, Philostratus (second to third century CE) portrays a first-century CE teacher, religious reformer, and perceived rival to Jesus. Apollonius&rsquos letters, ancient reports about him, and a letter by Eusebius (fourth century CE) that is now central to the history of Philostratus&rsquos work add to the portrait.

The passionate and dramatic elegies of Propertius (c. 50&ndashsoon after 16 BCE) gained him a reputation as one of Rome&rsquos finest love poets. He portrays the uneven course of his love affair with Cynthia and also tells us much about the society of his time, then in later poems turns to the legends of ancient Rome.

Quintus Smyrnaeus
Hopkinson, Neil

Quintus Smyrnaeus&rsquo Posthomerica, composed between the late second and mid-fourth centuries AD, boldly adapts Homeric diction and style to fill in the story of the Trojan expedition between the end of the Iliad and the beginning of the Odyssey. This edition replaces the earlier Loeb Classical Library edition by A. S. Way (1913).

Sophocles
Lloyd-Jones, Hugh

Sophocles (497/6&ndash406 BCE), considered one of the world&rsquos greatest poets, forged tragedy from the heroic excess of myth and legend. Seven complete plays are extant, including Oedipus Tyrannus, Ajax, Antigone, and Philoctetes. Among many fragments that also survive is a substantial portion of the satyr drama The Searchers.

Sophocles
Lloyd-Jones, Hugh

Sophocles (497/6&ndash406 BCE), considered one of the world&rsquos greatest poets, forged tragedy from the heroic excess of myth and legend. Seven complete plays are extant, including Oedipus Tyrannus, Ajax, Antigone, and Philoctetes. Among many fragments that also survive is a substantial portion of the satyr drama The Searchers.

The six plays by Terence (died 159 BCE), all extant, imaginatively reformulate Greek New Comedy in realistic scenes and refined Latin. They include Phormio, a comedy of intrigue and trickery The Brothers, which explores parental education of sons and The Eunuch, which presents the most sympathetically drawn courtesan in Roman comedy.

The six plays by Terence (died 159 BCE), all extant, imaginatively reformulate Greek New Comedy in realistic scenes and refined Latin. They include Phormio, a comedy of intrigue and trickery The Brothers, which explores parental education of sons and The Eunuch, which presents the most sympathetically drawn courtesan in Roman comedy.

The writings of the Apostolic Fathers (first and second centuries CE) give a rich and diverse picture of Christian life and thought in the period immediately after New Testament times. Some were accorded almost Scriptural authority in the early Church.

The writings of the Apostolic Fathers (first and second centuries CE) give a rich and diverse picture of Christian life and thought in the period immediately after New Testament times. Some were accorded almost Scriptural authority in the early Church.

Augustine
Hammond, Carolyn J.-B.

Confessions is a spiritual autobiography of Augustine&rsquos early life, family, associations, and explorations of alternative religious and theological viewpoints as he moved toward his conversion. Cast as a prayer addressed to God, it offers a gripping personal story and a philosophical exploration destined to have broad and lasting impact.

Augustine
Hammond, Carolyn J.-B.

Confessions is a spiritual autobiography of Augustine&rsquos early life, family, associations, and explorations of alternative religious and theological viewpoints as he moved toward his conversion. Cast as a prayer addressed to God, it offers a gripping personal story and a philosophical exploration destined to have broad and lasting impact.

Theocritus
Moschus
Bion
Hopkinson, Neil

Theocritus (early third century BCE) was the inventor of the bucolic genre, also known as pastoral. The present edition of his work, along with that of his successors Moschus (fl. mid-second century BCE) and Bion (fl. around 100 BCE), replaces the earlier Loeb Classical Library volume of Greek Bucolic Poets by J. M. Edmonds (1912).

The surviving works of the Roman Emperor Julian &ldquothe Apostate&rdquo (331 or 332&ndash363 CE) include eight Orations Misopogon (Beard-Hater), assailing the morals of the people of Antioch more than eighty Letters and fragments of Against the Galileans, written mainly to show that the Old Testament lacks evidence for the idea of Christianity.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

Enriched by anecdotes, gossip, and details of character and personal appearance, Lives of the Caesars by Suetonius (born c. 70 CE) is a valuable and colorful source of information about the first twelve Roman emperors, Roman imperial politics, and Roman imperial society. Part of Suetonius&rsquos Lives of Illustrious Men (of letters) also survives.

Dio Cassius (Cassius Dio), c. 150&ndash235 CE, was born in Bithynia. Little of his Roman History survives, but missing portions are partly supplied from elsewhere and there are many excerpts. Dio&rsquos work is a vital source for the last years of the Roman republic and the first four Roman emperors.

The poetry of Horace (born 65 BCE) is richly varied, its focus moving between public and private concerns, urban and rural settings, Stoic and Epicurean thought. His Odes cover a wide range of moods and topics. Love and political concerns are frequent themes of the Epodes.

John Damascene
Woodward, G. R.
Mattingly, Harold

Barlaam and Ioasaph, a hagiographic novel in which an Indian prince becomes aware of the world&rsquos miseries and is converted to Christianity by a monk, is a Christianized version of the legend of the Buddha. Though often attributed to John Damascene (c. 676&ndash749 CE), it was probably translated from Georgian into Greek in the eleventh century CE.

Tacitus
Hutton, M.
Peterson, W.

Tacitus (c. 55&ndashc. 120 CE), renowned for concision and psychology, is paramount as a historian of the early Roman empire. Agricola includes Agricola&rsquos career in Britain. Germania is a description of German tribes as known to the Romans. Dialogus concerns the decline of oratory and education.

Plato
Emlyn-Jones, Christopher
Preddy, William

Works in this volume recount the circumstances of Socrates&rsquo trial and execution in 399 BC. Euthyphro attempts to define holiness Apology is Socrates&rsquo defense speech in Crito he discusses justice and defends his refusal to be rescued from prison Phaedo offers arguments for the immortality of the soul.

Dio Cassius (Cassius Dio), c. 150&ndash235 CE, was born in Bithynia. Little of his Roman History survives, but missing portions are partly supplied from elsewhere and there are many excerpts. Dio&rsquos work is a vital source for the last years of the Roman republic and the first four Roman emperors.

Enriched by anecdotes, gossip, and details of character and personal appearance, Lives of the Caesars by Suetonius (born c. 70 CE) is a valuable and colorful source of information about the first twelve Roman emperors, Roman imperial politics, and Roman imperial society. Part of Suetonius&rsquos Lives of Illustrious Men (of letters) also survives.

Civil War provides a vigorous, direct, clear, third-personal, impassioned account of Caesar&rsquos campaigns during the civil war of 49­&ndash48 BC, drawn from his three books of commentarii.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

In Heroides, Ovid (43 BCE&ndash17 CE) allows legendary women to narrate their memories and express their emotions in verse letters to absent husbands and lovers. Ovid&rsquos Amores are three books of elegies ostensibly about the poet&rsquos love affair with his mistress Corinna.

In his most influential work, the Metamorphoses, Ovid (43 BCE&ndash17 CE) weaves a hexametric whole from a huge range of myths, which are connected by the theme of change and ingeniously linked as the narrative proceeds from earliest creation to transformation in Ovid&rsquos own time.

In his most influential work, the Metamorphoses, Ovid (43 BCE&ndash17 CE) weaves a hexametric whole from a huge range of myths, which are connected by the theme of change and ingeniously linked as the narrative proceeds from earliest creation to transformation in Ovid&rsquos own time.

The Metamorphoses (The Golden Ass) of Apuleius (born c. 125 CE) is a romance combining realism and magic. Lucius wants the sensations of a bird, but by pharmaceutical accident becomes an ass. The bulk of the novel recounts his adventures as an animal, but Lucius also recounts many stories he overhears, including that of Cupid and Psyche.

Achilles Tatius
Gaselee, S.

Leucippe and Clitophon, written in the second century CE, is exceptional among the ancient romances in being a first-person narrative: the adventures of the young couple are recounted by the hero himself. Achilles Tatius&rsquos style is notable for descriptive detail and for his engaging digressions.

Plutarch
Perrin, Bernadotte

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His forty-six Lives are biographies planned to be ethical examples in pairs, one Greek figure and one similar Roman, though the last four lives are single. They not only record careers and illustrious deeds but also offer rounded portraits of statesmen, orators, and military leaders.

Plutarch
Perrin, Bernadotte

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His forty-six Lives are biographies planned to be ethical examples in pairs, one Greek figure and one similar Roman, though the last four lives are single. They not only record careers and illustrious deeds but also offer rounded portraits of statesmen, orators, and military leaders.

History of the Wars by the Byzantine historian Procopius (late fifth century to after 558 CE) consists largely of sixth century CE military history, with much information about peoples, places, and special events. Powerful description complements careful narration. Procopius is just to the empire&rsquos enemies and boldly criticises emperor Justinian.

Strabo
Jones, Horace Leonard

In his seventeen-book Geography, Strabo (c. 64 BCE&ndashc. 25 CE) discusses geographical method, stresses the value of geography, and draws attention to the physical, political, and historical details of separate countries. Geography is a vital source for ancient geography and informative about ancient geographers.

Strabo
Jones, Horace Leonard

In his seventeen-book Geography, Strabo (c. 64 BCE&ndashc. 25 CE) discusses geographical method, stresses the value of geography, and draws attention to the physical, political, and historical details of separate countries. Geography is a vital source for ancient geography and informative about ancient geographers.

Cyropaedia, by Xenophon (c. 430&ndashc. 354 BCE), is a historical romance on the education of the sixth century BCE Persian king Cyrus the Elder that reflects Xenophon&rsquos ideas about rulers and government.

Cyropaedia, by Xenophon (c. 430&ndashc. 354 BCE), is a historical romance on the education of the sixth century BCE Persian king Cyrus the Elder that reflects Xenophon&rsquos ideas about rulers and government.

Dio Cassius (Cassius Dio), c. 150&ndash235 CE, was born in Bithynia. Little of his Roman History survives, but missing portions are partly supplied from elsewhere and there are many excerpts. Dio&rsquos work is a vital source for the last years of the Roman republic and the first four Roman emperors.

Lucian (c. 120&ndash190 CE), apprentice sculptor then traveling rhetorician, settled in Athens and developed an original brand of satire. Notable for the Attic purity and elegance of his Greek and for literary versatility, he is famous chiefly for the lively, cynical wit of the dialogues in which he satirizes human folly, superstition, and hypocrisy.

Pliny the Younger
Radice, Betty

The Letters of Pliny the Younger (c. 61&ndashc. 112 CE), a polished social document of his times, include descriptions of the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 CE and the earliest pagan accounts of Christians. The Panegyricus is an expanded, published version of Pliny&rsquos oration of thanks to the Emperor Trajan in 100 CE.

Pindar (c. 518&ndash438 BCE), highly esteemed as lyric poet by the ancients, commemorates in complex verse the achievements of athletes and powerful rulers at the four great Panhellenic festivals&mdashthe Olympic, Pythian, Nemean, and Isthmian games&mdashagainst a backdrop of divine favor, human failure, heroic legend, and aristocratic Greek ethos.

The two extant poems of Hesiod (eighth or seventh century BC) are Theogony, in which he charts the history of the divine world, and Works and Days, in which he delivers moral precepts and practical advice for the world of men.

Marcus Aurelius
Haines, C. R.

Marcus Aurelius (121&ndash180 CE), philosopher-emperor, wrote the Meditations (his title was &ldquoThe matters addressed to himself&rdquo) in periods of solitude during military campaigns. His ethical, religious, and existential reflections have endured as an expression of Stoicism, a text for students of that philosophy, and a guide to the moral life.

Pliny the Younger
Radice, Betty

The Letters of Pliny the Younger (c. 61&ndashc. 112 CE), a polished social document of his times, include descriptions of the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 CE and the earliest pagan accounts of Christians. The Panegyricus is an expanded, published version of Pliny&rsquos oration of thanks to the Emperor Trajan in 100 CE.

The comedies of Plautus, who brilliantly adapted Greek plays for Roman audiences c. 205&ndash184 BCE, are the earliest Latin works to survive complete and cornerstones of the European theatrical tradition from Shakespeare and Molière to modern times. Twenty-one of his plays are extant.

The comedies of Plautus, who brilliantly adapted Greek plays for Roman audiences c. 205&ndash184 BCE, are the earliest Latin works to survive complete and cornerstones of the European theatrical tradition from Shakespeare and Molière to modern times. Twenty-one of his plays are extant.

Seneca (ca. AD 4&ndash65) authored verse tragedies that strongly influenced Shakespeare and other Renaissance dramatists. Plots are based on myth, but themes reflect imperial Roman politics. John G. Fitch has thoroughly revised his two-volume edition to take account of scholarship that has appeared since its initial publication.

Virgil
Fairclough, H. Rushton

Virgil (70&ndash19 BCE) was a poet of immense virtuosity and influence. His Eclogues deal with bucolic life and love, his Georgics with tillage, trees, cattle, and bees. His Aeneid is an epic on the theme of Rome&rsquos origins. Poems of the Appendix Vergiliana are traditionally, but in most cases probably wrongly, attributed to Virgil.

Virgil
Fairclough, H. Rushton

Virgil (70&ndash19 BCE) was a poet of immense virtuosity and influence. His Eclogues deal with bucolic life and love, his Georgics with tillage, trees, cattle, and bees. His Aeneid is an epic on the theme of Rome&rsquos origins. Poems of the Appendix Vergiliana are traditionally, but in most cases probably wrongly, attributed to Virgil.

Plutarch
Perrin, Bernadotte

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His forty-six Lives are biographies planned to be ethical examples in pairs, one Greek figure and one similar Roman, though the last four lives are single. They not only record careers and illustrious deeds but also offer rounded portraits of statesmen, orators, and military leaders.

Dio Cassius (Cassius Dio), c. 150&ndash235 CE, was born in Bithynia. Little of his Roman History survives, but missing portions are partly supplied from elsewhere and there are many excerpts. Dio&rsquos work is a vital source for the last years of the Roman republic and the first four Roman emperors.

The Greek Anthology contains some 4,500 Greek poems in the sparkling, diverse genre of epigram, written by more than a hundred composers, collected over centuries, and arranged by subject. This Loeb edition replaces the earlier edition by W. R. Paton, with a Greek text and ample notes reflecting current scholarship.

The Greek Anthology (Gathering of Flowers) is a collection over centuries of some 4500 short Greek poems (called epigrams but seldom epigrammatic) by about 300 composers. Meleager of Gadara (first century BCE), an outstanding contributor, also assembled the Stephanus (Garland), a compilation fundamental to the Anthology.

Longus
Xenophon of Ephesus
Henderson, Jeffrey

Longus&rsquos Daphnis and Chloe (second or early third century CE), in which an idealized pastoral environment provides the setting as a boy and girl discover their sexuality, is one of the great works of world literature. Xenophon&rsquos Anthia and Habrocomes (first century CE) is perhaps the earliest extant novel.

Theophrastus
Hort, Arthur F.

Enquiry into Plants and De Causis Plantarum by Theophrastus (c. 370&ndashc. 285 BCE) are a counterpart to Aristotle&rsquos zoological work and the most important botanical work of antiquity now extant. In the former, Theophrastus classifies and describes varieties&mdashcovering trees, plants of particular regions, shrubs, herbaceous plants, and cereals in the last of the nine books he focuses on plant juices and medicinal properties of herbs. His On Odours and Weather Signs are minor treatises.

Galen (129&ndash199 CE) crystallized all the best work of the Greek medical schools which had preceded his own time, including Hippocrates&rsquos foundational work six hundred years earlier. It is in the form of Galenism that Greek medicine was transmitted to later ages.

In his Gallic War and Civil Wars, Caesar (100&ndash44 BCE) provides vigorous, direct, clear, third-personal, and largely unemotional records of his own campaigns.

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384&ndash322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical logical physical metaphysical on art other or fragments.

Boethius
Stewart, H. F.
Rand, E. K.
Tester, S. J.

The classical and Christian worlds meet in Boethius (c. 480&ndash524 CE), the last writer of purely literary Latin from antiquity. His Tractates examine the Trinity and incarnation in Aristotelian terms. His Consolation of Philosophy, a dialogue between himself and Philosophy, is theistic in tone but draws on Greek, especially Neoplatonist, sources.

In 124 epistles Seneca (c. 4&ndash65 CE) writes to Lucilius, occasionally about technical problems of philosophy, but more often in a relaxed style about moral and ethical questions, relating them to personal experiences. He thus presents a Stoic philosopher&rsquos thoughts about the good life in a contemporary context.

In 124 epistles Seneca (c. 4&ndash65 CE) writes to Lucilius, occasionally about technical problems of philosophy, but more often in a relaxed style about moral and ethical questions, relating them to personal experiences. He thus presents a Stoic philosopher&rsquos thoughts about the good life in a contemporary context.

In 124 epistles Seneca (c. 4&ndash65 CE) writes to Lucilius, occasionally about technical problems of philosophy, but more often in a relaxed style about moral and ethical questions, relating them to personal experiences. He thus presents a Stoic philosopher&rsquos thoughts about the good life in a contemporary context.

Seneca (ca. AD 4&ndash65) authored verse tragedies that strongly influenced Shakespeare and other Renaissance dramatists. Plots are based on myth, but themes reflect imperial Roman politics. John G. Fitch has thoroughly revised his two-volume edition to take account of scholarship that has appeared since its initial publication.

Theophrastus
Hort, Arthur F.

Enquiry into Plants and De Causis Plantarum by Theophrastus (c. 370&ndashc. 285 BCE) are a counterpart to Aristotle&rsquos zoological work and the most important botanical work of antiquity now extant. In the former, Theophrastus classifies and describes varieties&mdashcovering trees, plants of particular regions, shrubs, herbaceous plants, and cereals in the last of the nine books he focuses on plant juices and medicinal properties of herbs. His On Odours and Weather Signs are minor treatises.

Plutarch
Perrin, Bernadotte

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His forty-six Lives are biographies planned to be ethical examples in pairs, one Greek figure and one similar Roman, though the last four lives are single. They not only record careers and illustrious deeds but also offer rounded portraits of statesmen, orators, and military leaders.

History of the Wars by the Byzantine historian Procopius (late fifth century to after 558 CE) consists largely of sixth century CE military history, with much information about peoples, places, and special events. Powerful description complements careful narration. Procopius is just to the empire&rsquos enemies and boldly criticises emperor Justinian.

Dio Cassius (Cassius Dio), c. 150&ndash235 CE, was born in Bithynia. Little of his Roman History survives, but missing portions are partly supplied from elsewhere and there are many excerpts. Dio&rsquos work is a vital source for the last years of the Roman republic and the first four Roman emperors.

Dio Cassius (Cassius Dio), c. 150&ndash235 CE, was born in Bithynia. Little of his Roman History survives, but missing portions are partly supplied from elsewhere and there are many excerpts. Dio&rsquos work is a vital source for the last years of the Roman republic and the first four Roman emperors.

The Greek Anthology (Gathering of Flowers) is a collection over centuries of some 4500 short Greek poems (called epigrams but seldom epigrammatic) by about 300 composers. Meleager of Gadara (first century BCE), an outstanding contributor, also assembled the Stephanus (Garland), a compilation fundamental to the Anthology.

The Greek Anthology (Gathering of Flowers) is a collection over centuries of some 4500 short Greek poems (called epigrams but seldom epigrammatic) by about 300 composers. Meleager of Gadara (first century BCE), an outstanding contributor, also assembled the Stephanus (Garland), a compilation fundamental to the Anthology.

The Greek Anthology (Gathering of Flowers) is a collection over centuries of some 4500 short Greek poems (called epigrams but seldom epigrammatic) by about 300 composers. Meleager of Gadara (first century BCE), an outstanding contributor, also assembled the Stephanus (Garland), a compilation fundamental to the Anthology.

Plutarch
Perrin, Bernadotte

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His forty-six Lives are biographies planned to be ethical examples in pairs, one Greek figure and one similar Roman, though the last four lives are single. They not only record careers and illustrious deeds but also offer rounded portraits of statesmen, orators, and military leaders.

Xenophon
Brownson, Carleton L.

Hellenica by Xenophon (c. 430&ndashc. 354 BCE) is a history of Greek affairs from 411&ndash362 BCE that begins as a continuation of Thucydides&rsquos account.

Xenophon
Brownson, Carleton L.

Hellenica by Xenophon (c. 430&ndashc. 354 BCE) is a history of Greek affairs from 411&ndash362 BCE that begins as a continuation of Thucydides&rsquos account.

Xenophon
Brownson, Carleton L.

The Anabasis by Xenophon (c. 430&ndashc. 354 BCE) is an eyewitness account of Greek mercenaries&rsquo challenging &ldquoMarch Up-Country&rdquo from Babylon back to the coast of Asia Minor under Xenophon&rsquos guidance in 401 BCE, after their leader Cyrus the Younger fell in a failed campaign against his brother.

Juvenal
Persius
Braund, Susanna Morton

Bite and wit characterize two seminal and stellar authors in the history of satirical writing, Persius (34&ndash62 CE) and Juvenal (writing about sixty years later). The latter especially had a lasting influence on English writers of the Renaissance and succeeding centuries.

Clement of Alexandria
Butterworth, G. W.

Born probably 150 CE in Athens, Clement was a key figure in early Christianity with wide knowledge of Greek literature and culture. His Exhortation to the Greeks to give up their gods and turn to Christ shows familiarity with the mystery cults. The Rich Man&rsquos Salvation is a homily that offers a glimpse of Clement&rsquos public teaching.

Pausanias (fl. 150 CE), one of the Roman world&rsquos great travelers, sketches in Description of Greece the history, geography, landmarks, legends, and religious cults of all the important Greek cities. He shares his enthusiasm for great sites, describing them with care and an accuracy confirmed by comparison with monuments that still stand today.

Martial
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

In his epigrams, Martial (c. 40&ndashc. 103 CE) is a keen, sharp-tongued observer of Roman scenes and events, including the new Colosseum, country life, a debauchee&rsquos banquet, and the eruption of Vesuvius. His poems are sometimes obscene, in the tradition of the genre, sometimes affectionate or amusing, and always pointed.

Martial
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

In his epigrams, Martial (c. 40&ndashc. 103 CE) is a keen, sharp-tongued observer of Roman scenes and events, including the new Colosseum, country life, a debauchee&rsquos banquet, and the eruption of Vesuvius. His poems are sometimes obscene, in the tradition of the genre, sometimes affectionate or amusing, and always pointed.

Ausonius
Evelyn-White, Hugh Gerard

The surviving works of Ausonius (c. 310&ndashc. 395 CE) include much poetry, notably &ldquoThe Daily Round&rdquo and &ldquoThe Moselle.&rdquo In Volume II, there is also an address of thanks to Gratian for the consulship the stated aim of Eucharisticus by Paulinus Pellaeus (376&ndashafter 459 CE) is to give thanks for the guidance of providence in its author&rsquos life.

Cicero
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

In letters to his friend Atticus, Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE) reveals himself as to no other of his correspondents except, perhaps, his brother, and vividly depicts a momentous period in Roman history, marked by the rise of Julius Caesar and the downfall of the Republic.

Plutarch
Perrin, Bernadotte

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His forty-six Lives are biographies planned to be ethical examples in pairs, one Greek figure and one similar Roman, though the last four lives are single. They not only record careers and illustrious deeds but also offer rounded portraits of statesmen, orators, and military leaders.

Plutarch
Perrin, Bernadotte

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His forty-six Lives are biographies planned to be ethical examples in pairs, one Greek figure and one similar Roman, though the last four lives are single. They not only record careers and illustrious deeds but also offer rounded portraits of statesmen, orators, and military leaders.

Plutarch
Perrin, Bernadotte

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His forty-six Lives are biographies planned to be ethical examples in pairs, one Greek figure and one similar Roman, though the last four lives are single. They not only record careers and illustrious deeds but also offer rounded portraits of statesmen, orators, and military leaders.

Plutarch
Perrin, Bernadotte

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His forty-six Lives are biographies planned to be ethical examples in pairs, one Greek figure and one similar Roman, though the last four lives are single. They not only record careers and illustrious deeds but also offer rounded portraits of statesmen, orators, and military leaders.

Plutarch
Perrin, Bernadotte

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His forty-six Lives are biographies planned to be ethical examples in pairs, one Greek figure and one similar Roman, though the last four lives are single. They not only record careers and illustrious deeds but also offer rounded portraits of statesmen, orators, and military leaders.

Plutarch
Perrin, Bernadotte

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His forty-six Lives are biographies planned to be ethical examples in pairs, one Greek figure and one similar Roman, though the last four lives are single. They not only record careers and illustrious deeds but also offer rounded portraits of statesmen, orators, and military leaders.

The Iliad and the Odyssey of Homer (eighth century BCE) are the two oldest European epic poems. The latter tells of Odysseus&rsquos journey home from the Trojan War and the temptations, delays, and dangers he faced at every turn.

The Iliad and the Odyssey of Homer (eighth century BCE) are the two oldest European epic poems. The latter tells of Odysseus&rsquos journey home from the Trojan War and the temptations, delays, and dangers he faced at every turn.

As examples of Greek oratory the speeches of Aeschines (390 or 389&ndash314 BCE) rank next to those of Demosthenes, and are important documents for the study of Athenian diplomacy and inner politics. Aeschines&rsquos powerful speeches include Against Timarchus, On the False Embassy, and Against Ctesiphon.

History of the Wars by the Byzantine historian Procopius (late fifth century to after 558 CE) consists largely of sixth century CE military history, with much information about peoples, places, and special events. Powerful description complements careful narration. Procopius is just to the empire&rsquos enemies and boldly criticises emperor Justinian.

The Peloponnesian War was really three conflicts (431&ndash421, 415&ndash413, and 413&ndash404 BCE) that Thucydides was still unifying into one account when he died some time before 396 BCE. Although unfinished and as a whole unrevised, in brilliance of description and depth of insight this history has no superior.

The Peloponnesian War was really three conflicts (431&ndash421, 415&ndash413, and 413&ndash404 BCE) that Thucydides was still unifying into one account when he died some time before 396 BCE. Although unfinished and as a whole unrevised, in brilliance of description and depth of insight this history has no superior.

The Peloponnesian War was really three conflicts (431&ndash421, 415&ndash413, and 413&ndash404 BCE) that Thucydides was still unifying into one account when he died some time before 396 BCE. Although unfinished and as a whole unrevised, in brilliance of description and depth of insight this history has no superior.

Tacitus (c. 55&ndashc. 120 CE), renowned for concision and psychology, is paramount as a historian of the early Roman empire. What survives of Histories covers the dramatic years 69&ndash70. What survives of Annals tells an often terrible tale of 14&ndash28, 31&ndash37, and, partially, 47&ndash66.

Fronto (c. 100&ndash176 CE), a much admired orator and rhetorician, was befriended by the emperor Antoninus Pius and taught his adopted sons Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. His correspondence offers an invaluable picture of aristocratic life and literary culture in the second century.

Fronto (c. 100&ndash176 CE), a much admired orator and rhetorician, was befriended by the emperor Antoninus Pius and teacher of his adopted sons Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. His correspondence offers an invaluable picture of aristocratic life and literary culture in the 2nd century.

The only extant work by Livy (64 or 59 BCE &ndash12 or 17 CE) is part of his history of Rome from the foundation of the city to 9 BCE. Of its 142 books 1&ndash10, 21&ndash45 (except parts of 41 and 43&ndash45), fragments, and short summaries remain. Livy&rsquos history is a source for the De Prodigiis of Julius Obsequens (fourth century CE).

Ausonius
Evelyn-White, Hugh Gerard
Paulinus Pellaeus

The surviving works of Ausonius (c. 310&ndashc. 395 CE) include much poetry, notably &ldquoThe Daily Round&rdquo and &ldquoThe Moselle.&rdquo In Volume II, there is also an address of thanks to Gratian for the consulship the stated aim of Eucharisticus by Paulinus Pellaeus (376&ndashafter 459 CE) is to give thanks for the guidance of providence in its author&rsquos life.

Sallust&rsquos two extant monographs take as their theme the moral and political decline of Rome, one on the conspiracy of Catiline and the other on the war with Jugurtha. Although Sallust is decidedly unsubtle and partisan in analyzing people and events, his works are important and significantly influenced later historians, notably Tacitus.

After personal inquiry and study of hearsay and other evidence, Herodotus (born c. 484 BCE) gives us in his famous history of warfare between the Greeks and the Persians a not uncritical estimate of the best that he could find.

After personal inquiry and study of hearsay and other evidence, Herodotus (born c. 484 BCE) gives us in his famous history of warfare between the Greeks and the Persians a not uncritical estimate of the best that he could find.

After personal inquiry and study of hearsay and other evidence, Herodotus (born c. 484 BCE) gives us in his famous history of warfare between the Greeks and the Persians a not uncritical estimate of the best that he could find.

After personal inquiry and study of hearsay and other evidence, Herodotus (born c. 484 BCE) gives us in his famous history of warfare between the Greeks and the Persians a not uncritical estimate of the best that he could find.

Apollodorus
Frazer, James G.

Attributed to Apollodorus of Athens (born c. 180 BCE), but probably composed in the first or second century BCE, The Library provides a grand summary of Greek myths and heroic legends about the origin and early history of the world and of the Hellenic people.

Apollodorus
Frazer, James G.

Attributed to Apollodorus of Athens (born c. 180 BCE), but probably composed in the first or second century BCE, The Library provides a grand summary of Greek myths and heroic legends about the origin and early history of the world and of the Hellenic people.

Plato
Fowler, Harold North

The great Athenian philosopher Plato was born in 427 BCE and lived to be eighty. Acknowledged masterpieces among his works are the Symposium, which explores love in its many aspects, from physical desire to pursuit of the beautiful and the good, and the Republic, which concerns righteousness and also treats education, gender, society, and slavery.

Quintilian
Russell, Donald A.

Quintilian, born in Spain about 35 CE, became a renowned and successful teacher of rhetoric in Rome. In The Orator&rsquos Education (Institutio Oratoria), a comprehensive training program in twelve books, he draws on his own rich experience. It provides not only insights on oratory, but also a picture of Roman education and social attitudes.

Quintilian
Russell, Donald A.

Quintilian, born in Spain about 35 CE, became a renowned and successful teacher of rhetoric in Rome. In The Orator&rsquos Education (Institutio Oratoria), a comprehensive training program in twelve books, he draws on his own rich experience. It provides not only insights on oratory, but also a picture of Roman education and social attitudes.

Quintilian
Russell, Donald A.

Quintilian, born in Spain about 35 CE, became a renowned and successful teacher of rhetoric in Rome. In The Orator&rsquos Education (Institutio Oratoria), a comprehensive training program in twelve books, he draws on his own rich experience. It provides not only insights on oratory, but also a picture of Roman education and social attitudes.

Quintilian
Russell, Donald A.

Quintilian, born in Spain about 35 CE, became a renowned and successful teacher of rhetoric in Rome. In The Orator&rsquos Education (Institutio Oratoria), a comprehensive training program in twelve books, he draws on his own rich experience. It provides not only insights on oratory, but also a picture of Roman education and social attitudes.

In his history, Polybius (c. 200&ndash118 BCE) is centrally concerned with how and why Roman power spread. The main part of the work, a vital achievement despite the incomplete state in which all but the first five books of an original forty survive, describes the rise of Rome, its destruction of Carthage, and its eventual domination of the Greek world.

Callimachus
Lycophron
Aratus
Mair, A. W.
Mair, G. R.

Callimachus (third century BCE) authored hymns and epigrams. The monodrama Alexandra is attributed to his contemporary, Lycophron. Phaenomena, a poem on star constellations and weather signs by Aratus (c. 315&ndash245 BCE), was among the most widely read in antiquity and one of the few Greek poems translated into Arabic.

Lucian (c. 120&ndash190 CE), apprentice sculptor then traveling rhetorician, settled in Athens and developed an original brand of satire. Notable for the Attic purity and elegance of his Greek and for literary versatility, he is famous chiefly for the lively, cynical wit of the dialogues in which he satirizes human folly, superstition, and hypocrisy.

Unlike his predecessors, Epictetus (c. 50&ndash120 CE), who grew up as a slave, taught Stoicism not for the select few but for the many. A student, the historian Arrian, recorded Epictetus&rsquos lectures and, in the Encheiridion, a handbook, summarized his thought.

Menander
Arnott, William Geoffrey

Menander (?344/3&ndash292/1 BCE), the dominant figure in New Comedy, wrote over 100 plays, of which one complete play, substantial portions of six others, and smaller but interesting fragments have been recovered. The complete play, Dyskolos (The Peevish Fellow), won first prize in Athens in 317 BCE.

The only extant work by Livy (64 or 59 BCE &ndash12 or 17 CE) is part of his history of Rome from the foundation of the city to 9 BCE. Of its 142 books 1&ndash10, 21&ndash45 (except parts of 41 and 43&ndash45), fragments, and short summaries remain. Livy&rsquos history is a source for the De Prodigiis of Julius Obsequens (fourth century CE).

Philostratus
Eunapius
Wright, Wilmer C.

In Lives of the Sophists, Philostratus (second to third century CE) depicts the widespread influence of Sophistic in the second and third centuries CE. Lives of Philosophers and Sophists by Eunapius (born 347 CE) is our only source concerning Neo-Platonism in the latter part of the fourth century CE.

Claudius Claudianus (c. 370&ndashc. 410 CE) gives us important knowledge of Honorius&rsquos time and displays poetic as well as rhetorical skill, command of language, and diversity. A panegyric on the brothers Probinus and Olybrius (consuls together in 395 CE) was followed mostly by epics in hexameters, but also by elegiacs, epistles, epigrams, and idylls.

Claudius Claudianus (c. 370&ndashc. 410 CE) gives us important knowledge of Honorius&rsquos time and displays poetic as well as rhetorical skill, command of language, and diversity. A panegyric on the brothers Probinus and Olybrius (consuls together in 395 CE) was followed mostly by epics in hexameters, but also by elegiacs, epistles, epigrams, and idylls.

In his history, Polybius (c. 200&ndash118 BCE) is centrally concerned with how and why Roman power spread. The main part of the work, a vital achievement despite the incomplete state in which all but the first five books of an original forty survive, describes the rise of Rome, its destruction of Carthage, and its eventual domination of the Greek world.

In his history, Polybius (c. 200&ndash118 BCE) is centrally concerned with how and why Roman power spread. The main part of the work, a vital achievement despite the incomplete state in which all but the first five books of an original forty survive, describes the rise of Rome, its destruction of Carthage, and its eventual domination of the Greek world.

The Historia Augusta (or Scriptores Historiae Augustae) is a series of biographies of Roman emperors, heirs, and claimants from Hadrian to Numerianus (117&ndash284 CE) modeled on Suetonius&rsquos Lives of the Caesars (second century CE). Of uncertain reliability and authorship, it is now attributed by many authorities to one late fourth century CE author.

The Historia Augusta (or Scriptores Historiae Augustae) is a series of biographies of Roman emperors, heirs, and claimants from Hadrian to Numerianus (117&ndash284 CE) modeled on Suetonius&rsquos Lives of the Caesars (second century CE). Of uncertain reliability and authorship, it is now attributed by many authorities to one late fourth century CE author.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

Sappho
Alcaeus
Campbell, David A.

Sappho, the most famous woman poet of antiquity, whose main theme was love, and Alcaeus, poet of wine, war, and politics, were two illustrious singers of sixth-century BCE Lesbos.

Anacreon
Campbell, David A.

Anacreon (c. 570&ndash485 BCE) was a composer of solo song. The Anacreonta were composed over several centuries. Notable among the earliest writers of choral poetry are the seventh-century BCE Spartans Alcman and Terpander.

Dithyrambic poets of the new school were active from the mid-fifth to mid-fourth century BCE. Anonymous poems include drinking songs, children&rsquos ditties, and cult hymns.

Aeschylus
Sommerstein, Alan H.

Aeschylus (c. 525&ndash456 BCE) is the dramatist who made Athenian tragedy one of the world&rsquos great art forms. Seven of his eighty or so plays survive complete, including the Oresteia trilogy and the Persians, the only extant Greek historical drama. Fragments of his lost plays also survive.

Aeschylus
Sommerstein, Alan H.

Aeschylus (c. 525&ndash456 BCE) is the dramatist who made Athenian tragedy one of the world&rsquos great art forms. Seven of his eighty or so plays survive complete, including the Oresteia trilogy and the Persians, the only extant Greek historical drama. Fragments of his lost plays also survive.

Of the roughly seventy treatises in the Hippocratic Collection, many are not by Hippocrates (said to have been born in Cos in or before 460 BCE), but they are essential sources of information about the practice of medicine in antiquity and about Greek theories concerning the human body, and he was undeniably the &ldquoFather of Medicine.&rdquo

Of the roughly seventy treatises in the Hippocratic Collection, many are not by Hippocrates (said to have been born in Cos in or before 460 BCE), but they are essential sources of information about the practice of medicine in antiquity and about Greek theories concerning the human body, and he was undeniably the &ldquoFather of Medicine.&rdquo

Hippocrates
Withington, E. T.

Of the roughly seventy treatises in the Hippocratic Collection, many are not by Hippocrates (said to have been born in Cos in or before 460 BCE), but they are essential sources of information about the practice of medicine in antiquity and about Greek theories concerning the human body, and he was undeniably the &ldquoFather of Medicine.&rdquo

Hippocrates
Jones, W. H. S.
Heracleitus

Of the roughly seventy treatises in the Hippocratic Collection, many are not by Hippocrates (said to have been born in Cos in or before 460 BCE), but they are essential sources of information about the practice of medicine in antiquity and about Greek theories concerning the human body, and he was undeniably the &ldquoFather of Medicine.&rdquo

In the melancholy elegies of the Tristia and the Ex Ponto, Ovid (43 BCE&ndash17 CE) writes from exile in Tomis on the Black Sea, appealing to such people as his wife and the emperor.

Velleius Paterculus
Shipley, Frederick W.

Velleius Paterculus lived in the reigns of Augustus and Tiberius (30 BCE&ndash37 CE) and wrote a summary of Roman history from the fall of Troy to 29 CE. In 13&ndash14 CE, Emperor Augustus wrote an account of his public life, Res Gestae Divi Augusti, the best preserved copy of which was engraved on the walls of his temple at Ancyra (Ankara).

Eusebius, Bishop of Caesarea from about 315 CE, was the most important writer in the age of Constantine. His history of the Christian church from the ministry of Jesus to 324 CE is a treasury of information, especially on the Eastern centers.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

Demosthenes
Vince, C. A.
Vince, J. H.

Demosthenes (384&ndash322 BCE), orator at Athens, was a pleader in law courts who also became a champion of Athenian greatness and Greek resistance to Philip of Macedon. His steadfastness, pungent argument, and control of language gained him early reputation as the best of Greek orators, and his works provide vivid pictures of contemporary life.

Aeneas Tacticus
Asclepiodotus
Onasander
Illinois Greek Club

The surviving work of Aeneas (fourth century BCE) is on defense against siege. Asclepiodotus (first century BCE) wrote a work on tactics as though for the lecture room, based on earlier manuals, not personal experience. Onasander&rsquos &ldquoThe General&rdquo (first century CE) deals with the qualities expected of a general.

The surviving works of the Roman Emperor Julian &ldquothe Apostate&rdquo (331 or 332&ndash363 CE) include eight Orations Misopogon (Beard-Hater), assailing the morals of the people of Antioch more than eighty Letters and fragments of Against the Galileans, written mainly to show that the Old Testament lacks evidence for the idea of Christianity.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

In his history, Polybius (c. 200&ndash118 BCE) is centrally concerned with how and why Roman power spread. The main part of the work, a vital achievement despite the incomplete state in which all but the first five books of an original forty survive, describes the rise of Rome, its destruction of Carthage, and its eventual domination of the Greek world.

Polybius&rsquos theme is how and why the Romans spread their power as they did. The main part of his history covers the years 264&ndash146 BC, describing the rise of Rome, the destruction of Carthage, and the eventual domination of the Greek world. It is a vital achievement despite the incomplete survival of all but the first five of forty books.

Polybius
Paton, W. R.
Olson, S. Douglas

For this six-volume edition of The Histories, W. R. Paton&rsquos 1922 translation has been thoroughly revised, the Büttner-Wobst Greek text corrected, and explanatory notes and a new introduction added. All but the first five of forty volumes survive in an incomplete state. Volume VI includes fragments unattributed to particular books of The Histories.

Lucian (c. 120&ndash190 CE), apprentice sculptor then travelling rhetorician, settled in Athens and developed an original brand of satire. Notable for the Attic purity and elegance of his Greek and for literary versatility, he is famous chiefly for the lively, cynical wit of the dialogues in which he satirizes human folly, superstition, and hypocrisy.

The comedies of Plautus, who brilliantly adapted Greek plays for Roman audiences c. 205&ndash184 BCE, are the earliest Latin works to survive complete and cornerstones of the European theatrical tradition from Shakespeare and Molière to modern times. Twenty-one of his plays are extant.

Plato
Fowler, Harold North
Lamb, W. R. M.

The great Athenian philosopher Plato was born in 427 BCE and lived to be eighty. Acknowledged masterpieces among his works are the Symposium, which explores love in its many aspects, from physical desire to pursuit of the beautiful and the good, and the Republic, which concerns righteousness and also treats education, gender, society, and slavery.

The great Athenian philosopher Plato was born in 427 BCE and lived to be eighty. Acknowledged masterpieces among his works are the Symposium, which explores love in its many aspects, from physical desire to pursuit of the beautiful and the good, and the Republic, which concerns righteousness and also treats education, gender, society, and slavery.

The great Athenian philosopher Plato was born in 427 BCE and lived to be eighty. Acknowledged masterpieces among his works are the Symposium, which explores love in its many aspects, from physical desire to pursuit of the beautiful and the good, and the Republic, which concerns righteousness and also treats education, gender, society, and slavery.

Plato
Fowler, Harold North

The great Athenian philosopher Plato was born in 427 BCE and lived to be eighty. Acknowledged masterpieces among his works are the Symposium, which explores love in its many aspects, from physical desire to pursuit of the beautiful and the good, and the Republic, which concerns righteousness and also treats education, gender, society, and slavery.

Xenophon
Marchant, E. C.
Todd, O. J.

In Memorabilia and in Oeconomicus, a dialogue about household management, we see the philosopher Socrates through the eyes of his associate, Xenophon. In the Symposium, we obtain insight on life in Athens. Xenophon&rsquos Apology is an interesting complement to Plato&rsquos account of Socrates&rsquos defense at his trial.

The Peloponnesian War was really three conflicts (431&ndash421, 415&ndash413, and 413&ndash404 BCE) that Thucydides was still unifying into one account when he died some time before 396 BCE. Although unfinished and as a whole unrevised, in brilliance of description and depth of insight this history has no superior.

The Iliad and the Odyssey of Homer (eighth century BCE) are the two oldest European epic poems. The former tells of Achilles&rsquos anger over an insult to his honour during the Trojan War, and of its consequences for the Achaeans, the Trojans, and Achilles himself.

The Iliad and the Odyssey of Homer (eighth century BCE) are the two oldest European epic poems. The former tells of Achilles&rsquos anger over an insult to his honour during the Trojan War, and of its consequences for the Achaeans, the Trojans, and Achilles himself.

The only extant work by Livy (64 or 59 BCE &ndash12 or 17 CE) is part of his history of Rome from the foundation of the city to 9 BCE. Of its 142 books 1&ndash10, 21&ndash45 (except parts of 41 and 43&ndash45), fragments, and short summaries remain. Livy&rsquos history is a source for the De Prodigiis of Julius Obsequens (fourth century CE).

History of the Wars by the Byzantine historian Procopius (late fifth century to after 558 CE) consists largely of sixth century CE military history, with much information about peoples, places, and special events. Powerful description complements careful narration. Procopius is just to the empire&rsquos enemies and boldly criticises emperor Justinian.

Frontinus
Bennett, Charles E.
McElwain, Mary B.

Frontinus&rsquos Stratagems, written after 84 CE, gives examples of military stratagems and discipline from Greek and Roman history, for the instruction of Roman officers. The Aqueducts of Rome, written in 97&ndash98, gives some historical details and a description of the aqueducts for the water supply of the city, with laws relating to them.

Dio Cassius (Cassius Dio), c. 150&ndash235 CE, was born in Bithynia. Little of his Roman History survives, but missing portions are partly supplied from elsewhere and there are many excerpts. Dio&rsquos work is a vital source for the last years of the Roman republic and the first four Roman emperors.

Dio Cassius (Cassius Dio), c. 150&ndash235 CE, was born in Bithynia. Little of his Roman History survives, but missing portions are partly supplied from elsewhere and there are many excerpts. Dio&rsquos work is a vital source for the last years of the Roman republic and the first four Roman emperors.

Dio Cassius (Cassius Dio), c. 150&ndash235 CE, was born in Bithynia. Little of his Roman History survives, but missing portions are partly supplied from elsewhere and there are many excerpts. Dio&rsquos work is a vital source for the last years of the Roman republic and the first four Roman emperors.

Aristophanes
Henderson, Jeffrey

Aristophanes (c. 450&ndashc. 386 BCE) has been admired since antiquity for his wit, fantasy, language, and satire. In Acharnians a small landowner, tired of the Peloponnesian War, magically arranges a personal peace treaty Knights is perhaps the most biting satire of a political figure (Cleon) ever written.

Aristophanes
Henderson, Jeffrey

Aristophanes (c. 450&ndashc. 386 BCE) has been admired since antiquity for his wit, fantasy, language, and satire. The protagonists of Birds create a utopian counter-Athens. In Lysistrata wives go on conjugal strike until their husbands end war. Women in Women at the Thesmophoria punish Euripides for portraying them as wicked.

Aristophanes
Henderson, Jeffrey

Aristophanes (c. 450&ndashc. 386 BCE) has been admired since antiquity for his wit, fantasy, language, and satire. Traditional Aeschylus and modern Euripides compete in Frogs. In Assemblywomen, Athenian women plot against male misgovernance. The humor and morality of Wealth made it the most popular of Aristophanes&rsquos plays until the Renaissance.

Lucretius lived ca. 99&ndashca. 55 BCE, but the details of his career are unknown. In his didactic poem De Rerum Natura (On the Nature of Things) he expounds Epicurean philosophy so as to dispel fear of the gods and death, and promote spiritual tranquility.

Strabo
Jones, Horace Leonard

In his seventeen-book Geography, Strabo (c. 64 BCE&ndashc. 25 CE) discusses geographical method, stresses the value of geography, and draws attention to the physical, political, and historical details of separate countries. Geography is a vital source for ancient geography and informative about ancient geographers.

Xenophon
Marchant, E. C.
Bowersock, G. W.

Minor works by Xenophon (c. 430&ndashc. 354 BCE) include Hiero, a dialogue on government Agesilaus, in praise of that king Constitution of Lacedaemon, on the Spartan system Ways and Means, on the finances of Athens and a manual of Horsemanship. The Constitution of the Athenians, though not by Xenophon, is an interesting document on Athenian politics.

Diogenes Laertius
Hicks, R. D.

Diogenes Laertius (probably early third century BCE) compiled his compendium on the lives and doctrines of the ancient philosophers from hundreds of sources. It ranges over three centuries, from Thales to Epicurus, portraying 45 important figures, and is enriched by numerous quotations.

Diogenes Laertius
Hicks, R. D.

Diogenes Laertius (probably early third century BCE) compiled his compendium on the lives and doctrines of the ancient philosophers from hundreds of sources. It ranges over three centuries, from Thales to Epicurus, portraying 45 important figures, and is enriched by numerous quotations.

Josephus
Thackeray, H. St. J.

The major works of Josephus (c. 37&ndashafter 97 CE) are History of the Jewish War, from 170 BCE to his own time, and Jewish Antiquities, from creation to 66 CE. Also by him are an autobiographical Life and a treatise Against Apion.

The great Athenian philosopher Plato was born in 427 BCE and lived to be eighty. Acknowledged masterpieces among his works are the Symposium, which explores love in its many aspects, from physical desire to pursuit of the beautiful and the good, and the Republic, which concerns righteousness and also treats education, gender, society, and slavery.

Pausanias
Jones, W. H. S.
Ormerod, H. A.

Pausanias (fl. 150 CE), one of the Roman world&rsquos great travelers, sketches in Description of Greece the history, geography, landmarks, legends, and religious cults of all the important Greek cities. He shares his enthusiasm for great sites, describing them with care and an accuracy confirmed by comparison with monuments that still stand today.

Cicero
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

Basil the Great was born into a family noted for piety. About 360 he founded a convent in Pontus and in 370 succeeded Eusebius in the archbishopric of Caesarea. His reform of monastic life in the east is the basis of modern Greek and Slavonic monasteries.

The only extant work by Livy (64 or 59 BCE &ndash12 or 17 CE) is part of his history of Rome from the foundation of the city to 9 BCE. Of its 142 books 1&ndash10, 21&ndash45 (except parts of 41 and 43&ndash45), fragments, and short summaries remain. Livy&rsquos history is a source for the De Prodigiis of Julius Obsequens (fourth century CE).

The great Athenian philosopher Plato was born in 427 BCE and lived to be eighty. Acknowledged masterpieces among his works are the Symposium, which explores love in its many aspects, from physical desire to pursuit of the beautiful and the good, and the Republic, which concerns righteousness and also treats education, gender, society, and slavery.

Aristotle (384&ndash322 BC), the great Greek thinker, researcher, and educator, ranks among the most important and influential figures in the history of philosophy, theology, and science. Rhetoric, probably composed while he was still a member of Plato&rsquos Academy, is the first systematic approach to persuasive public speaking and a classic of its kind.

Horace
Fairclough, H. Rushton

The poetry of Horace (born 65 BCE) is richly varied, its focus moving between public and private concerns, urban and rural settings, Stoic and Epicurean thought. In the Satires Horace mocks himself as well as the world. His verse epistles include the Art of Poetry, in which he famously expounds his literary theory.

Aulus Gellius (ca. 123&ndash170 CE) offers in Attic Nights (Gellius began to write these pieces during stays in Athens) a collection of short chapters about notable events, words and questions of literary style, lives of historical figures, legal points, and philosophical issues that served as instructive light reading for cultivated Romans.

Strabo
Jones, Horace Leonard

In his seventeen-book Geography, Strabo (c. 64 BCE&ndashc. 25 CE) discusses geographical method, stresses the value of geography, and draws attention to the physical, political, and historical details of separate countries. Geography is a vital source for ancient geography and informative about ancient geographers.

Plutarch
Babbitt, Frank Cole

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

Aristotle
Halliwell, Stephen
Longinus
Fyfe, W. Hamilton
Demetrius
Innes, Doreen C.
Rhys Roberts, W.

In Poetics, Aristotle (384&ndash322 BCE) treats Greek tragedy and epic. The subject of On the Sublime, attributed to an (unidentifiable) Longinus and probably composed in the first century CE, is greatness in writing. On Style, attributed to an (unidentifiable) Demetrius and perhaps composed in the second century BCE, analyzes four literary styles.

Aulus Gellius (ca. 123&ndash170 CE) offers in Attic Nights (Gellius began to write these pieces during stays in Athens) a collection of short chapters about notable events, words and questions of literary style, lives of historical figures, legal points, and philosophical issues that served as instructive light reading for cultivated Romans.

The great Athenian philosopher Plato was born in 427 BCE and lived to be eighty. Acknowledged masterpieces among his works are the Symposium, which explores love in its many aspects, from physical desire to pursuit of the beautiful and the good, and the Republic, which concerns righteousness and also treats education, gender, society, and slavery.

Isaeus (c. 420&ndash350 BCE) composed speeches for others. He shares with Lysias pure Attic and lucidity of style, but his more aggressive and flexible presentation undoubtedly influenced Demosthenes. Of at least fifty attributed orations, there survive eleven on legacy cases and a large fragment dealing with a claim of citizenship.

Josephus
Thackeray, H. St. J.

The major works of Josephus (c. 37&ndashafter 97 CE) are History of the Jewish War, from 170 BCE to his own time, and Jewish Antiquities, from creation to 66 CE. Also by him are an autobiographical Life and a treatise Against Apion.

Athenaeus
Olson, S. Douglas

In The Learned Banqueters (late-2nd century CE), Athenaeus describes a series of dinner parties at which the guests quote extensively from Greek literature. The work provides quotations from works now lost, and preserves information about wide range of information about Greek culture.

Cicero
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

Cicero&rsquos letters to friends span the period from 62 BCE, when his political career was at its peak, to 43 BCE, when he was put to death by the victorious Triumvirs.

Statius
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

Statius&rsquos Silvae, thirty-two occasional poems, were written probably between 89 and 96 CE. The verse is light in touch, with a distinct pictorial quality. D. R. Shackleton Bailey&rsquos edition, which replaced the earlier Loeb Classical Library edition by J. H. Mozley, is now reissued with corrections by Christopher A. Parrott.

Statius
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

Greek literary education and Roman political reality are evident in the poetry of Statius (c. 50&ndash96 CE). His Silvae are thirty-two occasional poems. His masterpiece, the epic Thebaid, recounts the struggle for kingship between the two sons of Oedipus. The extant portion of his Achilleid begins an account of Achilles&rsquos life.

Athenaeus
Olson, S. Douglas

In The Learned Banqueters (late-2nd century CE), Athenaeus describes a series of dinner parties at which the guests quote extensively from Greek literature. The work provides quotations from works now lost, and preserves information about wide range of information about Greek culture.

The importance of Isocrates (436&ndash338 BCE) for the study of Greek civilization of the fourth century BCE is indisputable. Twenty-one discourses by Isocrates survive these include political essays, treatises on education and on ethics, and speeches for legal cases. Nine letters, more on public than private matters, are also extant.

Josephus
Thackeray, H. St. J.

The major works of Josephus (c. 37&ndashafter 97 CE) are History of the Jewish War, from 170 BCE to his own time, and Jewish Antiquities, from creation to 66 CE. Also by him are an autobiographical Life and a treatise Against Apion.

Strabo
Jones, Horace Leonard

In his seventeen-book Geography, Strabo (c. 64 BCE&ndashc. 25 CE) discusses geographical method, stresses the value of geography, and draws attention to the physical, political, and historical details of separate countries. Geography is a vital source for ancient geography and informative about ancient geographers.

Aulus Gellius (ca. 123&ndash170 CE) offers in Attic Nights (Gellius began to write these pieces during stays in Athens) a collection of short chapters about notable events, words and questions of literary style, lives of historical figures, legal points, and philosophical issues that served as instructive light reading for cultivated Romans.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

In Moral Essays, Seneca (c. 4&ndash65 CE) expresses his Stoic philosophy on providence, steadfastness, anger, forgiveness, consolation, the happy life, leisure, tranquility, the brevity of life, and gift-giving.

Basil the Great was born into a family noted for piety. About 360 he founded a convent in Pontus and in 370 succeeded Eusebius in the archbishopric of Caesarea. His reform of monastic life in the east is the basis of modern Greek and Slavonic monasteries.

Cicero
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

Cicero&rsquos letters to friends span the period from 62 BCE, when his political career was at its peak, to 43 BCE, when he was put to death by the victorious Triumvirs.

History of the Wars by the Byzantine historian Procopius (late fifth century to after 558 CE) consists largely of sixth century CE military history, with much information about peoples, places, and special events. Powerful description complements careful narration. Procopius is just to the empire&rsquos enemies and boldly criticises emperor Justinian.

Unlike his predecessors, Epictetus (c. 50&ndash120 CE), who grew up as a slave, taught Stoicism not for the select few but for the many. A student, the historian Arrian, recorded Epictetus&rsquos lectures and, in the Encheiridion, a handbook, summarized his thought.

Oppian
Colluthus
Tryphiodorus
Mair, A. W.

In Fishing, Oppian of Cilicia, who flourished in the latter half of the second century CE, discusses fish and gives angling instructions. The Chase, on hunting, may be the work of a Syrian imitator. Colluthus and Tryphiodorus (properly &ldquoTriphiodorus&rdquo), epic poets of Egypt, wrote in the second half of the fifth century CE.

In his epic The Civil War, Lucan (39&ndash65 CE) carries us from Caesar&rsquos fateful crossing of the Rubicon, through the Battle of Pharsalus, Pompey&rsquos death, and Cato&rsquos leadership in Africa, to Caesar victorious in Egypt. The poem is also called Pharsalia.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

Plutarch
Babbitt, Frank Cole

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

Strabo
Jones, Horace Leonard

In his seventeen-book Geography, Strabo (c. 64 BCE&ndashc. 25 CE) discusses geographical method, stresses the value of geography, and draws attention to the physical, political, and historical details of separate countries. Geography is a vital source for ancient geography and informative about ancient geographers.

Athenaeus
Olson, S. Douglas

In The Learned Banqueters (late-2nd century CE), Athenaeus describes a series of dinner parties at which the guests quote extensively from Greek literature. The work provides quotations from works now lost, and preserves information about wide range of information about Greek culture.

Theophrastus
Herodas
Sophron
Rusten, Jeffrey
Cunningham, I. C.

Fictionalized faults are the focus of Characters by Theophrastus (c. 370&ndashc. 285 BCE). The Hellenistic poet Herodas wrote mimes in which everyday life is portrayed and character&mdashas opposed to plot&mdashdepicted. Mimes by Sophron (fifth century BCE) and anonymous mime fragments also represent that genre.

Philo
Colson, F. H.
Whitaker, G. H.

The philosopher Philo, born about 20 BCE to a prominent Jewish family in Alexandria, was trained in Greek as well as Jewish learning. In attempting to reconcile biblical teachings with Greek philosophy he developed ideas that had wide influence on Christian and Jewish religious thought.

Philo
Colson, F. H.
Whitaker, G. H.

The philosopher Philo, born about 20 BCE to a prominent Jewish family in Alexandria, was trained in Greek as well as Jewish learning. In attempting to reconcile biblical teachings with Greek philosophy he developed ideas that had wide influence on Christian and Jewish religious thought.

Aristotle
Wicksteed, P. H.
Cornford, F. M.

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384&ndash322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical logical physical metaphysical on art other or fragments.

The importance of Isocrates (436&ndash338 BCE) for the study of Greek civilization of the fourth century BCE is indisputable. Twenty-one discourses by Isocrates survive these include political essays, treatises on education and on ethics, and speeches for legal cases. Nine letters, more on public than private matters, are also extant.

Cicero
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

Cicero&rsquos letters to friends span the period from 62 BCE, when his political career was at its peak, to 43 BCE, when he was put to death by the victorious Triumvirs.

Florus (second century CE) wrote, in brief pointed rhetorical style, a two-book summary of Roman history (especially military) in order to show the greatness and decline of Roman morals. Based chiefly on Livy and perhaps planned to reach Florus&rsquos own times, the extant work ends with Augustus&rsquos reign (30 BCE&ndash14 CE).

In the didactic poetry of Medicamina Faciei Femineae (Face Cosmetics), Ars Amatoria (Art of Love), and Remedia Amoris (Remedies for Love), Ovid (43 BCE&ndash17 CE) demonstrates abstrusity and wit. His Ibis is an elegiac curse-poem. Nux (Walnut-tree), Halieutica (Sea-Fishing), and Consolatio ad Liviam (Poem of Consolation) are poems now judged not to be by Ovid.

Livy (Titus Livius, 64 or 59 BC&ndashAD 12 or 17), the great Roman historian, presents a vivid narrative of Rome&rsquos rise from the traditional foundation of the city in 753 or 751 BC to 9 BC and illustrates the collective and individual virtues necessary to maintain such greatness. The third decad (21&ndash30) chronicles the Second Punic War of 220&ndash205 BC. This Loeb edition replaces the original (1929) by B. O. Foster.

The great Athenian philosopher Plato was born in 427 BCE and lived to be eighty. Acknowledged masterpieces among his works are the Symposium, which explores love in its many aspects, from physical desire to pursuit of the beautiful and the good, and the Republic, which concerns righteousness and also treats education, gender, society, and slavery.

Athenaeus
Olson, S. Douglas

In The Learned Banqueters (late-2nd century CE), Athenaeus describes a series of dinner parties at which the guests quote extensively from Greek literature. The work provides quotations from works now lost, and preserves information about wide range of information about Greek culture.

The Anabasis of Alexander by Arrian (ca. 95&ndash175 BCE) is the best extant account of Alexander the Great&rsquos adult life. A description of India, and of Nearchus&rsquo voyage thence, was to be a supplement.

Plato
Emlyn-Jones, Christopher
Preddy, William

The great Athenian philosopher Plato was born in 427 BCE and lived to be eighty. Acknowledged masterpieces among his works are the Symposium, which explores love in its many aspects, from physical desire to pursuit of the beautiful and the good, and the Republic, which concerns righteousness and also treats education, gender, society, and slavery.

Demosthenes (384&ndash322 BCE), orator at Athens, was a pleader in law courts who also became a champion of Athenian greatness and Greek resistance to Philip of Macedon. His steadfastness, pungent argument, and control of language gained him early reputation as the best of Greek orators, and his works provide vivid pictures of contemporary life.

Augustine
Baxter, James Houston

The Letters of Augustine (354&ndash430 CE) are important for the study of ecclesiastical history and Augustine&rsquos relations with other theologians.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

Strabo
Jones, Horace Leonard

In his seventeen-book Geography, Strabo (c. 64 BCE&ndashc. 25 CE) discusses geographical method, stresses the value of geography, and draws attention to the physical, political, and historical details of separate countries. Geography is a vital source for ancient geography and informative about ancient geographers.

Josephus
Thackeray, H. St. J.

The major works of Josephus (c. 37&ndashafter 97 CE) are History of the Jewish War, from 170 BCE to his own time, and Jewish Antiquities, from creation to 66 CE. Also by him are an autobiographical Life and a treatise Against Apion.

Basil the Great was born into a family noted for piety. About 360 he founded a convent in Pontus and in 370 succeeded Eusebius in the archbishopric of Caesarea. His reform of monastic life in the east is the basis of modern Greek and Slavonic monasteries.

Lysias (c. 458&ndashc. 380 BCE) took the side of democracy against the Thirty Tyrants in 404 BCE. Of a much larger number about thirty complete speeches by him survive. Fluent, simple, and graceful in style yet vivid in description, they suggest a passionate partisan who was also a gentle, humorous man.

Plutarch
Babbitt, Frank Cole

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

Historical works by Bede (672 or 673&ndash735 CE) include his Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation, Lives of the Abbots of Bede&rsquos monastery, accounts of Cuthbert, and the Letter to Egbert, Bede&rsquos pupil.

Philo
Colson, F. H.
Whitaker, G. H.

The philosopher Philo, born about 20 BCE to a prominent Jewish family in Alexandria, was trained in Greek as well as Jewish learning. In attempting to reconcile biblical teachings with Greek philosophy he developed ideas that had wide influence on Christian and Jewish religious thought.

Historical works by Bede (672 or 673&ndash735 CE) include his Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation, Lives of the Abbots of Bede&rsquos monastery, accounts of Cuthbert, and the Letter to Egbert, Bede&rsquos pupil.

Tacitus (c. 55&ndashc. 120 CE), renowned for concision and psychology, is paramount as a historian of the early Roman empire. What survives of Histories covers the dramatic years 69&ndash70. What survives of Annals tells an often terrible tale of 14&ndash28, 31&ndash37, and, partially, 47&ndash66.

Tertullian
Minucius Felix
Glover, T. R.
Rendall, Gerald H.

Tertullian (c. 150&ndash222 CE) founded a Christian Latin language and literature, strove to unite the demands of the Bible with Church practice, defended Christianity, attacked heresy, and pondered morality. Octavius by Minucius, an early Christian writer of unknown date, is a debate between belief and unbelief that depicts Roman religion and society.

On Architecture, completed by Vitruvius sometime before 27 CE and the only work of its kind to survive antiquity, serves not professionals but readers who want to understand architecture. Topics include town planning, building materials, temples, the architectural orders, houses, pavements, mosaics, water supply, measurements, and machines.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

In Fasti, Ovid (43 BCE&ndash17 CE) sets forth explanations of the festivals and sacred rites that were noted on the Roman calendar, and relates in graphic detail the legends attached to specific dates. The poem is an invaluable source of information about religious practices.

In Moral Essays, Seneca (c. 4&ndash65 CE) expresses his Stoic philosophy on providence, steadfastness, anger, forgiveness, consolation, the happy life, leisure, tranquility, the brevity of life, and gift-giving.

Aristotle
Wicksteed, P. H.
Cornford, F. M.

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384&ndash322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical logical physical metaphysical on art other or fragments.

Philostratus the Elder
Philostratus the Younger
Callistratus
Fairbanks, Arthur

Sixty-five descriptions, ostensibly of paintings in a gallery at Naples, are credited to an Elder Philostratus (born c. 190 CE) to a Younger Philostratus, apparently his grandson, seventeen similar descriptions. Fourteen descriptions of statues in stone or bronze attributed to Callistratus were probably written in the fourth century CE.

Dio Chrysostom
Cohoon, J. W.

Dio Chrysostomus (c. 40&ndashc. 120 CE) was a rhetorician hostile to philosophers, whose Discourses (or Orations) reflect political or moral concerns. What survives of his works make him prominent in the revival of Greek literature in the late first and early second century CE.

Gerber, Douglas E.
Tyrtaeus
Solon
Theognis
Mimnermus

The Greek poetry of the seventh to the fifth century BCE that we call elegy was composed primarily for banquets and convivial gatherings. Its subject matter consists of almost any topic, excluding only the scurrilous and obscene. Most substantial in this volume is the collection of elegiac verses to which Theognis&rsquos name is attached (the Theognidea).

Gerber, Douglas E.
Archilochus
Semonides
Hipponax

The poetry of the seventh to the fifth centuries BCE that the Greeks called iambic seems connected with cult songs used in religious festivals, but its purpose is unclear.

The comedies of Plautus, who brilliantly adapted Greek plays for Roman audiences c. 205&ndash184 BCE, are the earliest Latin works to survive complete and cornerstones of the European theatrical tradition from Shakespeare and Molière to modern times. Twenty-one of his plays are extant.

Philo
Colson, F. H.
Whitaker, G. H.

The philosopher Philo, born about 20 BCE to a prominent Jewish family in Alexandria, was trained in Greek as well as Jewish learning. In attempting to reconcile biblical teachings with Greek philosophy he developed ideas that had wide influence on Christian and Jewish religious thought.

The letters of Saint Jerome (c. 345&ndash420 CE) are an essential source for our knowledge of Christian life in the fourth and fifth centuries CE they also provide insight into one of the most striking and complex personalities of the time.

The Historia Augusta (or Scriptores Historiae Augustae) is a series of biographies of Roman emperors, heirs, and claimants from Hadrian to Numerianus (117&ndash284 CE) modeled on Suetonius&rsquos Lives of the Caesars (second century CE). Of uncertain reliability and authorship, it is now attributed by many authorities to one late fourth century CE author.

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384&ndash322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical logical physical metaphysical on art other or fragments.

Eusebius, Bishop of Caesarea from about 315 CE, was the most important writer in the age of Constantine. His history of the Christian church from the ministry of Jesus to 324 CE is a treasury of information, especially on the Eastern centers.

This is the first of two volumes giving a selection of Greek papyri relating to private and public business. They cover a period from before 300 BCE to the eighth century CE. Most were found in rubbish heaps or remains of ancient houses or in tombs in Egypt. From such papyri we get much information about administration and social and economic conditions in Egypt, and about native Egyptian, Greek, Roman and Byzantine law, as well as glimpses of ordinary life. This volume contains: Agreements (71 examples) these concern marriage, divorce, adoption, apprenticeship, sales, leases, employment of labourers. Receipts (10). Wills (6). Deed of disownment. Personal letters from men and women, young and old (82). Memoranda (2). Invitations (5). Orders for payment (2). Agenda (2). Accounts and inventories (12). Questions of oracles (3). Christian prayers (2). A Gnostic charm. Horoscopes (2).

Strabo
Jones, Horace Leonard

In his seventeen-book Geography, Strabo (c. 64 BCE&ndashc. 25 CE) discusses geographical method, stresses the value of geography, and draws attention to the physical, political, and historical details of separate countries. Geography is a vital source for ancient geography and informative about ancient geographers.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

The Anabasis of Alexander by Arrian (ca. 95&ndash175 BCE) is the best extant account of Alexander the Great&rsquos adult life. A description of India, and of Nearchus&rsquos voyage thence, was to be a supplement.

Basil
Deferrari, Roy J.
McGuire, M. R. P.

Basil the Great was born into a family noted for piety. About 360 he founded a convent in Pontus and in 370 succeeded Eusebius in the archbishopric of Caesarea. His reform of monastic life in the east is the basis of modern Greek and Slavonic monasteries.

Aristotle
Tredennick, Hugh

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384&ndash322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical logical physical metaphysical on art other or fragments.

Pausanias (fl. 150 CE), one of the Roman world&rsquos great travelers, sketches in Description of Greece the history, geography, landmarks, legends, and religious cults of all the important Greek cities. He shares his enthusiasm for great sites, describing them with care and an accuracy confirmed by comparison with monuments that still stand today.

Sextus Empiricus
Bury, R. G.

The three surviving works by Sextus Empiricus (c. 160&ndash210 CE) are Outlines of Pyrrhonism, Against Dogmatists, and Against Professors. Their value as a source for the history of thought is especially that they represent development and formulation of former skeptic doctrines.

Athenaeus
Olson, S. Douglas

In The Learned Banqueters (late-2nd century CE), Athenaeus describes a series of dinner parties at which the guests quote extensively from Greek literature. The work provides quotations from works now lost, and preserves information about wide range of information about Greek culture.

Philo
Colson, F. H.
Whitaker, G. H.

The philosopher Philo, born about 20 BCE to a prominent Jewish family in Alexandria, was trained in Greek as well as Jewish learning. In attempting to reconcile biblical teachings with Greek philosophy he developed ideas that had wide influence on Christian and Jewish religious thought.

Plato
Emlyn-Jones, Christopher
Preddy, William

The great Athenian philosopher Plato was born in 427 BCE and lived to be eighty. Acknowledged masterpieces among his works are the Symposium, which explores love in its many aspects, from physical desire to pursuit of the beautiful and the good, and the Republic, which concerns righteousness and also treats education, gender, society, and slavery.

Silius Italicus (25&ndash101 CE) composed an epic Punica in 17 books on the Second Punic War (218&ndash202 BCE). Silius&rsquos poem relies largely on Livy&rsquos prose for facts. It also echoes poets, especially Virgil, and employs techniques traditional in Latin epic.

Silius Italicus (25&ndash101 CE) composed an epic Punica in 17 books on the Second Punic War (218&ndash202 BCE). Silius&rsquos poem relies largely on Livy&rsquos prose for facts. It also echoes poets, especially Virgil, and employs techniques traditional in Latin epic.

Diodorus Siculus
Oldfather, C. H.

Diodorus&rsquos Library of History, written in the first century BCE, is the most extensively preserved history by an ancient Greek author. The work is in three parts: mythical history to the Trojan War history to Alexander&rsquos death (323 BCE) and history to 54 BCE. Books 1&ndash5 and 11&ndash20 survive complete, the rest in fragments.

On Architecture, completed by Vitruvius sometime before 27 CE and the only work of its kind to survive antiquity, serves not professionals but readers who want to understand architecture. Topics include town planning, building materials, temples, the architectural orders, houses, pavements, mosaics, water supply, measurements, and machines.

The major works of Josephus (c. 37&ndashafter 97 CE) are History of the Jewish War, from 170 BCE to his own time, and Jewish Antiquities, from creation to 66 CE. Also by him are an autobiographical Life and a treatise Against Apion.

Greek papyri relating to private and public business in Egypt from before 300 BCE to the eighth century CE inform us about administration social and economic conditions in Egypt Egyptian, Greek, Roman, and Byzantine law. They also offer glimpses of ordinary life.

Cato
Varro
Hooper, W. D.
Ash, Harrison Boyd

Cato&rsquos second century BCE De Agricultura is our earliest complete Latin prose text, recommends farming for its security and profitability, and advises on management of labor and resources. Varro&rsquos Res rustica (37 BCE) is not a practical treatise but instruction, in dialogue form, about agricultural life meant for prosperous country gentlemen.

Duff, J. Wight
Duff, Arnold M.
Aetna
Calpurnius Siculus
Publilius Syrus
Laus Pisonis
Grattius

Works such as those of the mime-writer Publilius Syrus, who flourished c. 45 BCE, and Rutilius Namatianus, who gave a graphic account of his voyage from Rome to Gaul in 416 CE, represent the wide variety of theme that lends interest to Latin poetry produced during a period of four and a half centuries.

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384&ndash322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical logical physical metaphysical on art other or fragments.

Valerius Flaccus
Mozley, J. H.

Gaius Valerius Flaccus flourished c. 70&ndash90 BCE and composed an incomplete epic Argonautica in eight books, on the quest for the Golden Fleece. Valerius effectively rehandles the story already told by Apollonius Rhodius, recalls Virgilian language and thought, displays learning, and alludes to contemporary Rome.

Aristotle
Tredennick, Hugh
Armstrong, G. Cyril

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384&ndash322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical logical physical metaphysical on art other or fragments.

Aristotle
Hett, Walter Stanley

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384&ndash322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical logical physical metaphysical on art other or fragments.

The philosopher Philo, born about 20 BCE to a prominent Jewish family in Alexandria, was trained in Greek as well as Jewish learning. In attempting to reconcile biblical teachings with Greek philosophy he developed ideas that had wide influence on Christian and Jewish religious thought.

In Secret History, the Byzantine historian Procopius (late fifth century to after 558 CE) attacks the sixth century CE emperor Justinian and empress Theodora and alleges their ruinous effect on the Roman empire. Procopius&rsquos pen is particularly sharp in portraying Theodora&rsquos lewdness, duplicity, cruelty, spite, vanity and pride.

Sextus Empiricus
Bury, R. G.

The three surviving works by Sextus Empiricus (c. 160&ndash210 CE) are Outlines of Pyrrhonism, Against Dogmatists, and Against Professors. Their value as a source for the history of thought is especially that they represent development and formulation of former skeptic doctrines.

Celsus, a layman, provides in On Medicine more information about the condition of medical science up to his own time (probably first century CE) than any other author. Book 1 is on Greek schools of medicine and dietetics Book 2 on prognosis, diagnosis, and general therapeutics Book 3 on internal ailments Book 4 on local bodily diseases.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

Ennius
Goldberg, Sander M.
Manuwald, Gesine

Quintus Ennius (239&ndash169), widely regarded as the father of Roman literature, was instrumental in creating a new Roman literary identity, domesticating the Greek forms of epic and drama, and pursuing a range of other literary and intellectual pursuits. He inspired major developments in Roman religion, social organization, and popular culture.

Livy (Titus Livius, 64 or 59 BC&ndashAD 12 or 17), the great Roman historian, presents a vivid narrative of Rome&rsquos rise from the traditional foundation of the city in 753 or 751 BC to 9 BC and illustrates the collective and individual virtues necessary to maintain such greatness. The fourth decad (31&ndash40) focuses on Rome&rsquos growing hegemony in the East.

Extant works by Sidonius (born c. 430 CE) are three long panegyrics in verse, poems addressed to or concerned with friends, and nine books of letters.

Pausanias (fl. 150 CE), one of the Roman world&rsquos great travelers, sketches in Description of Greece the history, geography, landmarks, legends, and religious cults of all the important Greek cities. He shares his enthusiasm for great sites, describing them with care and an accuracy confirmed by comparison with monuments that still stand today.

Pausanias (fl. 150 CE), one of the Roman world&rsquos great travelers, sketches in Description of Greece the history, geography, landmarks, legends, and religious cults of all the important Greek cities. He shares his enthusiasm for great sites, describing them with care and an accuracy confirmed by comparison with monuments that still stand today.

Demosthenes (384&ndash322 BCE), orator at Athens, was a pleader in law courts who also became a champion of Athenian greatness and Greek resistance to Philip of Macedon. His steadfastness, pungent argument, and control of language gained him early reputation as the best of Greek orators, and his works provide vivid pictures of contemporary life.

Ammianus Marcellinus
Rolfe, J. C.

Ammianus (c. 325&ndashc. 395 CE), a Greek from Antioch, served many years as an officer in the Roman army, then settled in Rome, where he wrote a Latin history of the Roman Empire. The portion that survives covers twenty-five years in the historian&rsquos own lifetime: the reigns of Constantius, Julian, Jovian, Valentinian I, and Valens.

Livy (Titus Livius, 64 or 59 BC&ndashAD 12 or 17), the Roman historian, presents a vivid narrative of Rome&rsquos rise from the traditional foundation of the city in 753 or 751 BC to 9 BC and illustrates the virtues necessary to achieve such greatness. The books of the fourth decad (31&ndash40) focus on Rome&rsquos growing hegemony in the East in the years 200&ndash180.

Lucian (c. 120&ndash190 CE), apprentice sculptor then traveling rhetorician, settled in Athens and developed an original brand of satire. Notable for the Attic purity and elegance of his Greek and for literary versatility, he is famous chiefly for the lively, cynical wit of the dialogues in which he satirizes human folly, superstition, and hypocrisy.

Diodorus Siculus
Oldfather, C. H.

Diodorus&rsquos Library of History, written in the first century BCE, is the most extensively preserved history by an ancient Greek author. The work is in three parts: mythical history to the Trojan War history to Alexander&rsquos death (323 BCE) and history to 54 BCE. Books 1&ndash5 and 11&ndash20 survive complete, the rest in fragments.

Celsus, a layman, provides in On Medicine more information about the condition of medical science up to his own time (probably first century CE) than any other author. Book 5 is on treatment by drugs of general diseases, Book 6 on treatment by drugs of local diseases.

Plutarch
Babbitt, Frank Cole

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

Plutarch
Babbitt, Frank Cole

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

Aristotle
Hett, Walter Stanley

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384&ndash322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical logical physical metaphysical on art other or fragments.

Maidment, K. J.
Antiphon
Andocides

Antiphon of Athens, born c. 480 BCE, disliked democracy and was an ardent oligarch. Of his fifteen extant works three concern real murder cases. The others are academic exercises. Andocides of Athens, born c. 440 BCE, disliked the extremes of democracy and oligarchy. Of his four extant speeches, Against Alcibiades is doubtful.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

In Moral Essays, Seneca (c. 4&ndash65 CE) expresses his Stoic philosophy on providence, steadfastness, anger, forgiveness, consolation, the happy life, leisure, tranquility, the brevity of life, and gift-giving.

Sextus Empiricus
Bury, R. G.

The three surviving works by Sextus Empiricus (c. 160&ndash210 CE) are Outlines of Pyrrhonism, Against Dogmatists, and Against Professors. Their value as a source for the history of thought is especially that they represent development and formulation of former skeptic doctrines.

Tacitus (c. 55&ndashc. 120 CE), renowned for concision and psychology, is paramount as a historian of the early Roman empire. What survives of Histories covers the dramatic years 69&ndash70. What survives of Annals tells an often terrible tale of 14&ndash28, 31&ndash37, and, partially, 47&ndash66.

Livy (Titus Livius, 64 or 59 BC&ndashAD 12 or 17), the Roman historian, presents a vivid narrative of Rome&rsquos rise from the traditional foundation of the city in 753 or 751 BC to 9 BC and illustrates the collective and individual virtues necessary to maintain such greatness. The fourth decad (31&ndash40) focuses on Rome&rsquos growing hegemony in the East.

Warmington, Eric Herbert
Livius Andronicus
Naevius
Pacuvius
Accius

Extant early Latin writings from the seventh or sixth to the first century BCE include epic, drama, satire, translation and paraphrase, hymns, stage history and practice, and other works by Ennius, Caecilius, Livius Andronicus, Naevius, Pacuvius, Accius, Lucilius, and other anonymous authors the Twelve Tables of Roman law archaic inscriptions.

Ammianus Marcellinus
Rolfe, J. C.

Ammianus (c. 325&ndashc. 395 CE), a Greek from Antioch, served many years as an officer in the Roman army, then settled in Rome, where he wrote a Latin history of the Roman Empire. The portion that survives covers twenty-five years in the historian&rsquos own lifetime: the reigns of Constantius, Julian, Jovian, Valentinian I, and Valens.

Although Problems is an accretion of multiple authorship over several centuries, it offers a fascinating technical view of Peripatetic method and thought.

Aristotle
Mayhew, Robert
Mirhady, David C.

Although Problems is an accretion of multiple authorship over several centuries, it offers a fascinating technical view of Peripatetic method and thought. Rhetoric to Alexander provides practical advice to orators and was likely composed during the period of Aristotle&rsquos tutorship of Alexander, perhaps by Anaximenes, another of Alexander&rsquos tutors.

Demosthenes (384&ndash322 BCE), orator at Athens, was a pleader in law courts who also became a champion of Athenian greatness and Greek resistance to Philip of Macedon. His steadfastness, pungent argument, and control of language gained him early reputation as the best of Greek orators, and his works provide vivid pictures of contemporary life.

Dionysius of Halicarnassus
Cary, Earnest

The main aim of Dionysius of Halicarnassus&rsquos Roman Antiquities, which began to appear in 7 BCE, was to reconcile Greeks to Roman rule. Of the twenty books (from the earliest times to 264 BCE) we have the first nine complete most of 10 and 11 extracts and an epitome of the whole.

The philosopher Philo, born about 20 BCE to a prominent Jewish family in Alexandria, was trained in Greek as well as Jewish learning. In attempting to reconcile biblical teachings with Greek philosophy he developed ideas that had wide influence on Christian and Jewish religious thought.

Plutarch
Fowler, Harold North

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

Tacitus (c. 55&ndashc. 120 CE), renowned for concision and psychology, is paramount as a historian of the early Roman empire. What survives of Histories covers the dramatic years 69&ndash70. What survives of Annals tells an often terrible tale of 14&ndash28, 31&ndash37, and, partially, 47&ndash66.

Aristotle
Peck, A. L.
Forster, E. S.

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384&ndash322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical logical physical metaphysical on art other or fragments.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

Aristotle
Cooke, Harold Percy
Tredennick, Hugh

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384&ndash322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical logical physical metaphysical on art other or fragments.

The major works of Josephus (c. 37&ndashafter 97 CE) are History of the Jewish War, from 170 BCE to his own time, and Jewish Antiquities, from creation to 66 CE. Also by him are an autobiographical Life and a treatise Against Apion.

Athenaeus
Olson, S. Douglas

In The Learned Banqueters (late-2nd century CE), Athenaeus describes a series of dinner parties at which the guests quote extensively from Greek literature. The work provides quotations from works now lost, and preserves information about wide range of information about Greek culture.

The comedies of Plautus, who brilliantly adapted Greek plays for Roman audiences c. 205&ndash184 BCE, are the earliest Latin works to survive complete and cornerstones of the European theatrical tradition from Shakespeare and Molière to modern times. Twenty-one of his plays are extant.

Warmington, Eric Herbert
Lucilius

Extant early Latin writings from the seventh or sixth to the first century BCE include epic, drama, satire, translation and paraphrase, hymns, stage history and practice, and other works by Ennius, Caecilius, Livius Andronicus, Naevius, Pacuvius, Accius, Lucilius, and other anonymous authors the Twelve Tables of Roman law archaic inscriptions.

Pliny the Elder (23&ndash79 CE) produced in his Natural History a vast compendium of Roman knowledge. Topics included are the mathematics and metrology of the universe world geography and ethnography human anthropology and physiology zoology botany, agriculture, and horticulture medicine minerals, fine arts, and gemstones.

Ammianus Marcellinus
Rolfe, J. C.

Ammianus (c. 325&ndashc. 395 CE), a Greek from Antioch, served many years as an officer in the Roman army, then settled in Rome, where he wrote a Latin history of the Roman Empire. The portion that survives covers twenty-five years in the historian&rsquos own lifetime: the reigns of Constantius, Julian, Jovian, Valentinian I, and Valens.

Livy
Sage, Evan T.
Schlesinger, Alfred Cary

The only extant work by Livy (64 or 59 BCE &ndash12 or 17 CE) is part of his history of Rome from the foundation of the city to 9 BCE. Of its 142 books 1&ndash10, 21&ndash45 (except parts of 41 and 43&ndash45), fragments, and short summaries remain. Livy&rsquos history is a source for the De Prodigiis of Julius Obsequens (fourth century CE).

Of more than seventy works by Varro (116&ndash27 BCE) we have only his treatise On Agriculture and part of his De Lingua Latina (On the Latin Language), a work typical of its author&rsquos interest not only in antiquarian matters but also in the collection of scientific facts, and containing much of very great value to the study of the Latin language.

Of more than seventy works by Varro (116&ndash27 BCE) we have only his treatise On Agriculture and part of his De Lingua Latina (On the Latin Language), a work typical of its author&rsquos interest not only in antiquarian matters but also in the collection of scientific facts, and containing much of very great value to the study of the Latin language.

Greek mathematics from the sixth century BCE to the fourth century CE is represented by the work of, e.g., Pythagoras Proclus Thales Democritus Hippocrates of Chios Theaetetus Plato Eudoxus of Cnidus Aristotle Euclid Eratosthenes Apollonius Ptolemy Heron of Alexandria Diophantus and Pappus.

Celsus, a layman, provides in On Medicine more information about the condition of medical science up to his own time (probably first century CE) than any other author. Books VII and Book VIII deal with surgery and present accounts of many operations, including amputation.

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384&ndash322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical logical physical metaphysical on art other or fragments.

Dio Chrysostom
Cohoon, J. W.

Dio Chrysostomus (c. 40&ndashc. 120 CE) was a rhetorician hostile to philosophers, whose Discourses (or Orations) reflect political or moral concerns. What survives of his works make him prominent in the revival of Greek literature in the late first and early second century CE.

Diodorus Siculus
Oldfather, C. H.

Diodorus&rsquos Library of History, written in the first century BCE, is the most extensively preserved history by an ancient Greek author. The work is in three parts: mythical history to the Trojan War history to Alexander&rsquos death (323 BCE) and history to 54 BCE. Books 1&ndash5 and 11&ndash20 survive complete, the rest in fragments.

The philosopher Philo, born about 20 BCE to a prominent Jewish family in Alexandria, was trained in Greek as well as Jewish learning. In attempting to reconcile biblical teachings with Greek philosophy he developed ideas that had wide influence on Christian and Jewish religious thought.

Cicero
Hendrickson, G. L.
Hubbell, H. M.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

Procopius
Dewing, H. B.
Downey, Glanville

In On Buildings, the Byzantine historian Procopius (late fifth century to after 558 CE) describes the churches, public buildings, fortifications, and bridges Justinian erected throughout his empire, from the Church of St. Sophia in Constantinople to city walls at Carthage. The work is richly informative about architecture of the sixth century CE.

The epic Dionysiaca by Nonnos of Panopolis in Egypt (fifth century CE) concerns Dionysus&rsquo earthly career from birth at Thebes to reception on Olympus. In a poem full of mythology, astrology, and magic, Nonnos relates the god&rsquos conquest of the East and also, sensually and explicitly, his amorous adventures.

Athenaeus
Olson, S. Douglas

In The Learned Banqueters (late-2nd century CE), Athenaeus describes a series of dinner parties at which the guests quote extensively from Greek literature. The work provides quotations from works now lost, and preserves information about wide range of information about Greek culture.

Demosthenes (384&ndash322 BCE), orator at Athens, was a pleader in law courts who also became a champion of Athenian greatness and Greek resistance to Philip of Macedon. His steadfastness, pungent argument, and control of language gained him early reputation as the best of Greek orators, and his works provide vivid pictures of contemporary life.

Dionysius of Halicarnassus
Cary, Earnest

The main aim of Dionysius of Halicarnassus&rsquos Roman Antiquities, which began to appear in 7 BCE, was to reconcile Greeks to Roman rule. Of the twenty books (from the earliest times to 264 BCE) we have the first nine complete most of 10 and 11 extracts and an epitome of the whole.

Cicero
Sutton, E. W.
Rackham, H.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

Eight works or parts of works were ascribed to Manetho, a third century BCE Egyptian, all on history and religion and all apparently in Greek. They survive only as quoted by other writers and include the spurious Book of Sôthis. The Kings of Thebes (in Egypt) and the Old Chronicle are doubtful.

Demosthenes (384&ndash322 BCE), orator at Athens, was a pleader in law courts who also became a champion of Athenian greatness and Greek resistance to Philip of Macedon. His steadfastness, pungent argument, and control of language gained him early reputation as the best of Greek orators, and his works provide vivid pictures of contemporary life.

Pliny the Elder (23&ndash79 CE) produced in his Natural History a vast compendium of Roman knowledge. Topics included are the mathematics and metrology of the universe world geography and ethnography human anthropology and physiology zoology botany, agriculture, and horticulture medicine minerals, fine arts, and gemstones.

Pliny the Elder (23&ndash79 CE) produced in his Natural History a vast compendium of Roman knowledge. Topics included are the mathematics and metrology of the universe world geography and ethnography human anthropology and physiology zoology botany, agriculture, and horticulture medicine minerals, fine arts, and gemstones.

The epic Dionysiaca by Nonnos of Panopolis in Egypt (fifth century CE) concerns Dionysus&rsquo earthly career from birth at Thebes to reception on Olympus. In a poem full of mythology, astrology, and magic, Nonnos relates the god&rsquos conquest of the East and also, sensually and explicitly, his amorous adventures.

Livy (Titus Livius, 64 or 59 BC&ndashAD 12 or 17), the great Roman historian, presents a vivid narrative of Rome&rsquos rise from the traditional foundation of the city in 753 or 751 BC to 9 BC and illustrates the collective and individual virtues necessary to maintain such greatness. The third decad (21&ndash30) chronicles the Second Punic War of 220&ndash205 BC.

The epic Dionysiaca by Nonnos of Panopolis in Egypt (fifth century CE) concerns Dionysus&rsquo earthly career from birth at Thebes to reception on Olympus. In a poem full of mythology, astrology, and magic, Nonnos relates the god&rsquos conquest of the East and also, sensually and explicitly, his amorous adventures.

Dionysius of Halicarnassus
Cary, Earnest

The main aim of Dionysius of Halicarnassus&rsquos Roman Antiquities, which began to appear in 7 BCE, was to reconcile Greeks to Roman rule. Of the twenty books (from the earliest times to 264 BCE) we have the first nine complete most of 10 and 11 extracts and an epitome of the whole.

Dio Chrysostom
Cohoon, J. W.
Crosby, H. Lamar

Dio Chrysostomus (c. 40&ndashc. 120 CE) was a rhetorician hostile to philosophers, whose Discourses (or Orations) reflect political or moral concerns. What survives of his works make him prominent in the revival of Greek literature in the late first and early second century CE.

Extant early Latin writings from the seventh or sixth to the first century BCE include epic, drama, satire, translation and paraphrase, hymns, stage history and practice, and other works by Ennius, Caecilius, Livius Andronicus, Naevius, Pacuvius, Accius, Lucilius, and other anonymous authors the Twelve Tables of Roman law archaic inscriptions.

Fragments of ancient literature, from the seventh to the third century BCE, found on papyri in Egypt include examples of tragedy satyr drama Old, Middle, and New Comedy mime lyric, elegiac, iambic, and hexametric poetry.

Columella
Ash, Harrison Boyd

Columella (first century CE) included Cato and Varro among many sources for On Agriculture, but his personal experience was paramount. Written in prose except for the hexameters on horticulture of Book 10, the work is richly informative about country life in first century CE Italy.

Greek mathematics from the sixth century BCE to the fourth century CE is represented by the work of, e.g., Pythagoras Proclus Thales Democritus Hippocrates of Chios Theaetetus Plato Eudoxus of Cnidus Aristotle Euclid Eratosthenes Apollonius Ptolemy Heron of Alexandria Diophantus and Pappus.

The philosopher Philo, born about 20 BCE to a prominent Jewish family in Alexandria, was trained in Greek as well as Jewish learning. In attempting to reconcile biblical teachings with Greek philosophy he developed ideas that had wide influence on Christian and Jewish religious thought.

Dionysius of Halicarnassus
Cary, Earnest

The main aim of Dionysius of Halicarnassus&rsquos Roman Antiquities, which began to appear in 7 BCE, was to reconcile Greeks to Roman rule. Of the twenty books (from the earliest times to 264 BCE) we have the first nine complete most of 10 and 11 extracts and an epitome of the whole.

The major works of Josephus (c. 37&ndashafter 97 CE) are History of the Jewish War, from 170 BCE to his own time, and Jewish Antiquities, from creation to 66 CE. Also by him are an autobiographical Life and a treatise Against Apion.

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384&ndash322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical logical physical metaphysical on art other or fragments.

Livy (Titus Livius, 64 or 59 BC&ndashAD 12 or 17), the great Roman historian, presents a vivid narrative of Rome&rsquos rise from the traditional foundation of the city in 753 or 751 BC to 9 BC and illustrates the collective and individual virtues necessary to maintain such greatness. The third decad (21&ndash30) chronicles the Second Punic War of 220&ndash205 BC.

Quintus Curtius
Rolfe, J. C.

Quintus Curtius wrote a history of Alexander the Great in the first or second century CE. The first two of ten books have not survived and material is missing from books 5, 6, and 10. Curtius narrates exciting experiences, develops his hero&rsquos character, moralizes, and provides one of the five extant works that are evidence for Alexander&rsquos career.

Quintus Curtius
Rolfe, J. C.

Quintus Curtius wrote a history of Alexander the Great in the first or second century CE. The first two of ten books have not survived and material is missing from books 5, 6, and 10. Curtius narrates exciting experiences, develops his hero&rsquos character, moralizes, and provides one of the five extant works that are evidence for Alexander&rsquos career.

Pliny the Elder (23&ndash79 CE) produced in his Natural History a vast compendium of Roman knowledge. Topics included are the mathematics and metrology of the universe world geography and ethnography human anthropology and physiology zoology botany, agriculture, and horticulture medicine minerals, fine arts, and gemstones.

Pliny the Elder (23&ndash79 CE) produced in his Natural History a vast compendium of Roman knowledge. Topics included are the mathematics and metrology of the universe world geography and ethnography human anthropology and physiology zoology botany, agriculture, and horticulture medicine minerals, fine arts, and gemstones.

Dionysius of Halicarnassus
Cary, Earnest

The main aim of Dionysius of Halicarnassus&rsquos Roman Antiquities, which began to appear in 7 BCE, was to reconcile Greeks to Roman rule. Of the twenty books (from the earliest times to 264 BCE) we have the first nine complete most of 10 and 11 extracts and an epitome of the whole.

Isocrates
Van Hook, La Rue

The importance of Isocrates (436&ndash338 BCE) for the study of Greek civilization of the fourth century BCE is indisputable. Twenty-one discourses by Isocrates survive these include political essays, treatises on education and on ethics, and speeches for legal cases. Nine letters, more on public than private matters, are also extant.

Demosthenes
De Witt, N. W.
De Witt, N. J.

Demosthenes (384&ndash322 BCE), orator at Athens, was a pleader in law courts who also became a champion of Athenian greatness and Greek resistance to Philip of Macedon. His steadfastness, pungent argument, and control of language gained him early reputation as the best of Greek orators, and his works provide vivid pictures of contemporary life.

Diodorus Siculus
Oldfather, C. H.

Diodorus&rsquos Library of History, written in the first century BCE, is the most extensively preserved history by an ancient Greek author. The work is in three parts: mythical history to the Trojan War history to Alexander&rsquos death (323 BCE) and history to 54 BCE. Books 1&ndash5 and 11&ndash20 survive complete, the rest in fragments.

Dio Chrysostom
Crosby, H. Lamar

Dio Chrysostomus (c. 40&ndashc. 120 CE) was a rhetorician hostile to philosophers, whose Discourses (or Orations) reflect political or moral concerns. What survives of his works make him prominent in the revival of Greek literature in the late first and early second century CE.

Diodorus Siculus
Geer, Russel M.

Diodorus&rsquos Library of History, written in the first century BCE, is the most extensively preserved history by an ancient Greek author. The work is in three parts: mythical history to the Trojan War history to Alexander&rsquos death (323 BCE) and history to 54 BCE. Books 1&ndash5 and 11&ndash20 survive complete, the rest in fragments.

Dionysius of Halicarnassus
Cary, Earnest

The main aim of Dionysius of Halicarnassus&rsquos Roman Antiquities, which began to appear in 7 BCE, was to reconcile Greeks to Roman rule. Of the twenty books (from the earliest times to 264 BCE) we have the first nine complete most of 10 and 11 extracts and an epitome of the whole.

The philosopher Philo, born about 20 BCE to a prominent Jewish family in Alexandria, was trained in Greek as well as Jewish learning. In attempting to reconcile biblical teachings with Greek philosophy he developed ideas that had wide influence on Christian and Jewish religious thought.

The philosopher Philo, born about 20 BCE to a prominent Jewish family in Alexandria, was trained in Greek as well as Jewish learning. In attempting to reconcile biblical teachings with Greek philosophy he developed ideas that had wide influence on Christian and Jewish religious thought.

Livy (Titus Livius, 64 or 59 BC&ndashAD 12 or 17), the great Roman historian, presents a vivid narrative of Rome&rsquos rise from the traditional foundation of the city in 753 or 751 BC to 9 BC and illustrates the collective and individual virtues necessary to maintain such greatness. The third decad (21&ndash30) chronicles the Second Punic War of 220&ndash205 BC.

Sextus Empiricus
Bury, R. G.

The three surviving works by Sextus Empiricus (c. 160&ndash210 CE) are Outlines of Pyrrhonism, Against Dogmatists, and Against Professors. Their value as a source for the history of thought is especially that they represent development and formulation of former skeptic doctrines.

Alciphron
Aelian
Philostratus
Benner, A. R.
Fobes, F. H.

The fictitious, highly literary Letters of Alciphron (second century CE) are mostly to invented characters. The Letters of Farmers by Aelian (c. 170&ndash235 CE) portray the country ways of their imagined writers. The Erotic Epistles of Philostratus (perhaps born c. 170 CE) resemble and may have been influenced by those of Alciphron.

Diodorus Siculus
Oldfather, C. H.

Diodorus&rsquos Library of History, written in the first century BCE, is the most extensively preserved history by an ancient Greek author. The work is in three parts: mythical history to the Trojan War history to Alexander&rsquos death (323 BCE) and history to 54 BCE. Books 1&ndash5 and 11&ndash20 survive complete, the rest in fragments.

Dio Chrysostom
Crosby, H. Lamar

Dio Chrysostomus (c. 40&ndashc. 120 CE) was a rhetorician hostile to philosophers, whose Discourses (or Orations) reflect political or moral concerns. What survives of his works make him prominent in the revival of Greek literature in the late first and early second century CE.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

Prudentius (born 348 CE) used allegory and classical Latin verse forms in service of Christianity. His works include the Psychomachia, an allegorical description of the struggle between Christian virtues and pagan vices lyric poetry and inscriptions for biblical scenes on a church&rsquos walls&mdasha valuable source on Christian iconography.

Dionysius of Halicarnassus
Cary, Earnest

The main aim of Dionysius of Halicarnassus&rsquos Roman Antiquities, which began to appear in 7 BCE, was to reconcile Greeks to Roman rule. Of the twenty books (from the earliest times to 264 BCE) we have the first nine complete most of 10 and 11 extracts and an epitome of the whole.

Diodorus Siculus
Sherman, Charles L.

Diodorus&rsquos Library of History, written in the first century BCE, is the most extensively preserved history by an ancient Greek author. The work is in three parts: mythical history to the Trojan War history to Alexander&rsquos death (323 BCE) and history to 54 BCE. Books 1&ndash5 and 11&ndash20 survive complete, the rest in fragments.

Diodorus Siculus
Geer, Russel M.

Diodorus&rsquos Library of History, written in the first century BCE, is the most extensively preserved history by an ancient Greek author. The work is in three parts: mythical history to the Trojan War history to Alexander&rsquos death (323 BCE) and history to 54 BCE. Books 1&ndash5 and 11&ndash20 survive complete, the rest in fragments.

Aristotle
Tredennick, Hugh
Forster, E. S.

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384&ndash322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical logical physical metaphysical on art other or fragments.

Pliny the Elder (23&ndash79 CE) produced in his Natural History a vast compendium of Roman knowledge. Topics included are the mathematics and metrology of the universe world geography and ethnography human anthropology and physiology zoology botany, agriculture, and horticulture medicine minerals, fine arts, and gemstones.

Pliny the Elder (23&ndash79 CE) produced in his Natural History a vast compendium of Roman knowledge. Topics included are the mathematics and metrology of the universe world geography and ethnography human anthropology and physiology zoology botany, agriculture, and horticulture medicine minerals, fine arts, and gemstones.

Pliny the Elder (23&ndash79 CE) produced in his Natural History a vast compendium of Roman knowledge. Topics included are the mathematics and metrology of the universe world geography and ethnography human anthropology and physiology zoology botany, agriculture, and horticulture medicine minerals, fine arts, and gemstones.

Burtt, J. O.
Lycurgus
Dinarchus
Demades
Hyperides

Fourth century BCE orators were involved in Athenian resistance to Philip of Macedon. Lycurgus was with Demosthenes in the anti-Macedonian faction. Hyperides was also hostile to Philip and led Athenian patriots after 325 BCE. But Dinarchus favored an oligarchy under Macedonian control and Demades supported the Macedonian cause too.

Livy
Schlesinger, Alfred Cary

The only extant work by Livy (64 or 59 BCE &ndash12 or 17 CE) is part of his history of Rome from the foundation of the city to 9 BCE. Of its 142 books 1&ndash10, 21&ndash45 (except parts of 41 and 43&ndash45), fragments, and short summaries remain. Livy&rsquos history is a source for the De Prodigiis of Julius Obsequens (fourth century CE).

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384&ndash322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical logical physical metaphysical on art other or fragments.

Prudentius (born 348 CE) used allegory and classical Latin verse forms in service of Christianity. His works include the Psychomachia, an allegorical description of the struggle between Christian virtues and pagan vices lyric poetry and inscriptions for biblical scenes on a church&rsquos walls&mdasha valuable source on Christian iconography.

Diodorus Siculus
Oldfather, C. H.

Diodorus&rsquos Library of History, written in the first century BCE, is the most extensively preserved history by an ancient Greek author. The work is in three parts: mythical history to the Trojan War history to Alexander&rsquos death (323 BCE) and history to 54 BCE. Books 1&ndash5 and 11&ndash20 survive complete, the rest in fragments.

Aristotle
Forster, E. S.
Furley, D. J.

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384&ndash322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical logical physical metaphysical on art other or fragments.

The philosopher Philo, born about 20 BCE to a prominent Jewish family in Alexandria, was trained in Greek as well as Jewish learning. In attempting to reconcile biblical teachings with Greek philosophy he developed ideas that had wide influence on Christian and Jewish religious thought.

Aulus Hirtius, friend of and military subordinate to Caesar (100&ndash44 BCE), may have written the Alexandrian War. African War and Spanish War are detailed accounts clearly by officers who had shared in the campaigns. All three works provide important information on Caesar&rsquos career.

The Rhetorica ad Herrenium was traditionally attributed to Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE), and reflects, as does Cicero&rsquos De Inventione, Hellenistic rhetorical teaching. But most recent editors attribute it to an unknown author.

Livy
Schlesinger, Alfred Cary
Julius Obsequens

The only extant work by Livy (64 or 59 BCE &ndash12 or 17 CE) is part of his history of Rome from the foundation of the city to 9 BCE. Of its 142 books 1&ndash10, 21&ndash45 (except parts of 41 and 43&ndash45), fragments, and short summaries remain. Livy&rsquos history is a source for the De Prodigiis of Julius Obsequens (fourth century CE).

Plutarch
De Lacy, Phillip H.
Einarson, Benedict

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

Plutarch
Cherniss, Harold
Helmbold, W. C.

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

Columella
Forster, E. S.
Heffner, Edward H.

Columella (first century CE) included Cato and Varro among many sources for On Agriculture, but his personal experience was paramount. Written in prose except for the hexameters on horticulture of Book 10, the work is richly informative about country life in first century CE Italy.

Columella
Forster, E. S.
Heffner, Edward H.

Columella (first century CE) included Cato and Varro among many sources for On Agriculture, but his personal experience was paramount. Written in prose except for the hexameters on horticulture of Book 10, the work is richly informative about country life in first century CE Italy.

Diodorus Siculus
Walton, Francis R.

Diodorus&rsquos Library of History, written in the first century BCE, is the most extensively preserved history by an ancient Greek author. The work is in three parts: mythical history to the Trojan War history to Alexander&rsquos death (323 BCE) and history to 54 BCE. Books 1&ndash5 and 11&ndash20 survive complete, the rest in fragments.

Josephus
Marcus, Ralph
Wikgren, Allen

The major works of Josephus (c. 37&ndashafter 97 CE) are History of the Jewish War, from 170 BCE to his own time, and Jewish Antiquities, from creation to 66 CE. Also by him are an autobiographical Life and a treatise Against Apion.

Augustine
McCracken, George E.

City of God by Augustine (354&ndash430 CE) unfolds God&rsquos action in the progress of the world&rsquos history, and propounds the superiority of Christian beliefs over pagan in adversity.

Augustine
Green, William M.

City of God by Augustine (354&ndash430 CE) unfolds God&rsquos action in the progress of the world&rsquos history, and propounds the superiority of Christian beliefs over pagan in adversity.

City of God by Augustine (354&ndash430 CE) unfolds God&rsquos action in the progress of the world&rsquos history, and propounds the superiority of Christian beliefs over pagan in adversity.

City of God by Augustine (354&ndash430 CE) unfolds God&rsquos action in the progress of the world&rsquos history, and propounds the superiority of Christian beliefs over pagan in adversity.

Augustine
Sanford, Eva M.
Green, William M.

City of God by Augustine (354&ndash430 CE) unfolds God&rsquos action in the progress of the world&rsquos history, and propounds the superiority of Christian beliefs over pagan in adversity.

Augustine
Greene, William Chase

City of God by Augustine (354&ndash430 CE) unfolds God&rsquos action in the progress of the world&rsquos history, and propounds the superiority of Christian beliefs over pagan in adversity.

Augustine
Green, William M.

City of God by Augustine (354&ndash430 CE) unfolds God&rsquos action in the progress of the world&rsquos history, and propounds the superiority of Christian beliefs over pagan in adversity.

Pliny the Elder (23&ndash79 CE) produced in his Natural History a vast compendium of Roman knowledge. Topics included are the mathematics and metrology of the universe world geography and ethnography human anthropology and physiology zoology botany, agriculture, and horticulture medicine minerals, fine arts, and gemstones.

Pliny the Elder (23&ndash79 CE) produced in his Natural History a vast compendium of Roman knowledge. Topics included are the mathematics and metrology of the universe world geography and ethnography human anthropology and physiology zoology botany, agriculture, and horticulture medicine minerals, fine arts, and gemstones.

Extant works by Sidonius (born c. 430 CE) are three long panegyrics in verse, poems addressed to or concerned with friends, and nine books of letters.

Callimachus
Musaeus
Trypanis, C. A.
Gelzer, T.
Whitman, Cedric H.

Fragments by Callimachus (third century BCE) include those from the Aetia, Greek aetiological stories a book of Iambi and the epic poem Hecale. Hero and Leander by Musaeus (fifth or sixth century CE) is a short epic poem.

Diodorus Siculus
Welles, C. Bradford

Diodorus&rsquos Library of History, written in the first century BCE, is the most extensively preserved history by an ancient Greek author. The work is in three parts: mythical history to the Trojan War history to Alexander&rsquos death (323 BCE) and history to 54 BCE. Books 1&ndash5 and 11&ndash20 survive complete, the rest in fragments.

Diodorus Siculus
Walton, Francis R.

Diodorus&rsquos Library of History, written in the first century BCE, is the most extensively preserved history by an ancient Greek author. The work is in three parts: mythical history to the Trojan War history to Alexander&rsquos death (323 BCE) and history to 54 BCE. Books 1&ndash5 and 11&ndash20 survive complete, the rest in fragments.

Plutarch
Clement, P. A.
Hoffleit, H. B.

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

Plutarch
Minar, Edwin L.
Sandbach, F. H.
Helmbold, W. C.

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

Plutarch
Pearson, Lionel
Sandbach, F. H.

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

Plutarch
Einarson, Benedict
De Lacy, Phillip H.

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

Lucian (c. 120&ndash190 CE), apprentice sculptor then travelling rhetorician, settled in Athens and developed an original brand of satire. Notable for the Attic purity and elegance of his Greek and for literary versatility, he is famous chiefly for the lively, cynical wit of the dialogues in which he satirizes human folly, superstition, and hypocrisy.

Lucian (c. 120&ndash190 CE), apprentice sculptor then travelling rhetorician, settled in Athens and developed an original brand of satire. Notable for the Attic purity and elegance of his Greek and for literary versatility, he is famous chiefly for the lively, cynical wit of the dialogues in which he satirizes human folly, superstition, and hypocrisy.

Lucian (c. 120&ndash190 CE), apprentice sculptor then traveling rhetorician, settled in Athens and developed an original brand of satire. Notable for the Attic purity and elegance of his Greek and for literary versatility, he is famous chiefly for the lively, cynical wit of the dialogues in which he satirizes human folly, superstition, and hypocrisy.

The major works of Josephus (c. 37&ndashafter 97 CE) are History of the Jewish War, from 170 BCE to his own time, and Jewish Antiquities, from creation to 66 CE. Also by him are an autobiographical Life and a treatise Against Apion.

Duff, J. Wight
Duff, Arnold M.
Avianus
Hadrian
Florus
Nemesianus
Reposianus
Tiberianus
Phoenix
Rutilius Namatianus

Works such as those of the mime-writer Publilius Syrus, who flourished c. 45 BCE, and Rutilius Namatianus, who gave a graphic account of his voyage from Rome to Gaul in 416 CE, represent the wide variety of theme that lends interest to Latin poetry produced during a period of four and a half centuries.

In Tetrabiblos, a core text in the history of astrology, the preeminent ancient astronomer Ptolemy (c. 100&ndash178 CE) treats the practical use of astronomical knowledge: making predictions about individuals&rsquo lives and the outcome of human affairs.

Babrius
Phaedrus
Perry, Ben Edwin

Babrius&rsquos humorous and pointed fables in Greek verse probably date from the first century CE. From the same period come the lively fables in Latin verse written by Phaedrus, which satirize social and political life in Augustan Rome.

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384&ndash322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical logical physical metaphysical on art other or fragments.

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384&ndash322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical logical physical metaphysical on art other or fragments.

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384&ndash322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical logical physical metaphysical on art other or fragments.

Plotinus (204/5&ndash270 CE) was the first and greatest of Neoplatonic philosophers. His writings were edited by his disciple Porphyry, who published them sometime between 301 and 305 CE in six sets of nine treatises each (Enneads), with a biography of his master in which he also explains his editorial principles.

Plotinus (204/5&ndash270 CE) was the first and greatest of Neoplatonic philosophers. His writings were edited by his disciple Porphyry, who published them sometime between 301 and 305 CE in six sets of nine treatises each (Enneads), with a biography of his master in which he also explains his editorial principles.

Plotinus (204/5&ndash270 CE) was the first and greatest of Neoplatonic philosophers. His writings were edited by his disciple Porphyry, who published them sometime between 301 and 305 CE in six sets of nine treatises each (Enneads), with a biography of his master in which he also explains his editorial principles.

Plotinus (204/5&ndash270 CE) was the first and greatest of Neoplatonic philosophers. His writings were edited by his disciple Porphyry, who published them sometime between 301 and 305 CE in six sets of nine treatises each (Enneads), with a biography of his master in which he also explains his editorial principles.

Plotinus (204/5&ndash270 CE) was the first and greatest of Neoplatonic philosophers. His writings were edited by his disciple Porphyry, who published them sometime between 301 and 305 CE in six sets of nine treatises each (Enneads), with a biography of his master in which he also explains his editorial principles.

Plotinus (204/5&ndash270 CE) was the first and greatest of Neoplatonic philosophers. His writings were edited by his disciple Porphyry, who published them sometime between 301 and 305 CE in six sets of nine treatises each (Enneads), with a biography of his master in which he also explains his editorial principles.

In On the Characteristics of Animals, Aelian (c. 170&ndashafter 230 CE) collects facts and fables about the animal kingdom and invites the reader to ponder contrasts between human and animal behavior.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

In On the Characteristics of Animals, Aelian (c. 170&ndashafter 230 CE) collects facts and fables about the animal kingdom and invites the reader to ponder contrasts between human and animal behavior.

In On the Characteristics of Animals, Aelian (c. 170&ndashafter 230 CE) collects facts and fables about the animal kingdom and invites the reader to ponder contrasts between human and animal behavior.

Seneca (c. 4&ndash65 CE) devotes most of Naturales Quaestiones to celestial phenomena. In Book 1 he discusses fires in the atmosphere in 2, lightning and thunder in 3, bodies of water. Seneca&rsquos method is to survey the theories of major authorities on the subject at hand, so his work is a guide to Greek and Roman thinking about the heavens.

Libanius (314&ndash393 CE), who was one of the last great publicists and teachers of Greek paganism, has much to tell us about the tumultuous world of the fourth century CE. His works include Orations, the first of which is an autobiography, and Letters.

Libanius (314&ndash393 CE), who was one of the last great publicists and teachers of Greek paganism, has much to tell us about the tumultuous world of the fourth century CE. His works include Orations, the first of which is an autobiography, and Letters.

The Metamorphoses (The Golden Ass) of Apuleius (born c. 125 CE) is a romance combining realism and magic. Lucius wants the sensations of a bird, but by pharmaceutical accident becomes an ass. The bulk of the novel recounts his adventures as an animal, but Lucius also recounts many stories he overhears, including that of Cupid and Psyche.

The History of Herodian (born c. 178&ndash179 CE) is one of the few literary historical sources for the period of the Roman empire from the death of the emperor Marcus Aurelius (180 CE) to the accession of Gordian III (238), a period in which we can see turbulence and the onset of revolution.

The History of Herodian (born c. 178&ndash179 CE) is one of the few literary historical sources for the period of the Roman empire from the death of the emperor Marcus Aurelius (180 CE) to the accession of Gordian III (238), a period in which we can see turbulence and the onset of revolution.

The major works of Josephus (c. 37&ndashafter 97 CE) are History of the Jewish War, from 170 BCE to his own time, and Jewish Antiquities, from creation to 66 CE. Also by him are an autobiographical Life and a treatise Against Apion.

Seneca (c. 4&ndash65 CE) devotes most of Naturales Quaestiones to celestial phenomena. In Book 1 he discusses fires in the atmosphere in 2, lightning and thunder in 3, bodies of water. Seneca&rsquos method is to survey the theories of major authorities on the subject at hand, so his work is a guide to Greek and Roman thinking about the heavens.

Philostratus
Jones, Christopher P.

In his Life of Apollonius, Philostratus (second to third century CE) portrays a first-century CE teacher, religious reformer, and perceived rival to Jesus. Apollonius&rsquos letters, ancient reports about him, and a letter by Eusebius (fourth century CE) that is now central to the history of Philostratus&rsquos work add to the portrait.

Menander
Arnott, William Geoffrey

Menander (?344/3&ndash292/1 BCE), the dominant figure in New Comedy, wrote over 100 plays, of which one complete play, substantial portions of six others, and smaller but interesting fragments have been recovered. The complete play, Dyskolos (The Peevish Fellow), won first prize in Athens in 317 BCE.

Menander
Arnott, William Geoffrey

Menander (?344/3&ndash292/1 BCE), the dominant figure in New Comedy, wrote over 100 plays, of which one complete play, substantial portions of six others, and smaller but interesting fragments have been recovered. The complete play, Dyskolos (The Peevish Fellow), won first prize in Athens in 317 BCE.

Bacchylides
Corinna
Campbell, David A.

Bacchylides wrote masterful choral poetry of many types. Other fifth-century BCE lyricists included: Myrtis, Telesilla of Argos, Timocreon of Rhodes, Charixena, Diagoras of Melos, Ion of Chios, and Praxilla of Sicyon. More of Boeotian Corinna&rsquos (third-century BCE?) poetry survives than that of any other Greek woman poet except Sappho.

Cicero
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

The correspondence of Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE) with his brother, Quintus, and with Brutus is a window onto their world. Two invective speeches linked with Cicero are probably anonymous exercises. The Letter to Octavian likely dates from the third or fourth century CE. The Handbook of Electioneering was said to be written by Quintus to Cicero.

Seneca the Elder
Winterbottom, Michael

Seneca the Elder (?55 BCE&ndash40 CE) collected ten books devoted to controversiae (some only preserved in excerpt) and at least one (surviving) of suasoriae. Extracts from famous declaimers of Seneca&rsquos illuminate influences on the styles of most pagan (and many Christian) writers of the Empire.

Seneca the Elder
Winterbottom, Michael

Seneca the Elder (?55 BCE&ndash40 CE) collected ten books devoted to controversiae (some only preserved in excerpt) and at least one (surviving) of suasoriae. Extracts from famous declaimers of Seneca&rsquos illuminate influences on the styles of most pagan (and many Christian) writers of the Empire.

Dionysius of Halicarnassus
Usher, Stephen

Dionysius of Halicarnassus, born c. 60 BCE, aimed in his critical essays to reassert the primacy of Greek as the literary language of the Mediterranean world. They constitute an important development from the somewhat mechanical techniques of rhetorical handbooks to more sensitive criticism of individual authors.

Dionysius of Halicarnassus
Usher, Stephen

Dionysius of Halicarnassus, born c. 60 BCE, aimed in his critical essays to reassert the primacy of Greek as the literary language of the Mediterranean world. They constitute an important development from the somewhat mechanical techniques of rhetorical handbooks to more sensitive criticism of individual authors.

Cornelius Nepos
Rolfe, J. C.

Cornelius Nepos (c. 99&ndashc. 24 BCE) is the earliest biographer in Latin whose work we have. Extant are parts of his De Viris Illustribus, including biographies of mostly Greek military commanders and of two Latin historians, Cato and Atticus.

Plotinus (204/5&ndash270 CE) was the first and greatest of Neoplatonic philosophers. His writings were edited by his disciple Porphyry, who published them sometime between 301 and 305 CE in six sets of nine treatises each (Enneads), with a biography of his master in which he also explains his editorial principles.

In Astronomica (first century CE), the earliest extant treatise we have on astrology, Manilius provides an account of celestial phenomena and the signs of the Zodiac. He also gives witty character sketches of persons born under particular constellations.

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

Theophrastus
Einarson, Benedict
Link, George K. K.

Enquiry into Plants and De Causis Plantarum by Theophrastus (c. 370&ndashc. 285 BCE) are a counterpart to Aristotle&rsquos zoological work and the most important botanical work of antiquity now extant. In the latter, Theophrastus turns to plant physiology. Books 1 and 2 are concerned with generation, sprouting, flowering and fruiting, and the effects of climate.

Of the roughly seventy treatises in the Hippocratic Collection, many are not by Hippocrates (said to have been born in Cos in or before 460 BCE), but they are essential sources of information about the practice of medicine in antiquity and about Greek theories concerning the human body, and he was undeniably the &ldquoFather of Medicine.&rdquo

Of the roughly seventy treatises in the Hippocratic Collection, many are not by Hippocrates (said to have been born in Cos in or before 460 BCE), but they are essential sources of information about the practice of medicine in antiquity and about Greek theories concerning the human body, and he was undeniably the &ldquoFather of Medicine.&rdquo

Theophrastus
Einarson, Benedict
Link, George K. K.

Enquiry into Plants and De Causis Plantarum by Theophrastus (c. 370&ndashc. 285 BCE) are a counterpart to Aristotle&rsquos zoological work and the most important botanical work of antiquity now extant. In the latter, Theophrastus turns to plant physiology. In Books 3 and 4, Theophrastus studies cultivation and agricultural methods.

Theophrastus
Einarson, Benedict
Link, George K. K.

Enquiry into Plants and De Causis Plantarum by Theophrastus (c. 370&ndashc. 285 BCE) are a counterpart to Aristotle&rsquos zoological work and the most important botanical work of antiquity now extant. In the latter, Theophrastus turns to plant physiology. In Books 5 and 6, he discusses plant breeding diseases and other causes of death and distinctive flavours and odours.

Stesichorus
Ibycus
Simonides
Campbell, David A.

The most important poets writing in Greek in the sixth century BCE came from Sicily and southern Italy. They included Stesichorus, Ibycus, and Simonides, as well as Arion, Lasus, and Pratinas.

Hippocrates
Smith, Wesley D.

Of the roughly seventy treatises in the Hippocratic Collection, many are not by Hippocrates (said to have been born in Cos in or before 460 BCE), but they are essential sources of information about the practice of medicine in antiquity and about Greek theories concerning the human body, and he was undeniably the &ldquoFather of Medicine.&rdquo

Libanius (314&ndash393 CE), who was one of the last great publicists and teachers of Greek paganism, has much to tell us about the tumultuous world of the fourth century CE. His works include Orations, the first of which is an autobiography, and Letters.

Libanius (314&ndash393 CE), who was one of the last great publicists and teachers of Greek paganism, has much to tell us about the tumultuous world of the fourth century CE. His works include Orations, the first of which is an autobiography, and Letters.

Martial
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

In his epigrams, Martial (c. 40&ndashc. 103 CE) is a keen, sharp-tongued observer of Roman scenes and events, including the new Colosseum, country life, a debauchee&rsquos banquet, and the eruption of Vesuvius. His poems are sometimes obscene, in the tradition of the genre, sometimes affectionate or amusing, and always pointed.

Chariton&rsquos Callirhoe, subtitled &ldquoLove Story in Syracuse,&rdquo is a fast-paced historical romance of the first century CE and the oldest extant novel.

Of the roughly seventy treatises in the Hippocratic Collection, many are not by Hippocrates (said to have been born in Cos in or before 460 BCE), but they are essential sources of information about the practice of medicine in antiquity and about Greek theories concerning the human body, and he was undeniably the &ldquoFather of Medicine.&rdquo

Sophocles
Lloyd-Jones, Hugh

Sophocles (497/6&ndash406 BCE), considered one of the world&rsquos greatest poets, forged tragedy from the heroic excess of myth and legend. Seven complete plays are extant, including Oedipus Tyrannus, Ajax, Antigone, and Philoctetes. Among many fragments that also survive is a substantial portion of the satyr drama The Searchers.

Euripides (c. 485&ndash406 BCE) has been prized in every age for his emotional and intellectual drama. Eighteen of his ninety or so plays survive complete, including Medea, Hippolytus, and Bacchae, one of the great masterpieces of the tragic genre. Fragments of his lost plays also survive.

Pindar (c. 518&ndash438 BCE), highly esteemed as lyric poet by the ancients, commemorates in complex verse the achievements of athletes and powerful rulers at the four great Panhellenic festivals&mdashthe Olympic, Pythian, Nemean, and Isthmian games&mdashagainst a backdrop of divine favor, human failure, heroic legend, and aristocratic Greek ethos.

Aelian&rsquos Historical Miscellany (Varia Historia) is a pleasurable example of light reading for Romans of the early third century. Offering engaging anecdotes about historical figures, retellings of legendary events, and enjoyable descriptive pieces, Aelian&rsquos collection of nuggets and narratives appealed to a wide reading public.

Josephus
Thackeray, H. St. J.

The major works of Josephus (c. 37&ndashafter 97 CE) are History of the Jewish War, from 170 BCE to his own time, and Jewish Antiquities, from creation to 66 CE. Also by him are an autobiographical Life and a treatise Against Apion.

Aristophanes
Henderson, Jeffrey

Aristophanes (c. 450&ndashc. 386 BCE) has been admired since antiquity for his wit, fantasy, language, and satire. Socrates&rsquos &ldquoThinkery&rdquo is at the center of Clouds, which spoofs untraditional techniques for educating young men. Wasps satirizes Athenian enthusiasm for jury service. Peace is a rollicking attack on war-makers.

Josephus
Marcus, Ralph
Wikgren, Allen

The major works of Josephus (c. 37&ndashafter 97 CE) are History of the Jewish War, from 170 BCE to his own time, and Jewish Antiquities, from creation to 66 CE. Also by him are an autobiographical Life and a treatise Against Apion.

Josephus
Thackeray, H. St. J.
Marcus, Ralph

The major works of Josephus (c. 37&ndashafter 97 CE) are History of the Jewish War, from 170 BCE to his own time, and Jewish Antiquities, from creation to 66 CE. Also by him are an autobiographical Life and a treatise Against Apion.

Cicero
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

In letters to his friend Atticus, Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE) reveals himself as to no other of his correspondents except, perhaps, his brother, and vividly depicts a momentous period in Roman history, marked by the rise of Julius Caesar and the downfall of the Republic.

Valerius Maximus
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

Valerius Maximus compiled his handbook of notable deeds and sayings in the reign of Tiberius (14&ndash37 CE). Valerius&rsquos professedly practical work contains a clear moral element and is informative about first-century CE Roman attitudes toward religion and morality.

Valerius Maximus
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

Valerius Maximus compiled his handbook of notable deeds and sayings in the reign of Tiberius (14&ndash37 CE). Valerius&rsquos professedly practical work contains a clear moral element and is informative about first-century CE Roman attitudes toward religion and morality.

Quintilian
Russell, Donald A.

Quintilian, born in Spain about 35 CE, became a renowned and successful teacher of rhetoric in Rome. In The Orator&rsquos Education (Institutio Oratoria), a comprehensive training program in twelve books, he draws on his own rich experience. It provides not only insights on oratory, but also a picture of Roman education and social attitudes.

Euripides (c. 485&ndash406 BCE) has been prized in every age for his emotional and intellectual drama. Eighteen of his ninety or so plays survive complete, including Medea, Hippolytus, and Bacchae, one of the great masterpieces of the tragic genre. Fragments of his lost plays also survive.

The earliest poems extant under the title Homeric Hymns date from the seventh century BCE. Comic poems in the Homeric Apocrypha include the Battle of Frogs and Mice (probably not earlier than first century CE). Lives of Homer include a version of The Contest of Homer and Hesiod that dates from the second century BCE.

Heroic epic of the eighth to the fifth century BCE includes poems about Hercules and Theseus, as well as the Theban Cycle and the Trojan Cycle. Genealogical epic of that archaic era includes poems that create prehistories for Corinth and Samos. These works are an important source of mythological record.

Statius
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

Greek literary education and Roman political reality are evident in the poetry of Statius (c. 50&ndash96 CE). His Silvae are thirty-two occasional poems. His masterpiece, the epic Thebaid, recounts the struggle for kingship between the two sons of Oedipus. The extant portion of his Achilleid begins an account of Achilles&rsquos life.

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

Quintilian
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

The Lesser Declamations perhaps date from the second century CE and are perhaps derived from Quintilian. The collection originally consisted of 388 sample cases for legal training. 145 survive. Comments and suggestions the instructor adds to his model speeches for fictitious court cases offer insight into Roman law and education.

Quintilian
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

The Lesser Declamations perhaps date from the second century CE and are perhaps derived from Quintilian. The collection originally consisted of 388 sample cases for legal training. 145 survive. Comments and suggestions the instructor adds to his model speeches for fictitious court cases offer insight into Roman law and education.

Aristophanes
Henderson, Jeffrey

Aristophanes (c. 450&ndashc. 386 BCE) has been admired since antiquity for his wit, fantasy, language, and satire. Over forty of his plays were read in antiquity, from which nearly a thousand fragments survive. These provide a fuller picture of the poet&rsquos comic vitality and a wealth of information and insights about his world.

Though attributed to Hesiod (eighth or seventh century BC) in antiquity, the Catalogue of Women, a presentation of legendary Greek heroes and episodes according to maternal genealogy The Shield, a counterpoint to the Iliadic shield of Achilles and certain poems that survive as fragments were likely not composed by Hesiod himself.

Euripides
Collard, Christopher
Cropp, Martin

Euripides (c. 485&ndash406 BCE) has been prized in every age for his emotional and intellectual drama. Eighteen of his ninety or so plays survive complete, including Medea, Hippolytus, and Bacchae, one of the great masterpieces of the tragic genre. Fragments of his lost plays also survive.

Aeschylus
Sommerstein, Alan H.

Aeschylus (c. 525&ndash456 BCE) is the dramatist who made Athenian tragedy one of the world&rsquos great art forms. Seven of his eighty or so plays survive complete, including the Oresteia trilogy and the Persians, the only extant Greek historical drama. Fragments of his lost plays also survive.

Euripides
Collard, Christopher
Cropp, Martin

Euripides (c. 485&ndash406 BCE) has been prized in every age for his emotional and intellectual drama. Eighteen of his ninety or so plays survive complete, including Medea, Hippolytus, and Bacchae, one of the great masterpieces of the tragic genre. Fragments of his lost plays also survive.

Cicero
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

Works by authors such as Philitas of Cos, Alexander of Aetolia, Hermesianax of Colophon, Euphorion of Chalcis and, especially, Parthenius of Nicaea, who composed the mythograpical Sufferings in Love, represent rich inventiveness in Hellenistic prose and poetry from the fourth to the first century BCE.

Of the roughly seventy treatises in the Hippocratic Collection, many are not by Hippocrates (said to have been born in Cos in or before 460 BCE), but they are essential sources of information about the practice of medicine in antiquity and about Greek theories concerning the human body, and he was undeniably the &ldquoFather of Medicine.&rdquo

Macrobius
Kaster, Robert A.

Macrobius&rsquos Saturnalia, an encyclopedic celebration of Roman culture written in the early fifth century CE, has been prized since the Renaissance as a treasure trove of otherwise unattested lore. Cast in the form of a dialogue it treats diverse topics while showcasing Virgil as master of all human knowledge, from diction to religion.

Macrobius
Kaster, Robert A.

Macrobius&rsquos Saturnalia, an encyclopedic celebration of Roman culture written in the early fifth century CE, has been prized since the Renaissance as a treasure trove of otherwise unattested lore. Cast in the form of a dialogue, it treats diverse topics while showcasing Virgil as master of all human knowledge, from diction to religion.

Macrobius
Kaster, Robert A.

Macrobius&rsquos Saturnalia, an encyclopedic celebration of Roman culture written in the early fifth century CE, has been prized since the Renaissance as a treasure trove of otherwise unattested lore. Cast in the form of a dialogue, it treats diverse topics while showcasing Virgil as master of all human knowledge, from diction to religion.

The era of Old Comedy (c. 485&ndashc. 380 BCE), when theatrical comedy was created and established, is best known through the extant plays of Aristophanes. But the work of many other poets, including Cratinus and Eupolis, the other members, with Aristophanes, of the canonical Old Comic Triad, survives in fragments.

The era of Old Comedy (c. 485&ndashc. 380 BCE), when theatrical comedy was created and established, is best known through the extant plays of Aristophanes. But the work of many other poets, including Cratinus and Eupolis, the other members, with Aristophanes, of the canonical Old Comic Triad, survives in fragments.

The era of Old Comedy (c. 485&ndashc. 380 BCE), when theatrical comedy was created and established, is best known through the extant plays of Aristophanes. But the work of many other poets, including Cratinus and Eupolis, the other members, with Aristophanes, of the canonical Old Comic Triad, survives in fragments.

Galen
Johnston, Ian
Horsley, G. H. R.

In Method of Medicine, Galen (129&ndash199 CE) provides a comprehensive and influential account of the principles of treating injury and disease. Enlivening the detailed case studies are many theoretical and polemical discussions, acute social commentary, and personal reflections.

Galen
Johnston, Ian
Horsley, G. H. R.

In Method of Medicine, Galen (129&ndash199 CE) provides a comprehensive and influential account of the principles of treating injury and disease. Enlivening the detailed case studies are many theoretical and polemical discussions, acute social commentary, and personal reflections.

Galen
Johnston, Ian
Horsley, G. H. R.

In Method of Medicine, Galen (129&ndash199 CE) provides a comprehensive and influential account of the principles of treating injury and disease. Enlivening the detailed case studies are many theoretical and polemical discussions, acute social commentary, and personal reflections.

Athenaeus
Olson, S. Douglas

In The Learned Banqueters, Athenaeus describes a series of dinner parties at which the guests quote extensively from Greek literature. The work (which dates to the very end of the second century AD) is amusing reading and of extraordinary value as a treasury of quotations from works now lost.

This volume, the tenth of Hippocrates&rsquo invaluable texts on the practice of medicine in antiquity, provides essential information about human reproduction and reproductive disorders and expounds a general theory of physiology and pathology, in five Greek treatises presented with facing English translation.

Philostratus
Rusten, Jeffrey
König, Jason

Philostratus&rsquos writings embody the height of the renaissance of Greek literature in the second century CE. Heroicus is a vineyard conversation about the beauty, continuing powers, and worship of the Homeric heroes. Gymnasticus is the sole surviving ancient treatise on sports, which reshapes conventional ideas about the athletic body.

The Histories of Sallust (86&ndash35 BCE), while fragmentary, provide invaluable information about a crucial period of history from 78 to around 67 BCE. In this volume, John T. Ramsey has freshly edited the Histories and the two pseudo-Sallustian Letters to Caesar, completing the Loeb Classical Library edition of his works.

In the three works in this volume, On the Constitution of the Art of Medicine, The Art of Medicine, and A Method of Medicine to Glaucon, the physician, philosopher, scientist, and medical historian Galen of Pergamum covers fundamental aspects of his practice in a lucid and engaging style.

Volume I of the nine-volume Loeb edition of Early Greek Philosophy presents the editors&rsquo preface and introductory notes along with essential reference materials including abbreviations, bibliography, concordances, indexes, and glossary.

Volume II of the nine-volume Loeb edition of Early Greek Philosophy presents preliminary chapters on ancient doxography, the cosmological and moral background, and includes the early Ionian thinkers Pherecydes, Thales, Anaximander, and Anaximenes.

Volume III of the nine-volume Loeb edition of Early Greek Philosophy includes the early Ionian thinkers Xenophanes and Heraclitus.

Volume IV of the nine-volume Loeb edition of Early Greek Philosophy presents Pythagoras and the Pythagorean School, including Hippasus, Philolaus, Eurytus, Archytas, Hicetas, and Ecphantus, along with chapters on doctrines not attributed by name and reception.

Volume V of the nine-volume Loeb edition of Early Greek Philosophy includes the western Greek thinkers Parmenides, Zeno, Melissus, Empedocles, Alcmaeon, and Hippo.

Volume VI of the nine-volume Loeb edition of Early Greek Philosophy includes the later Ionian and Athenian thinkers Anaxagoras, Archelaus, and Diogenes of Apollonia, along with chapters on early Greek medicine and the Derveni Papyrus.

Volume VII of the nine-volume Loeb edition of Early Greek Philosophy includes the atomists Leucippus and Democritus.

Volume VIII of the nine-volume Loeb edition of Early Greek Philosophy includes the so-called sophists Protagoras, Gorgias, Prodicus, Thrasymachus, and Hippias, along with testimonia relating to the life, views, and argumentative style of Socrates.

Volume IX of the nine-volume Loeb edition of Early Greek Philosophy includes the so-called sophists Antiphon, Lycophron, and Xeniades, along with the Anonymous of Iamblichus, the Dissoi Logoi, a chapter on characterizations of the &lsquosophists&rsquo as a group, and an appendix on philosophy and philosophers in Greek drama.

Aristides, Aelius
Trapp, Michael

Aelius Aristides (117&ndashafter 180), among the most versatile authors of the Second Sophistic and an important figure in the transmission of Hellenism, produced speeches and lectures, declamations on historical themes, polemical works, prose hymns, and essays on a wide variety of subjects.

Apuleius
Jones, Christopher P.

Apuleius (born ca. 125 AD), one of the great stylists of Latin literature, was a prominent figure in Roman Africa best known for his picaresque novel Metamorphoses or The Golden Ass. This edition, new to the Loeb Classical Library, contains Apuleius&rsquo other surviving works that are considered genuine.

In his treatises Hygiene, Thrasybulus, and On Exercise with a Small Ball, Galen of Pergamum addresses topics of preventive medicine, health, and wellness that continue to resonate with practices of modern doctors and physical therapists.

In his treatises Hygiene, Thrasybulus, and On Exercise with a Small Ball, Galen of Pergamum addresses topics of preventive medicine, health, and wellness that continue to resonate with practices of modern doctors and physical therapists.

Ennius
Goldberg, Sander M.
Manuwald, Gesine

Quintus Ennius (239&ndash169), widely regarded as the father of Roman literature, was instrumental in creating a new Roman literary identity, domesticating the Greek forms of epic and drama, and pursuing a range of other literary and intellectual pursuits. He inspired major developments in Roman religion, social organization, and popular culture.

This eleventh and final volume in the Loeb Classical Library&rsquos complete edition of Hippocrates&rsquo invaluable texts contains Diseases of Women 1 and 2, focusing on reproductive life, the pathological conditions affecting the reproductive organs, and their proper terminology and recommended treatments. A lexicon of therapeutic agents is included.

Rhetor, Menander
Dionysius of Halicarnassus
Race, William H.

The instructional treatises of Menander Rhetor and the Ars Rhetorica, deriving from the schools of rhetoric that flourished in the Greek East from the 2nd through 4th centuries AD, provide a window into the literary culture, educational practices, and social concerns of these Greeks under Roman rule, in both public and private life.

Based on the critical edition of Malcovati, this three-volume Loeb edition of Roman Republican oratory begins with Ap. Claudius Caecus (340&ndash273 BC) and with the exceptions of Cato the Elder and Cicero includes all individuals for whom speech-making is attested and for whose speeches quotations, testimonia, or historiographic recreations survive.

Based on the critical edition of Malcovati, this three-volume Loeb edition of Roman Republican oratory begins with Ap. Claudius Caecus (340&ndash273 BC) and with the exceptions of Cato the Elder and Cicero includes all individuals for whom speech-making is attested and for whose speeches quotations, testimonia, or historiographic recreations survive.

Based on the critical edition of Malcovati, this three-volume Loeb edition of Roman Republican oratory begins with Ap. Claudius Caecus (340&ndash273 BC) and with the exceptions of Cato the Elder and Cicero includes all individuals for whom speech-making is attested and for whose speeches quotations, testimonia, or historiographic recreations survive.

Appian (ca. AD 95&ndash161) is a principal source for the history of the Roman Republic. His theme is the process by which Rome achieved her contemporary prosperity, and his method is to trace in individual books the story of each nation&rsquos wars with Rome up through her own civil wars. This Loeb edition replaces the original (1912&ndash13) by Horace White.

Appian (ca. AD 95&ndash161) is a principal source for the history of the Roman Republic. His theme is the process by which Rome achieved her contemporary prosperity, and his method is to trace in individual books the story of each nation&rsquos wars with Rome up through her own civil wars. This Loeb edition replaces the original (1912&ndash13) by Horace White.

Aristides, Aelius
Trapp, Michael

Aelius Aristides (117&ndashafter 180), among the most versatile authors of the Second Sophistic and an important figure in the transmission of Hellenism, produced speeches and lectures, declamations on historical themes, polemical works, prose hymns, and essays on a wide variety of subjects.

In On Temperaments, Galen of Pergamum sets out his concept of the combination of the four elemental qualities (hot, cold, wet, and dry), which is fundamental to his account of the structure and function of human, animal, and plant bodies. Two related works explore disturbances in this combination and their consequences.

Quintilian
Stramaglia, Antonio
Winterbottom, Michael

The Major Declamations, attributed to Quintilian in antiquity, exemplify the final stage of Greco-Roman rhetorical training, in which students delivered speeches for the prosecution and defense at imaginary trials. A wide variety of fascinating ethical, social, and legal details animate the fictional world conjured up by these oratorical exercises.

Quintilian
Stramaglia, Antonio
Winterbottom, Michael

The Major Declamations, attributed to Quintilian in antiquity, exemplify the final stage of Greco-Roman rhetorical training, in which students delivered speeches for the prosecution and defense at imaginary trials. A wide variety of fascinating ethical, social, and legal details animate the fictional world conjured up by these oratorical exercises.

Quintilian
Stramaglia, Antonio
Winterbottom, Michael

The Major Declamations, attributed to Quintilian in antiquity, exemplify the final stage of Greco-Roman rhetorical training, in which students delivered speeches for the prosecution and defense at imaginary trials. A wide variety of fascinating ethical, social, and legal details animate the fictional world conjured up by these oratorical exercises.


Leadership at DOC

Vincent Schiraldi was named Commissioner effective June 1, 2021. He has decades of experience in government, direct services, and public policy. Commissioner Schiraldi most recently served as a Senior Research Scientist at the Columbia School of Social work and co-Director of the Columbia Justice Lab. He was also the founder of the policy think tank, the Justice Policy Institute. In 2014, Mr. Schiraldi served as Senior Advisor in the Mayor&rsquos Office of Criminal Justice, where he was instrumental in implementing Mayor de Blasio&rsquos criminal justice reforms. From 2010-2014, he served as Commissioner of the New York City Department of Probation. From 2005-2010, he served as the Director of Juvenile Corrections in Washington D.C.

Commissioner Schiraldi pioneered efforts at community-based alternatives to incarceration in New York City and Washington DC and has gained a national reputation as a reformer who emphasizes the humane and decent treatment of the men, women, and children under his correctional supervision. A native New Yorker, Commissioner Schiraldi received an MSW from New York University, a Bachelor of Arts from Binghamton University, and is a graduate of Regis High School in New York City.

Heidi Grossman - Deputy Commissioner for Legal Matters/General Counsel

Heidi Grossman was appointed Deputy Commissioner of Legal Matters/General Counsel in 2014. As the Deputy Commissioner and General Counsel, Ms. Grossman is the Chief Legal Officer of the Department of Correction and provides legal advice and counsel to the Commissioner, agency officials, and staff. Before joining the Department, Deputy Commissioner Grossman worked at the New York City Law Department, where she served as Deputy Chief of the Special Federal Litigation Division.

She began her career with the Law Department in 1989, serving in various divisions as an Assistant Corporation Counsel and in various supervisory roles litigating federal and state institutional reform, class-actions, and monetary damage suits. In 2003, Ms. Grossman also became the coordinator for the Law Department's public service program, which sought volunteer legal services from large law firms in order to lessen the burden of the city's caseload. Ms. Grossman received her J.D. from Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law and her B.A. in Political Science from Syracuse University. She is licensed to practice law in the State of New York, and the U.S. District Courts for the Sothern and Eastern Districts of the Second Circuit.

Peter Thorne - Deputy Commissioner of Public Information

Peter Thorne was named Deputy Commissioner of Public Information in September 2014. Before joining the Department, he was Director of Communications for the Office of the New York City Comptroller.

Prior to that, Thorne served as an anchor and reporter for 10 years with WPIX-TV in New York City.

He is the recipient of three Emmy Awards &ndash for best government reporting, best hard-news reporting, and journalistic enterprise, as well as many other press honors from the Associated Press and the New York State Broadcasters Association.

Before WPIX, he was a news anchor and reporter at KCOP-TV in Los Angeles.

He is a graduate of Yale University, with a Bachelor's degree in Political Science

Patricia Feeney - Deputy Commissioner of Quality Assurance and Integrity

Patricia Feeney was appointed Deputy Commissioner of Quality Assurance and Integrity in January 2018. In this role, DC Feeney has continued to ensure that the Department complies with existing city, state, and federal regulations and internal policies. D.C. Feeney assists in the development of policies and procedures, the development of compliance plans, and supervises the peer mentoring program that supports and trains facility staff. D.C. Feeney oversees the units responsible for inspections and audits that support the agency&rsquos compliance program: 1) the Compliance and Safety Center, 2) Compliance Audit Unit, 3) the Emergency Preparedness Unit, 4) the Environmental Health Unit, 5) the Engineering Audit Unit, 6) the Fire Safety Unit, 7) the Office of Policy Compliance, 8) the Policy and Procedures Unit, and 9) the Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) Unit. Compliance with PREA standards, State Commission of Correction regulations, Board of Correction regulations, Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulations, and Health Codes create safe and secure facilities. These compliance programs are essential to supporting the agency&rsquos 14-point violence reduction plan. Prior to her appointment as Deputy Commissioner, Ms. Feeney served as the Assistant Commissioner of Environmental Health. She brings to this new position more than 28 years of NYC Department of Correction experience. D.C. Feeney attended Union College and graduated with a Bachelor of Science in Biology. She is also a Registered Sanitarian in the State of New York.

Maureen Danko - Chief Information Officer/ Deputy Commissioner of Information Technology and Data Analytics and Research

Maureen Danko was appointed Chief Information Officer/Deputy Commissioner of Information Technology of the Department of Correction in December 2015. Ms. Danko oversees all areas of Information Technology (IT) and Data Analytics and Research, including strategic planning, application development, data and systems management, and network and infrastructure.

She joined the Department of Correction as the Director of the IT Project Management Office in October 2011. Before joining the Department, Ms. Danko worked in the airline and hospitality industries. Her broad background in IT includes strategy and business development, project management, telecommunications, database and network-systems management, software and data-applications development, IT business solutions, and IT infrastructure management.

Patricia Lyons - Deputy Commissioner of Financial, Facilities and Fleet Administration

Patricia Lyons was appointed Deputy Commissioner overseeing Financial, Facilities and Fleet Administration in December 2019. Her portfolio includes Budget Management and Planning, Central Office of Procurement, Facility Maintenance and Repair Division, Fleet Maintenance and Operations Unit, and the Central Warehouse Operations Division. Ms. Lyons career in the Department began in January 2013 as the Assistant Commissioner for Financial Management and Budget Administration with subsequent promotion to the Associate Commissioner for Budget Management and Planning in December 2015.

Deputy Commissioner Lyons brings to the Department over 20 years of experience in fiscal and operational management in New York City. She began her career at the Mayor&rsquos Office of Management and Budget (OMB) as an Assistant Budget Analyst in May 1999. Ms. Lyons moved on from her position as a Senior Budget Analyst at OMB in February 2004 to become the Director of the Management and Budget Analysis Section at the New York City Police Department. In September 2008, she assumed the position of PlaNYC Budget Administrator at the New York City Department of Transportation and was promoted to the Deputy Executive Director of Financial Management and Analysis in April 2011.
Ms. Lyons holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in Economics with a minor in Sociology from Queens College of the City University of New York..

Nadene M. Pinnock, Esq. &ndash Deputy Commissioner of Human Resources

Nadene M. Pinnock, Esq. was appointed Deputy Commissioner of Human Resources in May 2016. In this role, Ms. Pinnock is responsible for all agency hiring, payroll, timekeeping, and human resources operations, including the recruitment and processing of the largest recruit classes in the Department&rsquos history.

Her career with the Department began in January 2006 as an Agency Attorney. In October 2009, Ms. Pinnock was appointed Deputy General Counsel where she interpreted laws and judicial decisions and led the implementation of minimum standards of the Department&rsquos oversight bodies including the Board of Correction and the State Commission of Correction.
Before joining the Department, Ms. Pinnock was an Associate at two law firms, Connors & Connors, P.C. and Goldberg & Associates where she was responsible for management and defense of commercial and insurance matters.
Ms. Pinnock is a SHRM Certified Professional. She received her Juris Doctor from George Washington University Law School and her Bachelor&rsquos degree from Binghamton University.

Sarena Townsend - Deputy Commissioner of the Investigation Division

Sarena Townsend was appointed Deputy Commissioner of the Investigation and Trials Division in April 2018. In this role, DC Townsend oversees and manages all facets of Departmental Investigations and Trials.

Prior to this appointment, Ms. Townsend served as the head of the Trials and Litigation Division.
In this role, she oversees both the investigation and prosecution of staff misconduct. Ms. Townsend has 13 years of professional experience in the fields of investigation and criminal prosecution.

She also served as Deputy Bureau Chief at the Kings County District Attorney&rsquos Office, where she supervised trials and successfully prosecuted violent felony cases, with a specialization in sex crimes prosecutions.

In 2006, Ms. Townsend received her Juris Doctor from Fordham University School of Law. She graduated cum laude from New York University in 2003.

Lawrence P. Dail - Deputy Commissioner of Training & Development

Lawrence P. Dail was appointed Deputy Commissioner of Training & Development in September 2018.
In this capacity, Mr. Dail oversees and supports all recruit, in-service, leadership development, and promotional training for the Department&rsquos uniformed and non-uniformed workforce. Prior to his appointment, Mr. Dail served in continuing education roles in higher education institutions where his focus was on the development of work-related skills and competencies to help adults prepare for their next promotion or prepare unemployed men and women to reconnect with the workforce in a meaningful way.

Prior to joining the department, he served as Director of Workplace Learning at the City University of New York, School of Professional Studies (CUNY SPS) where he helped a range of city agencies devise learning strategies to satisfy compliance mandates or deliver impactful professional development sessions and change the culture. He is a Certified Professional in Learning Performance and is presently working on a Doctorate in Adult Learning, & Leadership at Columbia University&rsquos Teachers College where his concentration is on performance management, feedback, and neuroscience. He has a Master&rsquos degree in Business Administration from the University of Phoenix and a Bachelor&rsquos degree in History from McDaniel College.

Hazel Jennings - Chief of Department

Hazel Jennings was appointed Chief of Department in December 2017. Chief Jennings began her career at DOC in 1989, when she was assigned as a Correction Officer at the Robert N. Davoren Center (RNDC). She later served at the Brooklyn Courts.

In 2002, she was promoted to Captain and assigned to the George Motchan Detention Center (GMDC). She later served as a supervisor to the Assistant Chief of Special Operations, Assistant Chief of Facility Operations, and Assistant Chief of Environmental Health. In 2010, she was promoted to Assistant Deputy Warden and was assigned to GMDC. She then was assigned to the Operations Security Intelligence Unit (OSIU) and awarded the Meritorious Service Medal in November 2011.

In 2013, she was promoted to Deputy Warden and assigned to RNDC as the Security Deputy Warden. In August 2014, she was promoted to Warden and assigned to the Special Operations Division (SOD). In February 2015, Chief Jennings was promoted to Assistant Chief of Security and later appointed Bureau Chief of Security in October 2015. In March 2016, she was appointed Bureau Chief of Facility Operations and later appointed Bureau Chief of the Criminal Justice Bureau in October 2016.

Justin Von Bujdoss &ndash Executive Director of Chaplaincy

Justin Von Bujdoss was appointed to the position of Executive Director of Chaplaincy and Staff Wellness in March 2018.

In this capacity, he is responsible for the oversight of all Staff Wellness Initiatives, Staff Chaplains, C.A.R.E. Unit, Ministerial Services, and reports directly to the Office of the Commissioner.

Chaplain Von Bujdoss previously served, since September 2016, as Staff Chaplain. Von Bujdoss is an accomplished multi-faith leader, with extensive experience as a Hospice and Hospital Chaplain, and an emerging leader in the field of Correctional Wellness.

He is a graduate of Antioch College and has completed clinical pastoral education training from the New York Zen center for contemplative care.
Von Bujdoss is an ordained Buddhist priest, and has over 25 years of training within the United States as well as various monasteries throughout India.

Becky Scott &ndash Bureau Chief of Operations

Becky Scott joined the Department in 1991 as a Correction Officer at the Anna M. Kross Center. In 2003, she was promoted to the rank of Captain and assigned to the North Infirmary Command, before being transferred to the Criminal Justice Bureau&rsquos Classification Unit where she served as the General Task Force Supervisor. Chief Scott served at the rank of Assistant Deputy Warden from 2010-2012, during which time she was assigned to posts in the North Infirmary Command, West Facility, and Otis Bantum Correction Center.

In 2012, Chief Scott was appointed to Deputy Warden and oversaw Adolescent Operations within the Robert N. Davoren Center. In 2014, she was promoted to the rank of Deputy Warden in Command, subsequently serving within the Department&rsquos Custody Management Unit, Transportation Division, and the George Motchan Detention Center. Chief Scott was appointed to the rank of Warden in 2015. As Warden, she managed the operations of the Brooklyn Detention Complex, the Eric M. Taylor Center, and the North Infirmary Command. In July 2018, Chief Scott was promoted to Assistant Chief, Division II. In this capacity, she provided crucial support to facilities operations, administration, emergency response operations, population management, and security procedures. Becky Scott was promoted to Bureau Chief in May 2019.

Kenneth Stukes - Bureau Chief of Security

Kenneth Stukes was promoted to Bureau Chief in May 2019. Chief Stukes began his career with the Department in 1987, when he was first assigned to the George Motchan Detention Center (GMDC) as a Correction Officer. Chief Stukes was promoted to the rank of Captain in 1999 and was first assigned to North Infirmary Command (NIC) and later to the Otis Bantum Correctional Center/CPSU Unit (OBCC), where he received numerous awards and unit citations. In 2007, he was promoted to the rank of Assistant Deputy Warden and assigned to the George R. Vierno Center (GRVC).

In 2012, Chief Stukes was promoted to Deputy Warden and was assigned to the Eric M. Taylor Center (EMTC), OBCC and GRVC. In 2013, he was promoted to the rank of Deputy Warden In Command (DWIC) of the Mental Health Center and was promoted to the rank of Warden in 2014 and assigned to OBCC. Chief Stukes was promoted to Assistant Chief of Security in October 2015 and named Assistant Chief, Division III in February 2016.


The Truth About Voter Fraud

Allegations of election-related fraud make for enticing press. Many Americans remember vivid stories of voting improprieties in Chicagoland, or the suspiciously sudden appearance of LBJ's alphabetized ballot box in Texas, or Governor Earl Long's quip: "When I die, I want to be buried in Louisiana, so I can stay active in politics." Voter fraud, in particular, has the feel of a bank heist caper: roundly condemned but technically fascinating, and sufficiently lurid to grab and hold headlines. Perhaps because these stories are dramatic, voter fraud makes a popular scapegoat. In the aftermath of a close election, losing candidates are often quick to blame voter fraud for the results. Legislators cite voter fraud as justification for various new restrictions on the exercise of the franchise. And pundits trot out the same few anecdotes time and again as proof that a wave of fraud is imminent.

Allegations of widespread voter fraud, however, often prove greatly exaggerated. It is easy to grab headlines with a lurid claim ("Tens of thousands may be voting illegally!") the follow-up - when any exists - is not usually deemed newsworthy. Yet on closer examination, many of the claims of voter fraud amount to a great deal of smoke without much fire. The allegations simply do not pan out.


The natural history of the Tineina ..

I. Nepticula. pt. I. Cemiostoma. pt. I. 1855.-II. Lithocolletis. pt. I. 1857.-III. Elachista. pt. I. Tischeria. pt. I. 1858.--IV. Coleophora. pt.I.1859.--v. Coleophora. pt. II. 1860.--VI. Depressaria. Pt. I. 1861.--VII. Bucculatrix. Pt. I and Nepticula. Pt. II. 1862.--VIII. Gracilaria. pt. I. and Ornix. pt. I. 1864.--IX. Gelechia. Pt. I. 1865.--X. Gelechia. pt. II. 1867.--XI. Prays. Swammerdamia. Zelleria. Laverna. Glyphipteryx. Heliozela. Antispila. 1870.--XII. Cosmopteryx. Stathmophoda. Chauliodus. Asychwa. Ocharomolopis. Depressaria. 1870.--XIII. Ochsenheimeria. Phylloporia. Myrmecozela. Incurvaria. Micropterynx. Adela. Nemotois. Psecadia. Phibalocera. Enicostoma. Exaeretia. Ypsoluphus. 1873

Author's autograph presentation copy of volume 2 dated Dec. 4th 1876

Addeddate 2008-05-29 19:09:42 Camera Canon 5D External-identifier urn:oclc:record:1049883637 Foldoutcount 0 Identifier naturalhistoryof07stairich Identifier-ark ark:/13960/t15m69v9c Pages 306 Possible copyright status NOT_IN_COPYRIGHT Ppi 500 Scandate 20080602224833 Scanfactors 52 Scanner scribe5.rich.archive.org Scanningcenter rich Year 1855

Justin II IX-228 - History

I claim no originality for the documentation or recounting of this ghastly crime perpetrated mainly by what Franklin Roosevelt called "our noble Soviet ally." We are indebted to Dr. Austin J. App, a professor and scholar of English literature at Catholic University, the University of Scranton, and LaSalle College, among others, who risked career and livelihood to bring these truths to light. In April, 1946, when he published the work upon which this article is based, entitled Ravishing the Women of Conquered Europe, he was a lone voice crying out for justice in an America still high on war propaganda and on a "victory" that in the later Cold War years and after would be seen clearly as a defeat for America and the West as much as it was for Germany.

As the Red Army advanced toward her in 1945, the city of Berlin had become a city virtually without men. Out of a civilian population of 2,700,000, 2,000,000 were women. It is small wonder that the fear of sexual attack raced through the city like a plague. Doctors were besieged by patients seeking information on the quickest way to commit suicide, and poison was in great demand.

In Berlin stood a charity institution, the Haus Dehlem, an orphanage, maternity hospital, and foundling home. Soviet soldiers entered the home, and repeatedly raped pregnant women and women who had just given birth. This was not an isolated incident. No one will ever know how many women were raped, but doctors' estimates run as high as 100,000 for the city of Berlin alone, their ages ranging from 10 to 70.

On March 24, 1945, our "noble Soviet allies" entered Danzig. A 50-year-old Danzig teacher reported that her niece, 15, was raped seven times, and her other niece, 22, was raped fifteen times. A Soviet officer told a group of women to seek safety in the Cathedral. Once they were securely locked inside, the beasts of Bolshevism entered, and ringing the bells and playing the organ, "celebrated" a foul orgy through the night, raping all the women, some more than thirty times. A Catholic pastor in Danzig declared, "They violated even eight-year-old girls and shot boys who tried to shield their mothers."

The Most Reverend Bernard Griffin, British Archbishop, made a tour of Europe to study conditions there, and reported, "In Vienna alone they raped 100,000 women, not once but many times, including girls not yet in their teens, and aged women."

A Lutheran pastor in Germany, in a letter of August 7, 1945, to the Bishop of Chichester, England, describes how a fellow pastor's "two daughters and a grandchild (ten years of age) suffer from gonorrhea, [as a] result of rape" and how "Mrs. N. was killed when she resisted an attempt to rape her," while her daughter was "raped and deported, allegedly to Omsk, Siberia, for indoctrination."

The day after our noble Soviet allies conquered Neisse, Silesia, 182 Catholic nuns were raped. In the diocese of Kattowitz 66 pregnant nuns were counted. In one convent when the Mother Superior and her assistant tried to protect the younger nuns with outstretched arms, they were shot down. A priest reported in Nord Amerika magazine for November 1, 1945, that he knew "several villages where all the women, even the aged and girls as young as twelve, were violated daily for weeks by the Russians."

Sylvester Michelfelder, a Lutheran pastor, wrote in the Christian Century: "Bands of irresponsible bandits in Russian or American uniforms pillage and rob the trains. Women and girls are violated in sight of everyone. They are stripped of their clothes."

On April 27, 1946 Vatican Radio charged that in the Russian occupation zone of Eastern Germany cries of help are going up "from girls and women who are being brutally raped and whose bodily and spiritual health is completely shaken."

The rapists did not all wear a red star. John Dos Passos, writing in Life magazine for January 7, 1946, quotes a "red-faced major" as saying that "Lust, liquor and loot are the soldier's pay." A serviceman wrote to Time magazine for November 12, 1945 "Many a sane American family would recoil in horror if they knew how 'Our Boys' conduct themselves, with such complete callousness in human relationships over here." An army sergeant wrote "Our own Army and the British Army . have done their share of looting and raping . This offensive attitude among our troops is not at all general, but the percentage is large enough to have given our Army a pretty black name, and we too are considered an army of rapists."

An Italian survivor of American bombing states that Black American troops, stationed in Naples, were allowed by their superiors free access to poor, hungry, and humiliated Italian women. The result of this interracial rape and sexual slavery was the production of a generation of pitiable mixed-race children, a legacy of the brutal conqueror.

According to an AP dispatch of September 12, 1945, entitled "German- American Marriages Forbidden", the Franklin Roosevelt government instructed its soldiers that marriage with the inferior Germans was absolutely forbidden, but those having illegitimate children by German women, whose husbands and boyfriends were conveniently dead or held as prisoners or slave laborers, could count on allowance money. And, according to Time magazine of September 17, 1945, the government provided these soldiers with an estimated 50 million condoms per month, and graphically instructed them as to their use. For all practical purposes, our soldiers were being told: "Teach these Germans a lesson -- and have a wonderful time!" Such were the great crusaders who brought "democracy" to Europe.

For the Americans and British, open rape was not as common as among the Soviet troops. The Soviets simply raped any female from eight years up and if a German man or woman killed a Russian soldier for anything, including rape, 50 Germans were killed for each incident, as reported in Time magazine, June 11, 1945. But for most of our boys, having that "wonderful time" depended a great deal on the "cooperation" of the German and Austrian women. From the starving and the homeless, of course, sexual "cooperation" could be bought for a few pennies or a mouthful of food. I don't think we ought to dignify this arrangement with any other than its true name of sexual slavery.

The Christian Century for December 5, 1945 reported "the American provost marshal, Lieutenant Colonel Gerald F. Beane, said that rape presents no problem for the military police because a bit of food, a bar of chocolate, or a bar of soap seem to make rape unnecessary. Think that over, if you want to understand the situation in Germany." The Weekly Review of London, for October 25, 1945, described it thus: "Young girls, unattached, wander about and freely offer themselves for food or bed . very simply, they have one thing left to sell, and they sell it . as a way of dying it may be worse than starvation, but it will put off dying for months -- or even years."

Dr. George N. Shuster, president of Hunter College, wrote in the Catholic Digest of December 1945 after a visit to the American Zone of occupation, "You have said it all when you say that Europe is now a place where woman has lost her perennial fight for decency because the indecent alone live." By official policy, the Allies created conditions in which the only German mothers who could keep their young children alive were those who themselves or whose sisters became mistresses of the occupying troops. Our own officials admittedly brought the Germans down to a total daily food intake less than that of an American breakfast, a level which leads to slow but sure death unless relieved.

According to testimony given in the United States Senate on July 17, 1945, when the colonial French troops under Eisenhower's command, presumably mostly Africans, entered the German city of Stuttgart, they herded German women into the subways and raped some two thousand of them. In Stuttgart alone, troops under Eisenhower's command raped more women in one week than troops under German command raped in all of France for four entire years. In fact, of all the major belligerents in World War II, the German troops had by far the smallest record of rape and looting. The German army's incidence of rape in all of Germany's occupied territories was even lower than that of American troops stationed on American soil!

According to the International News Service in London, January 31, 1946, when American soldier's wives were brought to Germany, they were given special authorization to wear military uniforms because "the GIs did not want their wives mistaken for Fraeuleins by other occupation troops." A writer for the New York World Telegram January 21, 1945 stated "Americans look on the German women as loot, just like cameras and Lugers." Dr. G. Stewart, in a health statement submitted to General Eisenhower, reported that in the first six months of American occupation, venereal disease jumped to twenty times its former level in Germany.

I want you imagine an orgy of rape like this happening in your country, in your neighborhood, to your family, to your wife, your sister, your daughter. I want you to imagine what it would feel like to be totally powerless to stop it from happening, completely unable to bring the criminals to justice. And I want to ask you, were there ever any "war crimes" or "hate crimes" trials of these butchers and rapists and inciters to butchery and rape? We in America are very good at raining "smart bombs" on our adversaries, and in violently enforcing the dictates of the United Nations on faraway peoples that our press have vilified. But we have really been very insulated from the horrors of mass warfare on our own territory.

Few today remember that in the 1940s, the Allies, who even then were calling their world-government-in-the-making the "United Nations," were pursuing a policy of unconditional surrender, which meant that the Germans would be obligated to accept an occupation government whose announced intentions, the infamous and genocidal Morgenthau Plan, would have reduced Germany to medieval conditions and cut her population by enforced starvation. Go to a large library and check out Secretary Morgenthau's book, Germany Is Our Problem, Harper and Brothers, 1945. You will note the use of the term "United Nations" on the front flyleaf and in the foreword by Franklin D. Roosevelt. A prominent Jewish writer in America, Theodore Kaufman, had in 1941 written a book entitled Germany Must Perish, which advocated the extermination of all Germans by sterilization. Kaufman's book received favorable reviews in major American magazines and newspapers. Other books, such as Louis Nizer's What To Do With Germany, also contributed to this atmosphere of strident anti-German hatred. War propaganda and official policy combined to create an image of the German as sub-human and deserving of almost infinite punishment if not annihilation. [Image: Henry Morgenthau, Jr., FDR's Jewish Secretary of State.]

Churchill said to the Germans in January, 1945, "We Allies are no monsters. This, at least, I can say, on behalf of the United Nations, to Germany . Peace, though based on unconditional surrender, will bring to Germany and Japan immense and immediate alleviation of suffering and agony."

Against that false claim the late Dr. Austin App proclaimed the truth: Those Allies who were "no monsters" literally raped more European women than had ever before been raped in the history of the world. They put Germany on a starvation-level diet. Under direct orders from Dwight Eisenhower, they killed more than a million German POWs. They looted 12 million people of their homes, goods, food, and even clothes and drove them from their homelands. They took one-fourth of their farmland, they took their ships and their factories and their farm implements and then told them to live by farming. They abused and starved to death more German babies than there ever were Jews in Germany. They raped and debauched hundreds of thousands of German, Austrian, and Hungarian girls and women from eight to eighty. They brought to their death five times as many Germans in one year of peace as died during five years of war. Yes, yes, of course, these men of the United Nations, these men of the New World Order are no monsters.

Quite apart from any ethnic or ideological considerations, World War II was a war between, on the one side, the elitists who created Communism as a way-station on the road to their New World Order and on the other, those who opposed that New World Order. It is a tragedy of millennial proportions that America and Britain were induced to fight on the side of Communism and Communism's masters.


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