USS Parker (DD-48)

USS Parker (DD-48)

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USS Parker (DD-48)

USS Parker (DD-48) was a Cassin class destroyer that served from Queenstown in 1917-18 and from Plymouth from July-November 1918, winning praise for her role in rescuing survivors from the hospital ship Glenart Castle in February 1918.

The Parker was named after Foxhall Alexander Parker, a US naval officer during the American Civil War who later served as Chief of Staff of the North Atlantic Fleet and wrote a number of books on modern naval warfare. She was laid down by Cramp at Philadelphia on 11 March 1912, launched on 8 February 1913 and commissioned on 30 December 1913. She only made 25.955 knots on trial, somewhat down on her designed speed.

After entering service the Parker joined the Torpedo Flotilla, Atlantic Fleet. During 1914 she was part of Destroyer Division 7. She was based on the US East Coast during the early years of the First World War, taking part in the neutrality patrol as well as winter training in Cuban waters. In March 1917, as the US prepared to enter the war, she moved to Yorktown. In June she formed part of the escort for Group 4 of the first US troop convoy to cross the Atlantic to France, leaving on 17 June 1917. After escorting the convoy to St. Nazaire, the Parker moved to her new base at Queenstown, from where she operated until July 1918. From Queenstown the Parker carried out a mix of escort duties and rescue missions.

On 3 August she carried out an attack on a U-boat and was credited with probably seriously damaging her target.

On 26 February 1918 she rescued survivors from the British Hospital Ship Glenart Castle, after she was sunk by UC-56 despite being brightly lit up as a hospital ship. She was commended by Parliament, the Admiralty and the US Naval Authorities for her efforts, but only a few of the Glenart Castle's crew survived. Thankfully she was on her way from Britain to France at the time, so wasn't full of patients.

In July 1918 the Parker was sent to Plymouth to operate with US submarine chasers. On 1 November 1918 she departed for Gibraltar, the third main US naval base in Europe (along with Queenstown and Brest), but the war ended before she arrived. She returned to Plymouth, and spent some time operating a mail and passenger service between Plymouth and Brest.

Anyone who served on her between 17 June 1917 and 11 November 1918 qualified for the First World War Victory Medal.

Early in 1919 she visited German ports to implement some of the terms of the armistice, and then went into the Baltic to help the Food Administration. In May 1919 she was part of Destroyer Squadron 14 (USS Cummings (DD-44); USS Wainwright (DD-62); USS Parker (DD-48); USS Balch (DD-50); USS McDougal (DD-54); USS Ericsson (DD-56); and USS Dixie (AD-1)).

The Parker departed for New York on 20 July 1919 and joined Destroyer Squadron 1, Atlantic Fleet. She remained operational into the middle of 1921, when she was part of Destroyer Squadron 14, and was then decommissioned on 6 June 1922. She was struck off on 8 March 1935 and sold for scrap on 23 April 1935.

Displacement (standard)

1,010t nominal

Displacement (loaded)


Top Speed

29kts at 16,000shp (design)
29.14kts at 14,253shp at 1,057 tons on trial (Duncan)


2-shaft Parson turbines plus reciprocating cruising engines
4 boilers for 16,000shp


305ft 5in


30ft 2in


Four 3in.50 guns (DD-43 & DD-44)
Four 4in/50 guns (DD-45 to DD-50)
Eight 1in torpedo tubes in four twin mountings

Crew complement



8 February 1913


30 December 1913


Sold for scrap 1935

Books on the First World War |Subject Index: First World War

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7 Fascinating Facts About Elvis Presley

1. Elvis had a twin.
On January 8, 1935, Elvis Aron (later spelled Aaron) Presley was born at his parents’ two-room house in East Tupelo, Mississippi, about 35 minutes after his identical twin brother, Jesse Garon, who was stillborn. The next day, Jesse was buried in an unmarked grave in nearby Priceville Cemetery.

Elvis, who spoke of his twin throughout his life, grew up an only child in a poor family. His father, Vernon, worked a series of odd jobs, and in 1938 was sentenced to three years in prison for forging a $4 check (he spent less than a year behind bars). In 1948, the Presleys moved from Tupelo to Memphis in search of better opportunities. There, Elvis attended Humes High School, where he failed a music class and was considered quiet and an outsider. He graduated in 1953, becoming the first member of his immediate family to earn a high school diploma. After graduation, he worked at a machinist shop and drove a truck before launching his music career with the July 1954 recording of “That’s All Right.”

2. Elvis bought Graceland when he was 22.
In 1957, Elvis shelled out $102,500 for Graceland, the Memphis mansion that served as his home base for two decades. Situated on nearly 14 acres, it was built in 1939 by Dr. Thomas Moore and his wife Ruth on land that once was part of a 500-acre farm dubbed Graceland in honor of the original owner’s daughter, Grace, who was Ruth Moore’s great-aunt. The Moores’ white-columned home also came to be known as Graceland, and when Elvis purchased the place he kept the name.

The entertainer made a number of updates to the property over the years, including the addition of music-themed iron entrance gates, a “jungle room” with an indoor waterfall and a racquetball building. After finding out President Lyndon Johnson enjoyed watching all three network news programs simultaneously, Elvis was inspired to have a wall of built-in TVs installed in his home. In 1982, five years after Elvis was found dead in a bathroom at Graceland, his ex-wife Priscilla Presley opened the estate to the public for tours. Some 600,000 fans now flock there each year. Elvis’ only child, Lisa Marie Presley, inherited Graceland when she turned 25 in 1993 and continues to operate it today.

In 2006, George W. Bush became the first sitting U.S. president to visit Graceland, when he traveled there with Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi, a die-hard Elvis fan.

Elvis and Colonel Tom Parker (Credit: GAB Archive/Redferns)

3. Elvis’ controversial manager, Colonel Tom Parker, was a former carnival barker.
Born Andreas Cornelis van Kuijk in the Netherlands in 1909, Elvis’s future manager immigrated illegally to America as a young man, where he reinvented himself as Tom Parker and claimed to be from West Virginia (his true origins weren’t known publicly until the 1980s). He worked as a pitchman for traveling carnivals, followed by stints as dog catcher and pet cemetery founder, among other occupations, then managed the careers of several country music singers. In 1948, Parker finagled the honorary title of colonel from the governor of Louisiana and henceforth insisted on being referred to as the Colonel.

After learning about the up-and-coming Elvis in 1955, Parker negotiated the sale of the singer’s contract with tiny Sun Records to RCA, a major label, and officially took over as his manager in 1956. Under the Colonel’s guidance, Elvis shot to stardom: His first single for RCA, “Heartbreak Hotel,” released in 1956, became the first of his career to sell more than 1 million copies his debut album, 𠇎lvis Presley,” topped Billboard’s pop album chart and he made his big-screen debut in 1956’s “Love Me Tender.”

The portly, cigar-chomping Parker controlled Elvis’ career for the next two decades, helping him achieve enormous success while at the same time taking commissions of as much as 50 percent of the entertainer’s earnings and drawing criticism from observers that he was holding Elvis back creatively. Parker outlived his protégé by 20 years, dying in 1997 at age 87 in Las Vegas.

4. Elvis served in the Army after he was already famous.
In December 1957, Elvis, by then a major star, was drafted into the U.S. military. After receiving a short deferment so he could wrap up production on his film “King Creole,” the 23-year-old was inducted into the Army as a private on March 24, 1958, amidst major media coverage. Assigned to the Second Armored Division, he attended basic training at Fort Hood, Texas. That August, while still at Fort Hood, he was granted emergency leave to visit his beloved mother, who was in poor health. Gladys Presley passed away at age 46 on August 14, 1958. The following month, Elvis shipped out for an assignment with the Third Armored Division in Friedberg, West Germany, where he served as a jeep driver and continued to receive stacks of fan mail.

While in Germany, he lived off base with his father and grandmother Minnie Mae Presley. It was also during this time that Elvis met 14-year-old Priscilla Beaulieu, the daughter of a U.S. Air Force captain. (After a lengthy courtship, Elvis and Priscilla married in 1967 the couple divorced in 1973.) Elvis was honorably discharged from active duty in March 1960, having achieved the rank of sergeant. His first post-Army movie, “G.I. Blues,” was released that November of that same year. The film’s soundtrack spent 10 weeks at the top of the Billboard album music chart and remained on the chart for a total of 111 weeks, the longest of any album in Elvis’ career.

5. Elvis never performed outside of North America.
An estimated 40 percent of Elvis’ music sales have been outside the United States however, with the exception a handful of concerts he gave in Canada in 1957, he never performed on foreign soil. A number of sources have suggested that Elvis’ manager, Colonel Parker, turned down lucrative offers for the singer to perform abroad because Parker was an illegal immigrant and feared he wouldn’t be allowed back into the U.S. if he traveled overseas.

Elvis’ second appearance on “The Ed Sullivan Show,” October 26, 1956.

6. Elvis was burned in effigy after an appearance on “The Ed Sullivan Show.”
In the summer of 1956, Colonel Parker arranged a deal for Elvis to make three appearances on “The Ed Sullivan Show” for a then-whopping fee of $50,000. Although Sullivan previously had said he wouldn’t book the hip-swiveling, lip-curling singer on his family-oriented TV variety show, he relented after competitor Steve Allen featured Elvis on his show in July 1956 and clobbered Sullivan in the ratings. When Elvis made his first appearance on Sullivan’s program on September 9, 1956, 60 million people—more than 80 percent of the TV viewing audience—tuned in. (As it happened, Sullivan, who had been injured in a car accident that August, was unable to host the show.) After the singer made his second appearance in October, crowds in Nashville and St. Louis, outraged by the singer’s sexy performance and concerned that rock music would corrupt America’s teens, burned and hanged Elvis in effigy.

Mightier Than the Sword: The Parker Pens That Ended World War II

General Dwight D. Eisenhower and General Douglas MacArthur were men with very different personalities and yet both used the same brand of pen for the surrender documents in 1945. Each pen represents their owners’ personalities.

Lead image: Courtesy of the Truman Library.

In 1945, General Dwight D. Eisenhower and General Douglas MacArthur presided over the final surrender of Germany and Japan respectively. Each man happened to use a Parker fountain pen, which may not be all that surprising as Parker was one of the most popular American pens at the time. Perhaps what is more interesting is the choice of the Parker model that each man used. English poet Ben Jonson (1572-1637) once wrote “Language most shows a man, speak that I may see thee.” In the same way that a person’s speech reveals something about their character, their personal style may also give insight into their character. With Eisenhower and MacArthur, their pen choices may also say something about the men.

Eisenhower’s 1945 Parker 51 was used to sign the German Instrument of Surrender, as it was formally called, in Reims, France on May 7, 1945. MacArthur used a 1928 Parker Duofold to sign the September 2, 1945 Japanese Instrument of Surrender on the deck of the USS Missouri. Both were two of the most popular pens of their time. But the Duofold was a design that was 20 years older than the 51.

In today’s world, a pen is a pen is a pen, and usually a disposable one at that. That’s assuming that the reader uses a pen that much anymore. But in the first half of the twentieth century, the fountain pen was an item that most men who could afford a pen carried on a daily basis. It was far from disposable and was often passed from father to son.

The successful fountain pen was a particularly American innovation. Pens had existed for centuries and fountain pens, which held an internal reservoir or “fountain” had existed, but these early pens tended to leak. It was not until 1884 that American Lewis Edson Waterman (1837 - 1901) created a simplified feeding system and founded the Waterman Pen Company of New York. After his death his nephew Frank Waterman made Waterman a leading manufacturer during the period between 1905 and the 1920s. Waterman was so well regarded that David Lloyd George used a gold Waterman to sign the Versailles Treaty in 1919. But Waterman lost ground to more innovative rivals, including rival Wisconsin pen maker Parker Pen Company. Parker was founded in 1888, by George Safford Parker, and by 1914 was producing some of the most advanced pens of the time.

It was in 1921 that Parker produced the pen that changed the market, the Duofold. It was a large pen compared with other pens at the time. Additionally almost all pens at the time were much like the Ford Model T, available in any color as long as you chose black. The Duofold was available in a bright red/orange color that was considered daring in its day. It was also expensive, costing about $7.00 in the 1920s, which would be over $100 in 2020 dollars. Although the Duofold name continued in production until after the war, by 1933, the 1921 design was considered old fashioned and was replaced by the Vacumatic, a more streamlined Art Deco style. It was a bright red 1928 Duofold like the one pictured below that MacArthur used on September 2, 1945. (In fact, there were multiple pens used to sign the multiple copies of the "Japanese Instrument of Surrender" as it was officially called. All were standard black pens, except the Duofold. These pens were distributed as follows: one went to West Point, another two went to US General Jonathan Wainwright, who had surrendered the Philippines, and British LieutenantGeneral Arthur Percival, who had surrendered Singapore, each received a pen, and MacArthur gave the Duofold to his wife. Some writers believe that the pen actually belonged to his wife but at that time pen manufacturers made smaller pens marketed specifically for women so this maybe unlikely.)

In contrast to the Duofold, the Parker 51 was a much more modern sleek design, with an advanced feeding mechanism. It was released in 1941 to celebrate the 51st anniversary of Parker, which was actually in 1939, the year that the development began on the 51 model. The 51 also introduced a hooded nib, which no other pen had. The 51 was unavailable to the general public until the end of the war and once it became available it became a huge bestseller and actually remained in production until 1972.

Unlike the signing ceremony on board the USS Missouri, there were actually several “regional” signings of German Surrender Instruments up to May 8, 1945. The first major surrender was at Caserta, Italy on April 29, 1945 (See the story behind that surrender here.) This was followed by a series of gradual surrenders orchestrated by Admiral Doenitz to essentially buy time for retreating German forces on the Eastern Front, including surrenders at Lüneburg Heath, east of Hamburg, on May 4, at Haar, near Munich on May 5, and then the more well known surrender in a French schoolhouse in Reims on May 7, 1945, with the surrender to take effect on May 8, 1945.

For the Reims signing, it appears that Parker 51 pens were used with the exception of at least one Shaeffer pen that may have been intended as a gift for Winston Churchill. (During the war years, Churchill used Conway Stewart pens, a popular British brand.) Although one of the pens used was apparently Eisenhower’s personal pen, Eisenhower did not sign the Instrument of Surrender, and was not even in the room for the signing.

There was a final additional surrender ceremony in Berlin that was actually not signed until the early hours of May 9, 1945 but the enforcement was backdated to May 8. Technical issues of authority, protocol and proper ratification of the May 7 signing necessitated this last ceremony but the terms and conditions of this document were essentially the same as the May 7 Instrument of Surrender.

Armchair psychiatry, much like counterfactual history, is usually best avoided but in this instance there are some relatively safe inferences that can be drawn. Eisenhower’s surrender ceremony in Reims was a quiet affair that was devoid of much pomp and circumstance. His pen was modern, efficient, state of the art, and unobtrusive. MacArthur’s ceremony had a dramatic setting and his pen was an oversized and boldly colored pen that easily drew attention. And yet the Duofold, excellent pen that it was, is also old fashioned and almost anachronistic in shape and style.

Today, the Parker 51 pen used in the Reims signing is in the Harry S. Truman Presidential Library Collection. Another pen used in the Reims signing is the Shaeffer pen in the Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library and Museum. One of the pens used by MacArthur is in the West Point Museum but it is a black elongated desk pen.

The author would like to thank Troy Elkins of the Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library and Museum, and John Miller of the Harry S. Truman Presidential Library for their invaluable assistance and for providing the images from their respective institutions.

World War I [ edit | edit source ]

After the U.S. entered World War I on 6 April 1917, Parker was selected for overseas duty. She sailed on 17 June as an escort for the fourth group of the first American convoy, which carried units of the American Expeditionary Force. [Note 3] The convoy consisted of United States Army transports Montanan, Dakotan, El Occidente, and Edward Luckenbach U.S. Navy transport Hancock and oiler Kanawha. The escorts — in addition to Parker — were the cruisers St. Louis, and destroyers Ammen, Flusser, and Shaw. ⎛] The group departed from New York for Brest, France, steaming at an 11 kn (13 mph 20 km/h) pace. ⎜] A thwarted submarine attack on the first convoy group, ⎝] and reports of heavy submarine activity off of Brest, resulted in a change in the convoy's destination to Saint-Nazaire ⎞] where the convoy arrived 2 July. ⎟]

From St. Nazaire, Parker steamed to Queenstown, Ireland, joining the U.S. Naval Forces patrolling the Irish Coast. There she escorted convoys safely through the war zone, and assisted vessels in distress. From July–November 1918, Parker was attached to the base at Plymouth, England, and operated with U.S. submarine chasers. Parker made contact with German submarines on several occasions during the war. She was credited with probably seriously damaging an enemy submarine on 3 August 1917. ΐ]

On 26 February 1918, Parker assisted in rescuing nine survivors of British hospital ship Glenart Castle, ⎠] which had been torpedoed by German submarine UC-56. ⎡] ⎢] The men of Parker were commended by the British Parliament, the Admiralty, and the U.S. naval authorities. On 1 November, Parker sailed from Plymouth for Gibraltar but returned to Plymouth at the end of the war. ΐ]



Boone was born on October 22, 1734 ("New Style" November 2), the sixth of eleven children in a family of Quakers. [4] [note 1] His father, Squire Boone (1696–1765), had emigrated to colonial Pennsylvania from the small town of Bradninch, England, in 1713. In 1720, Squire, a weaver and blacksmith, married Sarah Morgan (1700–1777), whose family were Quakers from Wales. In 1731, the Boones built a one-room log cabin in the Oley Valley in what is now Berks County, Pennsylvania, near present Reading, where Daniel was born. [6]

Boone spent his early years on the Pennsylvania frontier, often interacting with American Indians. [7] Boone learned to hunt from local settlers and Indians by the age of fifteen, he had a reputation as one of the region’s best hunters. [8] Many stories about Boone emphasize his hunting skills. In one tale, the young Boone was hunting in the woods with some other boys when the howl of a panther scattered all but Boone. He calmly cocked his rifle and shot the predator through the heart just as it leaped at him. The story may be a folktale, one of many that became part of Boone’s popular image. [8]

In Boone's youth, his family became a source of controversy in the local Quaker community. In 1742, Boone's parents were compelled to publicly apologize after their eldest child Sarah married a "worldling", or non-Quaker, while she was visibly pregnant. When Boone's oldest brother Israel also married a "worldling" in 1747, Squire Boone stood by his son and was therefore expelled from the Quakers, although his wife continued to attend monthly meetings with her children. Perhaps as a result of this controversy, in 1750 Squire sold his land and moved the family to North Carolina. Daniel Boone did not attend church again, although he always considered himself a Christian and had all of his children baptized. [9] The Boones eventually settled on the Yadkin River, in what is now Davie County, North Carolina, about two miles (3 km) west of Mocksville. [10] [11]

Boone received little formal education, since he preferred to spend his time hunting, apparently with his parents’ blessing. According to a family tradition, when a schoolteacher expressed concern over Boone's education, Boone's father said, "Let the girls do the spelling and Dan will do the shooting." [12] Boone was tutored by family members, though his spelling remained unorthodox. Historian John Mack Faragher cautions that the folk image of Boone as semiliterate is misleading, arguing that Boone "acquired a level of literacy that was the equal of most men of his times." [12] Boone regularly took reading material with him on his hunting expeditions—the Bible and Gulliver's Travels were favorites. [13] He was often the only literate person in groups of frontiersmen, and would sometimes entertain his hunting companions by reading to them around the campfire. [14] [15]

When the French and Indian War (1754–1763) broke out between the French, British, and their respective Indian allies, Boone joined a North Carolina militia company as a teamster and blacksmith. [17] In 1755, his unit accompanied General Edward Braddock’s attempt to drive the French out of the Ohio Country, which ended in disaster at the Battle of the Monongahela. Boone, in the rear with the wagons, took no part in the battle, and fled with the retreating soldiers. [18] Boone returned home after the defeat, and on August 14, 1756, he married Rebecca Bryan, a neighbor in the Yadkin Valley. [19] The couple initially lived in a cabin on his father's farm, and would eventually have ten children, in addition to raising eight children of deceased relatives. [20]

In 1758, conflict erupted between British colonists and the Cherokees, their former allies in the French and Indian War. After the Yadkin Valley was raided by Cherokees, the Boones and many other families fled north to Culpeper County, Virginia. [21] Boone saw action as a member of the North Carolina militia during this "Cherokee Uprising," periodically serving under Captain Hugh Waddell on the North Carolina frontier until 1760. [22]

Boone supported his growing family in these years as a market hunter and trapper, collecting pelts for the fur trade. Almost every autumn, despite the unrest on the frontier, Boone would go on "long hunts", extended expeditions into the wilderness lasting weeks or months. Boone went alone or with a small group of men, accumulating hundreds of deer skins in the autumn, and trapping beaver and otter over the winter. When the long hunters returned in the spring, they sold their take to commercial fur traders. [23] On their journeys, frontiersmen often carved messages on trees or wrote their names on cave walls, and Boone's name or initials have been found in many places. A tree in present Washington County, Tennessee, reads "D. Boon Cilled a. Bar on tree in the year 1760". A similar carving, preserved in the museum of the Filson Historical Society in Louisville, Kentucky, reads "D. Boon Kilt a Bar, 1803." The inscriptions may be genuine, or part of a long tradition of phony Boone relics. [24] [25] [26]

According to a popular story, Boone returned home after a long absence to find Rebecca had given birth to a daughter. Rebecca confessed she had thought Daniel was dead, and that Boone’s brother had fathered the child. Boone did not blame Rebecca, and raised the girl as his own child. Boone's early biographers knew the story but did not publish it. [27] Modern biographers regard the tale as possibly folklore, since the identity of the brother and the daughter vary in different versions of the tale. [28] [29] [30]

In the mid-1760s, Boone began to look for a new place to settle. The population was growing in the Yadkin Valley, which decreased the amount of game available for hunting. Boone had difficulty making ends meet he was often taken to court for nonpayment of debts. He sold what land he owned to pay off creditors. After his father's death in 1765, Boone traveled with a group of men to Florida, which had become British territory after the end of the war, to look into the possibility of settling there. According to a family story, Boone purchased land in Pensacola, but Rebecca refused to move so far away from friends and family. The Boones instead moved to a more remote area of the Yadkin Valley, and Boone began to hunt westward into the Blue Ridge Mountains. [31]

It was the first of May, in the year 1769, that I resigned my domestic happiness for a time, and left my family . to wander through the wilderness of America, in quest of the country of Kentucky.

Years before entering Kentucky, Boone had heard about the region’s fertile land and abundant game. In 1767, Boone and his brother Squire first crossed into what would become the state of Kentucky, but they failed to reach the rich hunting grounds. [33] [34] In May 1769, Boone set out again with a party of five others, beginning a two-year hunting expedition in which Boone thoroughly explored Kentucky. His first sighting of the Bluegrass region from atop Pilot Knob became "an icon of American history," and was the frequent subject of paintings. [35]

On December 22, 1769, Boone and a fellow hunter were captured by a party of Shawnees, who confiscated all of their skins and told them to leave and never return. The Shawnees had not signed the 1768 Treaty of Fort Stanwix, in which the Iroquois had ceded their claim to Kentucky to the British. The Shawnees regarded Kentucky as their hunting ground they considered American hunters there to be poachers. [36] [37] Boone, undeterred, continued hunting and exploring in Kentucky. On one occasion, he shot a man to avoid capture, which historian John Mack Faragher says "was one of the few Indians that Boone acknowledged killing." [38] Boone returned to North Carolina in 1771, but came back to hunt in Kentucky in the autumn of 1772. [39]

In 1773, Boone packed up his family and, with his brother, Squire, and a group of about 50 others, began the first attempt by British colonists to establish a settlement. Boone was still an obscure figure at the time the most prominent member of the expedition was William Russell, a well-known Virginian and future brother-in-law of Patrick Henry. [40]

Included in this group were an unknown number of enslaved Blacks, including Charles and Adam. On October 9, Boone's oldest son, James, several whites as well as Charles and Adam left the main party to seek provisions in a nearby settlement. They were attacked by a band of Delawares, Shawnees, and Cherokees. Following the Fort Stanwix treaty, American Indians in the region had been debating what do to about the influx of settlers. This group had decided, in the words of Faragher, "to send a message of their opposition to settlement". [41] James Boone and William Russell's son, Henry, were tortured and killed. Charles was captured. Adam witnessed the horror concealed in riverbank driftwood. After wandering In the woods for 11 days, Adam located the group and informed Boone of the circumstances of their deaths. Charles's body was found by the pioneers 40 miles from the abduction site, dead from a blow to his head. [42] [43] The brutality of the killings sent shockwaves along the frontier, and Boone's party abandoned their expedition. [44]

The attack was one of the first events in what became known as Dunmore's War, a struggle between Virginia and American Indians for control of what is now West Virginia and Kentucky. In the summer of 1774, Boone traveled with a companion to Kentucky to notify surveyors there about the outbreak of war. They journeyed more than 800 miles (1,300 km) in two months to warn those who had not already fled the region. Upon his return to Virginia, Boone helped defend colonial settlements along the Clinch River, earning a promotion to captain in the militia, as well as acclaim from fellow citizens. After the brief war, which ended soon after Virginia's victory in the Battle of Point Pleasant in October 1774, the Shawnees relinquished their claims to Kentucky. [45] [46]

Following Dunmore's War, Richard Henderson, a prominent judge from North Carolina, hired Boone to help establish a colony to be called Transylvania. [note 2] Boone traveled to several Cherokee towns and invited them to a meeting, held at Sycamore Shoals in March 1775, where Henderson purchased the Cherokee claim to Kentucky. [48]

Boone then blazed "Boone's Trace," later known as the Wilderness Road, through the Cumberland Gap and into central Kentucky. Sam, a enslaved black “body servant,” and other enslaved laborers were among this group of settlers. When this group camped near the present day Richmond, KY, Indians attacked, killing Sam and his enslaver. After driving off the attackers, the two men were buried side by side. [43]

He founded Boonesborough along the Kentucky River other settlements, notably Harrodsburg, were also established at this time. Despite occasional Indian attacks, Boone brought his family and other settlers to Boonesborough on September 8, 1775. [49]

Violence in Kentucky increased with the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783). American Indians who were unhappy about the loss of Kentucky in treaties saw the war as a chance to drive out the colonists. Isolated settlers and hunters became the frequent target of attacks, convincing many to abandon Kentucky. By late spring of 1776, Boone and his family were among the fewer than 200 colonists who remained in Kentucky, primarily at the fortified settlements of Boonesborough, Harrodsburg, and Logan's Station. [50]

On July 14, 1776, Boone's daughter Jemima and two other girls were captured outside Boonesborough by an Indian war party, who carried the girls north toward the Shawnee towns in the Ohio country. Boone and a group of men from Boonesborough followed in pursuit, finally catching up with them two days later. Boone and his men ambushed the Indians, rescuing the girls and driving off their captors. The incident became the most celebrated event of Boone's life. James Fenimore Cooper created a fictionalized version of the episode in his classic novel The Last of the Mohicans (1826). [51] [52]

In 1777, Henry Hamilton, British Lieutenant Governor of Canada, began to recruit American Indian war parties to raid the Kentucky settlements. That same year in March, the newly formed militia of Kentucky County, VA mustered in Boonesborough, where ten to 15 enslaved people lived. [42] On April 24,1778, the British allied Shawnees lead by Chief Blackfish mounted the siege of Boonesborough. Armed enslaved men fought along side their enslavers at the fort's walls. After going beyond the fort walls to engage the attackers, London, one of the enslaved, was killed. [43]

Boone was shot in the ankle while outside the fort but, amid a flurry of bullets, he was carried back inside by Simon Kenton, a recent arrival at Boonesborough. Kenton became Boone's close friend, as well as a legendary frontiersman in his own right. [53] [54]

Capture and court-martial Edit

While Boone recovered, Shawnees kept up their attacks outside Boonesborough, killing cattle and destroying crops. With food running low, the settlers needed salt to preserve what meat they had, so in January 1778, Boone led a party of 30 men to the salt springs on the Licking River. On February 7, when Boone was hunting meat for the expedition, he was captured by Blackfish's warriors. Because Boone's party was greatly outnumbered, Boone returned to camp the next day with Blackfish and persuaded his men to surrender rather than put up a fight. [55]

Blackfish intended to move on to Boonesborough and capture it, but Boone argued the women and children would not survive a winter trek as prisoners back to the Shawnee villages. Instead, Boone promised that Boonesborough would surrender willingly the following spring. Boone did not have an opportunity to tell his men that he was bluffing to prevent an immediate attack on Boonesborough. Boone pursued this strategy so convincingly some of his men concluded he had switched sides, an impression that led to his court-martial (see below). [56] [57] Many of the Shawnees wanted to execute the prisoners in retaliation for the recent murder of Shawnee Chief Cornstalk by Virginia militiamen. Because Shawnee chiefs led by seeking consensus, Blackfish held a council. After an impassioned speech by Boone, the warriors voted to spare the prisoners. [58] [59] Although Boone had saved his men, Blackfish pointed out that Boone had not included himself in the agreement, so Boone was forced to run the gauntlet through the warriors, which he survived with minor injuries. [60] [61]

Boone and his men were taken to Blackfish's town of Chillicothe. As was their custom, the Shawnees adopted some of the prisoners to replace fallen warriors. Boone was adopted into a Shawnee family at Chillicothe, perhaps into Blackfish's family, and given the name Sheltowee (Big Turtle). [62] [note 3] In March 1778, the Shawnees took the unadopted prisoners to Governor Hamilton in Detroit. Blackfish brought Boone along, though he refused Hamilton's offers to release Boone to the British. Hamilton gave Boone gifts, attempting to win his loyalty, while Boone continued to pretend that he intended to surrender Boonesborough. [64] Boone returned with Blackfish to Chillicothe. On June 16, 1778, when he learned Blackfish was about to return to Boonesborough with a large force, Boone eluded his captors and raced home, covering the 160 miles (260 km) to Boonesborough in five days on horseback and, after his horse gave out, on foot. Biographer Robert Morgan calls Boone's escape and return "one of the great legends of frontier history." [65]

Upon Boone's return to Boonesborough, some of the men expressed doubts about Boone's loyalty, since he had apparently lived happily among the Shawnees for months. Boone responded by leading a preemptive raid against the Shawnees across the Ohio River, and then by helping to successfully defend Boonesborough against a 10-day siege led by Blackfish, which began on September 7, 1778. [66] After the siege, Captain Benjamin Logan and Colonel Richard Callaway—both of whom had nephews who were still captives surrendered by Boone—brought charges against Boone for his recent activities. In the court-martial that followed, Boone was found "not guilty," and was even promoted after the court heard his testimony. Despite this vindication, Boone was humiliated by the court-martial, and he rarely spoke of it. [67] [68]

Final years of the Revolution Edit

After the trial, Boone returned to North Carolina to bring his family back to Kentucky. In the autumn of 1779, a large party of emigrants came with him, including the family of Captain Abraham Lincoln, grandfather of the future president. [69] [70] Rather than remain in Boonesborough, Boone founded the nearby settlement of Boone's Station. He began earning money by locating good land for other settlers. Transylvania land claims had been invalidated after Virginia created Kentucky County, so settlers needed to file new land claims with Virginia. In 1780, Boone collected about $20,000 in cash from various settlers and traveled to Williamsburg to purchase their land warrants. While he was sleeping in a tavern during the trip, the cash was stolen from his room. Some of the settlers forgave Boone the loss others insisted he repay the stolen money, which took him several years to do. [71]

In contrast to the later folk image of Boone as a backwoodsman who had little affinity for "civilized" society, Boone was a leading citizen of Kentucky at this time. [72] When Kentucky was divided into three Virginia counties in November 1780, Boone was promoted to lieutenant colonel in the Fayette County militia. In April 1781, he was elected as a representative to the Virginia General Assembly, which was held in Richmond. In 1782, he was elected sheriff of Fayette County. [73]

Meanwhile, the American Revolutionary War continued. Boone joined General George Rogers Clark's invasion of the Ohio country in 1780, fighting in the Battle of Piqua against the Shawnee on August 7. [74] On the way home from the campaign, Boone was hunting with his brother Ned when Shawnees shot and killed Ned, who resembled Daniel. The Shawnees beheaded Ned, believing him to be Daniel, and took the head as evidence that Daniel Boone had finally been slain. [75] [note 4]

In 1781, Boone traveled to Richmond to take his seat in the legislature, but British dragoons under Banastre Tarleton captured Boone and several other legislators near Charlottesville. The British released Boone on parole several days later. [77] [78] During Boone's term, Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown in October 1781, but the fighting continued in Kentucky. Boone returned to Kentucky and in August 1782 fought in the Battle of Blue Licks, a disastrous defeat for the Kentuckians in which Boone's son Israel was killed. In November 1782, Boone took part in another Clark-led expedition into Ohio, the last major campaign of the war. [79] [80]

After the Revolutionary War ended, Boone resettled in Limestone (later renamed Maysville, Kentucky), then a booming Ohio River port. He kept a tavern and worked as a surveyor, horse trader, and land speculator. In 1784, on Boone’s 50th birthday, frontier historian John Filson published The Discovery, Settlement and Present State of Kentucke. The popular book included a chronicle of Boone's adventures, which made Boone a celebrity. [83] [84]

As settlers poured into Kentucky, the border war with American Indians north of the Ohio River resumed. In September 1786, Boone took part in a military expedition into the Ohio Country led by Benjamin Logan. Returning to Limestone, Boone housed and fed Shawnees who were captured during the raid, and helped to negotiate a truce and prisoner exchange. Although the war would not end until the American victory at the Battle of Fallen Timbers eight years later, the 1786 expedition was the last time Boone saw military action. [85] [note 5]

Boone was initially prosperous in Limestone, owning seven slaves, a relatively large number for Kentucky at the time. [87] In 1786, he purchased a Pennsylvania enslaved woman, age of about 20, for “Ninety poundes Current Lawfull (sic) money.”. [43] A leader, he served as militia colonel, sheriff, and county coroner. [88] In 1787, he was again elected to the Virginia state assembly, this time from Bourbon County. [89] He began to have financial troubles after engaging in land speculation, buying and selling claims to tens of thousands of acres. These ventures ultimately failed because of the chaotic nature of land speculation in frontier Kentucky and Boone’s poor business instincts. [90] Frustrated with the legal hassles that went with land speculation, in 1789 Boone moved upriver to Point Pleasant, Virginia (now West Virginia). There he operated a trading post and occasionally worked as a surveyor's assistant. That same year, when Virginia created Kanawha County, Boone became the lieutenant colonel of the county militia. [91] In 1791, he was elected to the Virginia legislature for the third time. He contracted to provide supplies for the Kanawha militia, but his debts prevented him from buying goods on credit, so he closed his store and returned to hunting and trapping, [92] though he was often hampered by rheumatism. [93]

In 1795, Boone and his wife moved back to Kentucky, on land owned by their son Daniel Morgan Boone in what became Nicholas County. The next year, Boone applied to Isaac Shelby, the first governor of the new state of Kentucky, for a contract to widen the Wilderness Road into a wagon route, but the contract was awarded to someone else. [94] [95] Meanwhile, lawsuits over conflicting land claims continued to make their way through the Kentucky courts. Boone's remaining land claims were sold off to pay legal fees and taxes, but he no longer paid attention to the process. In 1798, a warrant was issued for Boone's arrest after he ignored a summons to testify in a court case, although the sheriff never found him. [96] That same year, the Kentucky assembly named Boone County in his honor. [97]

USS Parker (DD-48) - History

At this time the ship and office are closed but we plan to reopen and be sailing again starting in September 2021. We are uncertain about the public cruise and dockside tour schedules but we are taking reservations for a limited number of private charters, e.g. weddings, memorials, corporate events, etc. To charter the Potomac for your private event or for any other inquiries please email us at [email protected]

The “Floating White House” was originally commissioned the USCG Cutter Electra in 1934. In 1936 it was renamed the USS Potomac and served as Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s Presidential Yacht until his death in 1945. Check us out: Watch Video

More than a quarter of a million people have visited and sailed aboard the former President’s beloved "Floating White House," the USS Potomac, since it opened to the public in the summer of 1995. $5 million was spent over a 12-year period to restore the 165-foot-long vessel as a memorial to the president who authored the New Deal and led the United States during the Great Depression and the World War II years. Join us aboard this National Historic Landmark for a cruise on the Bay.

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Locations Edit

The company has dual headquarters located in Houston and in Dubai, but it remains incorporated in the United States. [8] [9] [10]

Divisions Edit

Energy services (the company's historical cornerstone), formation evaluation, digital and consulting services, production volume optimization, and fluid systems are the major business segments. These businesses continue to be profitable, and the company is one of the world's largest players in these service industries it is second after Schlumberger, and is followed by Saipem, Weatherford International, and Baker Hughes. [14]

With the acquisition of Dresser Industries in 1998, the Kellogg-Brown & Root division (in 2002 renamed to KBR) was formed by merging Halliburton's Brown & Root (acquired 1962) subsidiary and the M.W. Kellogg division of Dresser (which Dresser had merged with in 1988). KBR is a major international construction company that works in an industry that tends to have an element of volatility and is subject to significant fluctuations in revenue and profit. Asbestos-related litigation from Kellogg acquisition caused the company to book more than US$4.0 billion in losses from 2002 through 2004.

As a result of the asbestos-related costs and staggering losses on the Barracuda Caratinga FPSO construction project based in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Halliburton lost approximately $900 million U.S. a year from 2002 through 2004. A final non-appealable settlement in the asbestos case was reached in January 2005 which allowed Halliburton subsidiary KBR to exit Chapter 11 bankruptcy and returned the company to quarterly profitability. While Halliburton's revenues have increased because of its contracts in the Middle East, the overall impact on its bottom line has been mixed. [15]

At a meeting for investors and analysts in August 2004, a plan was outlined to divest the KBR division through a possible sale, spin-off or initial public offering. Analysts at Deutsche Bank valued KBR at up to $2.15 billion, while others believed it could be worth closer to $3 billion by 2005. KBR became a separately listed company on April 5, 2007. [11]

Early history (as HOWCO) Edit

The company was started in 1919 [16] by Erle P. Halliburton as the New Method Oil Well Cementing Company. [ citation needed ]

In 1920, he brought a wild gas well under control, using cement, for W.G. Skelly, near Wilson, Oklahoma. [17] On March 1, 1921, the Halliburton "method and means of excluding water from oil wells" was assigned a patent from the U.S. Patent Office. Halliburton invented the revolutionary cement jet mixer, to eliminate hand-mixing of cement, and the measuring line, a tool used to guarantee cementing accuracy. [17] By 1922, the Halliburton Oil Well Cementing Company (HOWCO) was prospering from the Mexia, Texas oil boom, having cemented its 500th well in late summer. [18]

In 1924, the company was incorporated in Delaware, with 56 people on its payroll. The stock of the corporation was owned by Erle and Vida Halliburton and by seven major oil companies: Magnolia, Texas, Gulf, Humble, Sun, Pure and Atlantic. [19]

In 1926, its first foreign venture began with sale of equipment to Burma and India. [20]

Throughout the 1930s and 1940s, Halliburton continued cementing across America. [18] [21] In 1938, Halliburton cemented its first offshore well using a truck on a barge off the Louisiana coast. [20] In 1940, Halliburton opened offices in Venezuela and introduced bulk handling of cementing to the industry. [19] In 1947, the Halliburton first marine cementing vessel went into service. [17]

In 1951, Halliburton first appeared in Europe as Halliburton Italiana SpA, a wholly owned subsidiary in Italy. Over the next seven years, Halliburton launched Halliburton Company Germany GmbH, set up operations in Argentina and established a subsidiary in England. By 1951, HOWCO had service centers operating in Canada, Venezuela, Peru, Colombia, Saudi Arabia and Indonesia. [18] Halliburton revenues topped $100 million for the first time in 1952. [18]

Erle P. Halliburton died in Los Angeles in 1957. HOWCO is at this time worth $190 million with camps all over the world. The same year, HOWCO purchased Welex, which pioneered jet perforation. [18] Otis Engineering, an oil field service and equipment company specializing in manufacturing pressure control equipment for oil and gas producing wells, was acquired in 1959. [18]

As Halliburton Edit

On July 5, 1961, the company changed its name to the Halliburton Company. In 1963, Halliburton was the first company in Oklahoma to receive the Presidential "E" for Export flag in recognition of notable contributions to foreign trade. [18]

Halliburton opened a 500,000 sq ft (46,000 m 2 ) manufacturing center in Duncan, Oklahoma, in 1964. [18] The company began to experiment with new technologies to help their services – for example, beginning in 1965 a pilot operation of a computer network system – the first such installation in the oilfield services industry. [18] In 1966, workers broke ground for a new wing at the Research Center in Duncan that tripled the available space for the Chemical Research and Design Department. [18]

In 1968, an automated mixing system for drilling mud was developed by Halliburton, primarily for use offshore. [18] Gearhart Industries (acquired by Halliburton Energy Services in 1989) introduced the first digital computer logging system in 1974. [18]

In 1969, Halliburton began construction of a base camp at Prudhoe Bay on Alaska's North Slope. [18]

In 1975, it responded to environmental concerns by working with the nonprofit Clean Gulf Associates to contain and clean up oil spills. [18] In 1976, Halliburton established the Halliburton Energy Institute in Duncan, Oklahoma, to provide an industry forum for disseminating technical information. [18]

In 1980, Halliburton Research Center opened in Duncan, Oklahoma. [18] The company's billionth sack of cement for customers was pumped in 1983. [18] In 1989, Halliburton acquired logging and perforating specialist company Gearhart Industries and combined it with its subsidiary Welex to form Halliburton Logging Services.

Throughout the 1980s, Halliburton's subsidiaries continued their projects around the world (under management of former CEO Brian Darcy) even in countries once considered enemies. Equipment was provided for the first multiwell platform offshore China, and an Otis Engineering team controlled a gigantic Tengiz field blowout in the Soviet Union. [18]

1990s Edit

Following the end of Operation Desert Storm in February 1991, the Pentagon, led by then defense secretary Dick Cheney, paid Halliburton subsidiary Brown & Root Services over $8.5 million to study the use of private military forces with American soldiers in combat zones. [22] Halliburton crews also helped bring 725 burning oil wells under control in Kuwait. [23]

In 1995, Cheney replaced Thomas H. Cruikshank, as chairman and CEO. Cruikshank had served since 1989. [24]

In the early 1990s, Halliburton was found to be in violation of federal trade barriers in Iraq and Libya, having sold these countries dual-use oil drilling equipment and, through its former subsidiary, Halliburton Logging Services, sending six pulse neutron generators to Libya. After having pleaded guilty, the company was fined $1.2 million, with another $2.61 million in penalties. [25]

During the Balkans conflict in the 1990s, Kellogg Brown-Root (KBR) supported U.S. peacekeeping forces in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Hungary with food, laundry, transportation, and other life-cycle management services. [26]

In 1998, Halliburton merged with Dresser Industries, which included Kellogg. Prescott Bush was a director of Dresser Industries, which is now part of Halliburton his son, former president George H. W. Bush, worked for Dresser Industries in several positions from 1948 to 1951, before he founded Zapata Corporation. [27]

2000s Edit

The Wall Street Journal reported in 2001 that a subsidiary of Halliburton Energy Services called Halliburton Products and Services Ltd. (HPS) opened an office in Tehran. The company, HPS, operated on the ninth floor of a new north Tehran tower block. Although HPS was incorporated in the Cayman Islands in 1975 and is "non-American", it shares both the logo and name of Halliburton Energy Services and, according to Dow Jones Newswires, offers services from Halliburton units worldwide through its Tehran office. Such behavior, undertaken while Cheney was CEO of Halliburton, may have violated the Trading with the Enemy Act. A Halliburton spokesman, responding to inquiries from Dow Jones, said "This is not breaking any laws. This is a foreign subsidiary and no U.S. person is involved in this. No U.S. person is facilitating any transaction. We are not performing directly in that country." No legal action has been taken against the company or its officials. [28] Later, David J. Lesar, Halliburton's chief executive, announced that Halliburton would withdraw from Iran. [29]

In April 2002, KBR was awarded a $7 million contract to construct steel holding cells at Camp X-Ray. [30]

In November 2002, KBR was tasked to plan oil well firefighting in Iraq, and in February 2003 was issued a contract to conduct the work. Critics contend that it was a no-bid contract, awarded due to Dick Cheney's position as vice president. Concern was also expressed that the contract could allow KBR to pump and distribute Iraqi oil. [31] Others contend, however, that this was not strictly a no-bid contract, and was invoked under a contract that KBR won "in a competitive bid process." [32] The contract, referred to as LOGCAP, is a contingency-based contract that is invoked at the convenience of the Army. Because the contract is essentially a retainer, specific orders are not competitively bid (as the overall contract was).

In May 2003, Halliburton revealed in SEC filings that its KBR subsidiary had paid a Nigerian official $2.4 million in bribes in order to receive favorable tax treatment., [33] [34] United Arab Emirates In October 2004, after emerging from the bankruptcy protection, [35] Halliburton opened a new 250,000-square-foot (23,000 m 2 ) facility on 35 acres (140,000 m 2 ), replacing an older facility that opened in 1948, in Rock Springs, Wyoming. With over approximately 500 employees, Halliburton is one of the largest private employers in Sweetwater County. [36]

On January 24, 2006, Halliburton's subsidiary KBR (formerly Kellogg, Brown and Root) announced that it had been awarded a $385 million contingency contract by the Department of Homeland Security to build "temporary detention and processing facilities" or internment camps. According to Business Wire, this contract will be executed in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Fort Worth District. Critics point to the Guantanamo Bay detention camp as a possible model. According to a press release posted on the Halliburton website, "The contract, which is effective immediately, provides for establishing temporary detention and processing capabilities to augment existing Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) Detention and Removal Operations (DRO) Program facilities in the event of an emergency influx of immigrants into the U.S., or to support the rapid development of new programs. The contingency support contract provides for planning and, if required, initiation of specific engineering, construction and logistics support tasks to establish, operate and maintain one or more expansion facilities." [37]

In February 2008, a hard disk and two computers containing classified information were stolen from Petrobras while in Halliburton's custody. Allegedly, the content inside the stolen material was data on the recently discovered Tupi oil field. Initial police inquiries suggest that it could be a common container theft operation. The container was a ramshackle in complete disorder indicating that thieves were after "valuables and not only laptops," said an expert consulted by the daily newspaper Folha de S. Paulo. [38]

In 2008, Halliburton agreed to outsource its mission-critical information technology infrastructure to a Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex data center operated by CyrusOne Networks LLC. [39]

On May 14, 2010, President Barack Obama said in an interview with CNN that "you had executives of BP and Transocean and Halliburton falling over each other to point the finger of blame at somebody else" when referring to the congressional hearings held during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. "The American people could not have been impressed with that display, and I certainly wasn't." According to Tim Probert, executive vice president of Halliburton, "Halliburton, as a service provider to the well owner, is contractually bound to comply with the well owner's instructions". [40]

It was anticipated that Halliburton's $2.5 billion "Restore Iraqi Oil" (RIO) contract [41] would pay for itself as well as for reconstruction of the entire country. Plans called for more oil to be exported from Iraq's northern oil fields than actually occurred. Halliburton's work on the pipeline crossing the Tigris river at Al Fatah has been called a failure. Critics claim that the oil fields are barely usable and access to international markets is severely limited. As an example, against the advice of its own experts, Halliburton attempted to dig a tunnel through a geological fault zone. The underground terrain was a jumble of boulders, voids, cobblestones, and gravel and not appropriate for the kind of drilling Halliburton planned. "No driller in his right mind would have gone ahead," said Army geologist Robert Sanders when the military finally sent people to inspect the work. [42]

Proposed acquisition of Baker Hughes Edit

On November 17, 2014, Halliburton and Baker Hughes jointly announced a definitive agreement under which Halliburton will, subject to the conditions set forth in the agreement, acquire Baker Hughes in a stock and cash transaction valued at $34.6 billion. A press release made available on the former's website, as at December 11, 2014 detailed the restructuring in the integration to follow. The firm announced it would acquire Baker Hughes for around $35 billion in cash and stock, creating an oilfield services company that aims to compete with Schlumberger. [43] Prior to the merger of Baker Hughes and Halliburton, Halliburton must divest over $5 billion of its assets according to the regulations created by US competition enforcement authorities. [44] The merger had a deadline of the end of April 2016 after which, if a decision had not been made, both companies could walk away from the deal if they chose. At the beginning of May 2016, the day after the deadline expired, Halliburton and Baker Hughes announced the termination of the merger agreement. [45] [46]

Halliburton has become the object of several controversies involving the Iraq War and the company's ties to former U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney. Cheney retired from the company during the 2000 U.S. presidential election campaign with a severance package worth $36 million. [47] As of 2004, he had received $398,548 in deferred compensation from Halliburton while Vice President. [48] Cheney was chairman and CEO of Halliburton Company from 1995 to 2000 and has received stock options from Halliburton. [49]

In the run-up to the Iraq War, Halliburton was awarded a $7 billion contract for which only Halliburton was allowed to bid. [50] Under U.S. law, the government uses single-bid contracts for a number of reasons, to include when in the view of the government, only one organization is capable of fulfilling the requirement. [ original research? ]

Bunnatine Greenhouse, a civil servant with 20 years of contracting experience, had complained to Army officials on numerous occasions that Halliburton had been unlawfully receiving special treatment for work in Iraq, Kuwait and the Balkans. Criminal investigations were opened by the U.S. Justice Department, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the Pentagon's inspector general. These investigations found no wrongdoing within the contract award and execution process. [ citation needed ]

In one of Greenhouse's claims, she said that military auditors caught Halliburton overcharging the Pentagon for fuel deliveries into Iraq. She also complained that Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld's office took control of every aspect of Halliburton's $7 billion Iraqi oil/infrastructure contract. Greenhouse was later demoted for poor performance in her position. [51] Greenhouse's attorney, Michael Kohn portrayed her performance reviews as punishment for criticizing the administrations, he stated in The New York Times that "she is being demoted because of her strict adherence to procurement requirements and the Army's preference to sidestep them when it suits their needs." [52]

Deepwater Horizon explosion Edit

An internal report released in 2010 by BP into the Deepwater Horizon explosion claimed that poor practices of Halliburton staff had contributed to the disaster. Investigations carried out by the National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling found that Halliburton was jointly at fault along with BP and Transocean for the spill. The concrete that Halliburton used was an unstable mixture, and eventually caused hydrocarbons to leak into the well, causing the explosion that started the crisis. [53]

Halliburton pleaded guilty to destroying evidence after the April 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster the company destroyed computer simulations it performed in the months after the accident, simulations that contradicted Halliburton's claim that it was BP who had not followed Halliburton's advice. BP had employed Halliburton to oversee the process by which cement is used to seal casing in oil and gas wells, thereby preventing leaks. Government investigators had ordered companies involved in drilling the well to preserve all relevant evidence. [54]

Allegations of corruption in Nigeria Edit

In early December 2010, the Nigerian government filed corruption charges against Cheney in connection with his role as the chief executive of Halliburton. [55] [56] The case relates to an alleged $182 million contract involving a four-company joint venture to build a liquefied natural gas plant on Bonny Island in southern Nigeria. [57] Earlier in 2009, KBR, a former subsidiary of Halliburton, agreed to pay $402 million after admitting that it bribed Nigerian officials, and Halliburton paid $177 million to settle allegations by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission without admitting any wrongdoing. [58] [59] In mid-December 2010, the case was settled when Nigeria agreed to drop the corruption charges against Cheney and Halliburton in exchange for a $250 million settlement. [58] According to Femi Babafemi, the spokesperson for the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission, the $250 million would include approximately $130 million frozen in a Swiss bank, and the rest would be paid as fines. [57]

The Federal Contractor Misconduct Database details 10 instances of misconduct since 1995 under which Halliburton has agreed to pay settlements of $791 million. [60] A further 22 instances of misconduct relate to the company's former subsidiary KBR. [61]

Environmental issues Edit

In 2002, Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) reports were completed to measure the amount of chemicals emitted from Halliburton's Harris County, Texas facility. The TRI is a publicly available EPA database that contains information on toxic chemical releases and waste management activities reported annually by certain industries as well as federal facilities. The facility had 230 TRI air releases in 2001 and 245 in 2002. [62]

On June 7, 2006, Halliburton's Farmington, New Mexico facility created a toxic cloud that forced people to evacuate their homes. [63]

Halliburton may also be implicated [64] in the oil spills in the Timor Sea off Australia in August 2009 and in the Gulf of Mexico in April 2010 for improper cementing. Halliburton staff were employed on the Transocean operated Deepwater Horizon oil rig in the Mexican Gulf. Halliburton staff completed cementation of the final production well 20 hours prior to the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig explosion, but had not yet set the final. [65]

In July 2013, Halliburton Co agreed to plead guilty to charges that it destroyed evidence relating to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. This incurred a $200,000 fine the firm also agreed to three years of probation and to continue cooperating with the criminal probe into the spill. [66] In September 2014, the company agreed to pay $1.1 billion in damages to settle the majority of claims against it relating to the explosion, removing the uncertainty which had hung over the company for the previous four years

Jamie Leigh Jones incident Edit

Jamie Leigh Jones testified at a Congressional hearing that she had been gang-raped by as many as seven co-workers in Iraq in 2005 when she was an employee of KBR, and then falsely imprisoned in a shipping container for 24 hours without food or drink. [67] [68] KBR was a subsidiary of Halliburton at the time. Jones and her lawyers said that 38 women have contacted her reporting similar experiences while working as contractors in Iraq, Kuwait, and other countries. On September 15, 2009, the 5th Circuit Court of Appeals ruled in favor of Halliburton, in a 2 to 1 ruling, and found that her alleged injuries were not, in fact, in any way related to her employment and thus, not covered by the contract. This decision effectively meant that the mandatory arbitration clause in her contract did not apply. [68]

These incidents have tainted the public perception of Halliburton, with a consumer study rating it as the 5th least reputable company in America. [69]

Sale of KBR Edit

On April 15, 2006, Halliburton filed a registration statement with the Securities and Exchange Commission to sell up to 20 percent of its KBR stock on the NYSE under the ticker symbol "KBR", as part of an eventual plan for KBR to be a separate company from Halliburton. [70]

In November 2006, Halliburton began selling its stake in KBR, its major subsidiary, and by February 2007 had completely sold off the subsidiary. In June 2007, several days after Stewart Bowen, the Special Inspector General, released a new report, the Army announced that KBR would share another $150 billion contract with two other contractors, Fluor and Dyncorp, over the next 10 years. [71]

Baghdad incident Edit

In accordance with the law of armed conflict and to maintain non-combatant status, Halliburton does not arm its truck drivers. Trucks are often the target of insurgent attacks. On September 20, 2005, a convoy of four Halliburton trucks was ambushed north of Baghdad. All four trucks were struck by improvised explosive devices and were disabled. Their US National Guard escort was thought to have abandoned the disabled vehicles, leaving the drivers defenseless. Three of the four truck drivers were killed by the insurgents while the surviving driver caught the event on video. Although the trucks had military camouflage paint, the drivers were civilian. The US military returned to the scene 45 minutes later. [72] However, in a statement by senior military officials in Iraq, an investigation revealed that troops did not abandon the civilians and they were all exiting the "kill zone" during the ambush. [73] [74]

Restatements Edit

On March 31, 2003, Management at Halliburton restated earnings downward by $14 million for the fourth quarter of 2002. In the restatement, an additional $3 million expense (net of tax) to continuing operations and an $11 million expense, net of tax, to discontinued operations were recorded. [75] On March 2, 2005, Halliburton restated its 2004 fourth-quarter earnings to add $2 million US in after-tax losses to reflect the collection of a $10 million receivable that had been reserved and a correction in lease accounting.

As of Halliburton's latest form 10-K filings with the SEC, Exhibit 21.1 lists the following as subsidiaries of Halliburton Co.: [76]

  • Baroid International Trading, LLC (United States, Delaware)
  • BITC Holdings (US) LLC (United States, Delaware)
  • Halliburton (Barbados) Investments SRL (Barbados)
  • Halliburton Affiliates, LLC (United States, Delaware)
  • Halliburton AS (Norway)
  • Halliburton Brazil Holdings B.V. (Netherlands)
  • Halliburton Canada Corp. (Canada, Alberta)
  • Halliburton Canada Holdings B.V. (Netherlands)
  • Halliburton Canada Holdings, LLC (United States, Delaware)
  • Halliburton Canada ULC (Canada, Alberta)
  • Halliburton de Mexico, S. de R.L. de C.V. (Mexico)
  • Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. (United States, Delaware)
  • Halliburton Far East Pte Ltd (Singapore)
  • Halliburton Global Affiliates Holdings B.V. (Netherlands)
  • Halliburton Group Canada (Canada)
  • Halliburton International, Inc. (United States, Delaware)
  • Halliburton International Holdings (Bermuda)
  • Halliburton B.V. (Netherlands)
  • Halliburton Latin America S.A., LLC (United States, Delaware)
  • Halliburton Logging Services (Asia)
  • Halliburton Luxembourg Holdings S.à r.l. (Luxembourg)
  • Halliburton Luxembourg Intermediate S.à r.l. (Luxembourg)
  • Halliburton Norway Holdings C.V. (Netherlands)
  • Halliburton Operations Nigeria Limited (Nigeria)
  • Halliburton Overseas Limited (Cayman Islands)
  • Halliburton Partners Canada ULC (Canada, Alberta)
  • Halliburton Servicos Ltda. (Brazil)
  • Halliburton U.S. International Holdings, Inc. (United States, Delaware)
  • Halliburton Worldwide GmbH (Switzerland)
  • HES Corporation (United States, Nevada)
  • HES Holding, Inc. (United States, Delaware)
  • HESI Holdings B.V. (Netherlands)
  • Kellogg Energy Services, Inc. (United States, Delaware)
  • Landmark Graphics Corporation (United States, Delaware)
  • Oilfield Telecommunications, LLC. (United States, Delaware)
  • Halliburton de Venezuela. (Venezuela, Maturin)

Headquarters Edit

Halliburton's headquarters (North Belt Campus) are located in northern Houston, Texas, near George H.W. Bush Intercontinental Airport. [77] [78]

Halliburton was headquartered in Dallas, Texas, from 1961 to 2003. [78] The company moved its headquarters from the Southland Life Building in Dallas to 50,648 square feet (4,705.4 m 2 ) of space in Lincoln Plaza in Downtown Dallas in 1985. [79] 20 employees worked in Halliburton's headquarters in Dallas. [80]

Halliburton planned to move its headquarters to Houston in 2002. [81] Halliburton, which signed its lease to occupy a portion of 5 Houston Center in Downtown Houston in 2002, [82] moved its headquarters there by July 2003. [83] Halliburton occupied 26,000 square feet (2,400 m 2 ) of space on the 24th floor in 5 Houston Center. [78]

In 2009 Halliburton announced that it planned to move its headquarters to the North Belt Campus in Houston. In addition it planned to consolidate operations at its Westchase and North Belt Campus. [84] The move occurred in 2009. [77] The 90 acres (36 ha) North Belt complex was tohouse 2,500 employees. Halliburton planned to add a research and development facility with laboratories, a new cafeteria, a childcare center, two additional parking garages, and fitness and wellness centers for employees. [78] The plans for the North Belt Campus had been delayed by one year, and Halliburton expects [ when? ] completion in 2013. The construction of the North Belt administration building is scheduled [ when? ] to begin in late 2010. [85]

According to Marilyn Bayless, the president of the North Houston Greenspoint Chamber of Commerce, in 2003 Halliburton had planned to move operations out of the North Belt office because other area school districts offered the freeport tax exemptions while the Aldine Independent School District (AISD), where the North Belt office is located, did not. In order to attract businesses, in May 2003, AISD began offering the same tax exemption as other jurisdictions. Subsequently, Halliburton retained the North Belt office. [86]

Lobbying Edit

Halliburton engages 3rd party political lobbyists in jurisdictions where it holds interests. For example, in South Australia it engages GRACosway. [87]

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Media related to Halliburton at Wikimedia Commons

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