Qasr Bashir

Qasr Bashir

Qasr Bashir (also known as Q’Sar Bashir or Qasr Al Bashir), is an extremely well preserved Roman fortress that lies in the Jordanian desert. Unlike many Roman remains, Qasr Bashir is exceptionally well preserved, having never been re-built by later civilisations.

History of Qasr Bashir

As Rome expanded eastwards, so did the empire’s need for defences along the Arabian frontier, a line kown as Limes Arabicus. Jordan’s natural landscape played a large role in defence, with large swathes of arid desert providing a helpful natural barrier. Nonetheless, desert forts were built and troops stationed along them, in part to maintain relations with and defend against the local nomadic population.

Built at the beginning of the fourth century AD and known as Mobene, the walls of Qasr Bashir still stand intact, at a height of up to 20 feet in places, while the main entrance remains to this day. The huge corner towers still rise up two stories from the ground.

It is likely that Qasr Bashir was originally home to an auxiliary cavalry unit, charged with defending the Roman frontier and keeping the peace in the surrounding area. Soldiers would have slept on the upper floor, whilst those on the ground floor are thought to have been stables. It’s thought up to 150 men would have been stationed here.

Qasr Bashir today

For lovers of well-preserved Roman architecture Qasr Bashir is certainly a hidden gem. Standing within the solid walls of Qasr Bashir, you will certainly be able to feel the living history of life on the edge of the Roman Empire.

Fans of Simon Scarrow’s Eagle series may be interested to note that Qasr Bashir (described as Q’Sar Bashir in the author’s comments) was the setting for his novel, The Eagle in the Sand.

Qasr Bashir is located deep in the desert: the ruins are publicly accessible today, and their remoteness certainly adds a sense of timelessness.

Getting to Qasr Bashir

Qasr Bashir is located a few kilometres off Highway 45 / the Desert Highway: the turning is on your right (if coming from Amman), about 1km after the Manaseer Gas Station. Ammann is about an hour north, and Kerak is an hour west if you’re driving. You want a 4WD for the last stretch. There is no public transport that will get you here.


The Castle That Time Forgot

The beautiful Middle Eastern sun begins to set just as it has for many times before on this remote site. What makes this site that much more incredible than watching the sun set from anywhere else is the history you are sitting on.

This castle is a testament to time immemorial surviving military attacks, earthquakes and the fall of one of history’s greatest empires, the Roman Empire. Yet it remains, albeit in a ruinous state, as an example of previous military forces in a region steeped in history.

I’ve discovered an old Roman Castle, from the late Roman Empire in the Jordanian desert. It is located roughly 100 kilometers south of Amman in between the Dead Sea Highway and the Desert Highway. The castle is in the middle of nowhere and it seems that hardly anyone knows that it still exists.

The best part is, besides discovering a site that has been seemingly forgotten by the rest of the world is that when you are there, you feel that you are on the far side of the world.

The castle is known as Qasr Al Bashir and was built between 293 AD and 305 AD by the Romans to defend the southern border of the Roman Empire against the Bedouin tribes’ attacks in this region. It was built along the Via Nova Trajana which was in those times the highway which linked Palmyra, Damascus, Jerash, Philadelphia, and Aila (Aqaba) – a total distance of roughly 430km from North to South.

Along this corridor that once linked the Roman empire, there were 23 auxiliary cavalry castles like Qasr Al Bashir, 14 watch towers and 2 caravanseray, which are inns with a central courtyard used in the desert regions of Asia and North Africa.

After being conquered in 114 by Emperor Trajan, the region known as Arabia Petraea or Provincia Arabia, (present day Jordan, South Syria and Northern parts of Saudi Arabia) the Roman army built this infrastructure to defend its newly acquired lands. Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus, most commonly known as Trajan was Roman Emperor in 98–117. During his rule, the Roman Empire grew to its largest territorial area.

At the same time, Rome conquered Jordan’s beloved Petra and established a new capital in Bosra (South Syria) and sent three legions to enforce Roman law and defend the land (the most well know legion was 3rd Cyrenaica). This defence system is called the Limes Arabicus, a border defense system that Ancient Rome used to defend and mark the boundaries of its empire.

All the castles similar to Qasr Al Bashir were guarded by auxiliary cavalry, which were commanded by Roman officers, but the main contingent of soldiers were local inhabitants. The principal duty was to monitor Bedouins and prevent attacks in the Arabia Petraea.

Those castles along the Via Nova Trajana were connected to each other by this highway and used smoke and fire to communicate with each other. To increase the security and the communication, the castles were established 15 km from each other to be seen easily. Being this close, reinforcements could come quickly and easily defend the province.

Nowadays, Qasr Al Bashir is one of a number of interesting castles in the entire region. This castle was inaugurated in 305 AD by the prefect of the region under the name of “Castra Praetorii Mobeni” in the name of the Emperor Diocletian. We know that, because on the top of the main entrance of the fort there still is the inscription which describes to whom this castle is dedicated and its function. This kind of inscription is very rare and this castle is one of the last Roman structures in the Middle East which still has the inscriptions.

While being preserved, the fort is damaged by centuries of natural forces. The inner part is almost totally destroyed we can still see the inner walls that separated the stables and the soldiers’ rooms. When the fort was running at full functionality, a complete cohort could live there. A cohort was introduced by Gaius Marius and consisted of 600 legionaries. After the reign of Augustus a cohort consisted of 450 and divided into six centuries of 80 men, each being commanded by a centurion.

The castle, due to military difficulties on the Northern border of the Roman Empire, was abandoned at the end of the 5th century. It was used by the Omayyad dynasty and then completely abandoned during the 8th century because of an earthquake in the region.

For me personally, this castle represents a very important testimony of the Roman presence in this region, and must be preserved and restored. Unfortunately, the archaeological department of the Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities has limited resources and prefers to invest in major sites such as Petra or Jerash.


What is known in English as a "desert castle" is known in Arabic as qaṣr (singular), quṣur being the plural. [1]

The Umayyads erected a number of characteristic palaces, some in the cities, but mostly in the semi-arid regions, and some along important trading routes. The castles were built roughly between 660 and 750 under the Umayyad Caliphate, which had made Damascus, now in Syria, their new capital in 661. After the Abbasid Revolution of 750, the capital moved to the newly-built Baghdad and some of the buildings were never completed. [1]

The typical desert castle is more than a single residence rather it is a compound of various building including a substantial main residence along with other buildings such as a hammam (bath-house), storage areas and other agrarian structures and possibly a mosque, all within a large enclosure. [2] Desert castles are typically situated near a wadi or seasonal water course. [3]

The inner part of the main residence typically consists of two-storeys, arranged around a central courtyard. The main residence is often richly ornamented with mosaics, frescoes and stucco reliefs. [4]

Archaeologists have investigated the role of these desert castles, with the traditional view that they served as country estates or hunting lodges for the use of aristocratic families during the winter season. However, recent scholarship has suggested a much greater diversity of roles, including as agricultural estates or military forts. The complex at Qasr al-Hayr al-Gharbi (Syria), for example, sits within a vast agricultural estate and the buildings include structures associated with the production of olive oil. [5]

With a few exceptions, the desert castles conform to a common template consisting of a square structure similar to Roman forts ("castra") [6] as their main building, typically boasting an elaborate entrance. [7] [ dubious – discuss ] [6] Other buildings in the complex would include a hammam (bath house), a mosque, and often an agricultural enclosure (walled areas for animals, dedicated buildings for processing produce such as olive oil), and a water reservoir or dam. [7] The interior rooms of the main structure were ornately decorated with floor-mosaics, and wall paintings featuring designs that exhibit both eastern and western influences. [8]

Some of the desert castles, for example Qasr Hallabat or Qasr Burqu', are rebuilt from remains of earlier Roman or Ghassanid structures others are new constructions. [6]

The function and use of the buildings are today not entirely clear, and scholarship has suggested that they might have served a variety of defensive, agricultural, residential, recreational and commercial purposes. [6] The earliest researchers, such as Musil and Lammens, suggested that desert castles were primarily used for recreational purposes: to escape bad air associated with city living to escape epidemic outbreaks to indulge hedonic pleasures or for use as hunting lodges. [9] Yet other scholars, investigating the geographic distribution of desert castles have noted that they are principally situated along the silk road or pilgrimage routes and may have operated as a type of caravanserai. [10]

Given the variety observed in the archaeological record, it is unlikely that one single theory can explain the range of purposes of all the buildings. These functions include fortresses, meeting places for Bedouins (between themselves or with the Umayyad governor), badiyas (retreats for the nobles) or caravanserais. A proliferation of desert castles appeared around the same time as the number of caravans increased substantially. [11] Many seem to have been surrounded by natural or man-made oases and to have served as country estates or hunting lodges, given that hunting was a favoured pastime for the aristocracy. [12] [ dubious – discuss ]

The generic term "desert castle" is not ideal, since it artificially separates similar quṣur according to their location. Jordan possesses at least one urban Umayyad qaṣr: the Amman Citadel. While the majority of quṣur are located in Jordan, examples can also be found in Syria, the West Bank and Israel, either in cities (Jerusalem), in relatively green areas (al-Sinnabra, Khirbat al-Minya), or indeed in the desert (Qasr al-Hayr al-Gharbi and Qasr al-Hayr al-Sharqi, Jabal Sais, Hisham's Palace). [13] The more isolated "desert castles" built in arid regions, are chiefly located on the ancient trade routes connecting Damascus with Medina and Kufa or adjacent to a natural oasis. [1] Their location along major routes and next to the very scarce water sources seems to indicate that they enabled the Umayyads to control the roads militarily, monitor and tax the seasonal movement of people and their livestock, and not least, impress travellers and local tribes with lavish displays of monumental architecture, baths and ponds in the middle of an arid landscape. [14]

Most of the desert palaces were abandoned after the Umayyads fell from power in 750, leaving many projects uncompleted and others were left to decay. [8]

The castles represent some of the most impressive examples of early Islamic art and Islamic architecture, and some are notable for including many figurative frescos and reliefs depicting people and animals, less frequently found in later Islamic art on such a large and public scale. Many elements of the desert palaces are on display in museums in Amman, in Jerusalem's Rockefeller Museum (decorations from Hisham's Palace) and the Pergamon Museum of Berlin (the Mshatta Facade).


Sudan under al-Bashir: Long history of turmoil, conflicts

Omar al-Bashir – Wikipedia
عمر البشير

CAIRO — Street protests against Sudan’s President Omar al-Bashir show no sign of abating. A growing number of his former allies are clamoring for his departure. None of his friends in the region are stepping up to help. One of the Mideast’s longest autocrats may be on the way out.

But if al-Bashir, who came to power in a 1989 military coup, seeks to cling to power, it could mean greater violence and economic paralysis for Sudan and a new stage in a dark history of strife, military dictatorships and political polarization.

Once Africa’s largest nation, Sudan under al-Bashir was prominent on the world stage in the 1990s and 2000s for all the wrong reasons.

It was the scene of a long civil war between the mostly Christian and animist south and the Muslim and Arabized north. It hosted Osama bin Laden in the early years of his jihadi movement that led to the creation of al-Qaida, landing Sudan a spot on the U.S. list of countries backing terrorism.

In the 2000s, it was most known for the brutal repression of an uprising in its western Darfur region, when the pro-government militias known as the Janjaweed became notorious for atrocities and al-Bashir himself was indicted by the International Criminal Court for alleged war crimes and genocide.

After the south gained independence in 2011 in a referendum that al-Bashir agreed to in a peace treaty, Sudan lost a third of its territory and fell out of the international spotlight. In the years since, it languished in increasing economic misery.

That misery erupted several times into protests, each time put down by al-Bashir. He has tried to do the same in the latest unrest, sparked on Dec. 19, initially over steep price rises and shortages. Dozens have been reported killed, and al-Bashir has arrested opposition leaders, imposed emergency rule and curfews in multiple cities and suspended classes in schools and universities.

Here is a look at Sudan’s modern history and how recent events may shape its future:

Since independence in 1956, Sudan has bounced between tumultuous party politics and military rule, while trying to hold together a north and south joined under British colonialism. Southern rebels took up arms the year before independence, starting the first civil war. In 1958, the military seized power, ruling for six years until a wave of riots and strikes in 1964. Elections were held, and a series of governments took office, all of which failed to end the war or agree on a permanent constitution.

Army officer Jaafar al-Nimeiri led another military coup in 1969. He dissolved parliament and outlawed political parties, starting 16 years of authoritarian rule. He fended off several coup attempts, including one by Communists in 1971 and another by followers of Imam al-Mahdi, a messianic religious figure from the late 1800s. In 1972, he reached a peace deal ending the war in the south.

The south relaunched its insurgency 11 years later and the guerillas’ ranks swelled when al-Nimeiri introduced Islamic Shariah law. After a popular uprising, the military removed al-Nimeiri in 1985 and — in a rare move for the region — quickly handed power to an elected government. The dysfunctional administration lasted only a few years until al-Bashir — a career army officer — allied with Islamist hard-liners and toppled it in a coup.

Bashir’s 29 years in power will likely be remembered as the most oppressive in Sudan’s modern history.

He began by trying to militarily crush the southern rebellion. Predictably, it did not work.

From Khartoum, his rule was based on his Islamist-military alliance, presenting himself as a leader of the 1990s wave of “political Islam” while building ties with violent jihadis. Using Islamist ideology as a rallying cry, al-Bashir created loyalist militias to protect his rule and built a political machine of businessmen and politicians that held a lock on power and amassed massive wealth in the impoverished nation.

His renewed imposition of Islamic law alienated many and tore apart the social fabric of a country with a rich religious and ethnic composition. His use of Islamic militias in Darfur made him an international pariah. Partly trying to salvage his standing, he signed the peace deal with the south.

But as it gained independence, the south took with it three quarters of Sudan’s oil resources, leaving the north without an economic engine. Since then, al-Bashir’s main priorities have been keeping his lock on power while floundering for ways to repair the economy. He has manipulated shifting international alliances, playing regional powers against each other in hopes of financial aid and investment.

His relations with Egypt, Sudan’s powerful neighbor to the north, are a case in point.

Sudan has sided with Ethiopia in a dispute with Egypt over an Ethiopian dam being built, seen by Cairo as a threat to its share of Nile River water — and al-Bashir stoked an old border dispute with Egypt. But then he had to quickly try mend relations with Egypt after Sudan’s economic crisis worsened with the devaluation of its currency in October.

Al-Bashir has also cultivated oil-rich Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, receiving extensive aid after he sent troops to Yemen to fight alongside the two against Shiite Houthi rebels. But their trust — and Egypt’s — has been undermined by his wooing of their rivals, Qatar, Turkey and Iran.

WHAT ARE AL-BASHIR’S OPTIONS?

Al-Bashir’s domestic alliances have shown signs of crumbling in the face of the latest protests. The military and police are sitting on the fence. Political groups, including Islamists who were once allied with his National Congress Party have joined street calls for him to step down.

Those defections undermine al-Bashir’s faltering response to the crisis, which he has tried to depict as a struggle against secularists backed by Western plots aimed at wrecking Sudan’s Islamist “experiment.” He has used religious rhetoric, telling a public struggling to get by that God will provide and quoting Quran verses to security officials in an attempt to justify killing protesters.

He has options for political survival, but likely at the price of reducing his powers. He formed an investigation committee that could try to give him cover by prosecuting some accused of using lethal force against protesters or indicting businessmen and politicians for manipulated the market for personal gain. He may also try bringing political rivals into a new, inclusive government, or announce he will not run in elections set for 2020.

But he also may dig in, forcing the military and police to choose whether to back him or turn against him definitively, prompting new turmoil.


Who is Martin Bashir? The journalist at the heart of the Princess Diana BBC interview scandal

Martin Bashir's 1995 Panorama interview with Princess Diana was the must-see TV programme of the decade.

Featuring intimate details of the Prince and Princess of Wales' failed marriage and Diana's life inside the Royal Family, it was watched by 23 million people and made Bashir a household name.

Now, 25 years later, a judge's report has found the journalist "deceived and induced" Diana's brother to obtain the interview.

Bashir resigned from the BBC days before the report's release, citing health reasons, but who is the journalist and what else has he done?

Born in 1963 in Wandsworth, in southwest London, Bashir was one of five children.

He went to a comprehensive school before studying English and history at university in Winchester and then completing a masters at King's College London.

More on Martin Bashir

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After graduating in 1986 he became a journalist, getting his first job with the BBC.

The Diana interview

In 1995, Bashir secured an interview with Princess Diana for BBC current affairs programme Panorama.

Three years after Charles and Diana's separation and a year before their divorce, the sit-down tell-all was a landmark event, made all the more intriguing by the fact it was led by the then largely unknown 32-year-old TV reporter.

During their chat, Diana spoke about Camilla Parker Bowles being the "third person" in her marriage, her own infidelity with army captain James Hewitt, and her struggles with bulimia, postnatal depression and self-harming.

The revelations became headline news around the world, with some even fearing it could bring down the British monarchy.

Shortly after the interview aired, it was alleged that two counterfeit bank statements had been created to persuade Diana to go ahead with the interview.

A 1996 BBC inquiry cleared Bashir of any wrongdoing, but the new report called the inquiry "woefully ineffective".

Diana's younger brother, Earl Spencer, has said he would never have introduced Bashir to his sister had he not been shown faked documents.

Michael Jackson

In 1999 Bashir moved from the BBC to ITV, and in 2003 he bagged a big name for another high-profile interview - Michael Jackson.

Secured with the help of illusionist and self-proclaimed psychic Uri Geller, Bashir spent eight months working with the singer to produce the documentary Living with Michael Jackson.

With access to Jackson's Neverland ranch, as well as on the road, it covered topics including the singer's fear of his strict father, his appearance and use of cosmetic surgery, his own children and his invitations to other children to spend time at his home.

A ratings hit in both the US and the UK, Jackson later complained to the Independent Television Commission and the Broadcasting Standards Commission about his depiction in the show.

Other big scoops

Bashir also interviewed other celebrities including Michael Barrymore and Jeffrey Archer - both of whom had experienced a very public fall from grace.

His other interviews of note featured real people, who were in the news for varying reasons.

They included ex-nanny Louise Woodward, the five suspects in the Stephen Lawrence case, Who Wants To Be A Millionaire contestant Major Charles Ingram and Joanne Lees, the British tourist at the heart of the 2001 Australian murder trial of Bradley John Murdoch.

Bashir has previously won awards for his work, including three BAFTA nominations and the RTS Journalist of the Year award in 1996.

The X Factor: Celebrity

In 2019 Bashir had a brief brush with reality TV, appearing on The X Factor: Celebrity.

Competing in the "over-31s" category, he was mentored by judge Nicole Scherzinger, eventually getting booted out after his performance of Frank Sinatra's That's Life, and finishing in ninth place overall.

Bashir said his inspiration to appear on the show was his late brother Tommy who died from muscular dystrophy in 1991.

A music lover, Bashir had previously released a reggae album in 2010.

Bashir has also worked for ABC, US cable channel MSNBC and NBC.

Most recently he was religious affairs correspondent for the BBC.

What's he up to now?

Bashir was last year said to be seriously unwell with COVID-related complications and not in a position to respond to allegations over his interview with Diana.

However, a photo in November 2020 in The Mail On Sunday reportedly showed him visiting a takeaway and wine shop.

The BBC said at the time that Bashir had been signed off as he was recovering from quadruple heart bypass surgery and had "significant complications from having contracted COVID-19 earlier in the year".

He resigned from the corporation in May 2021, with the BBC's deputy director of news saying the journalist was "facing some ongoing issues and has decided to focus on his health".

Bashir apologised in response to the new report's findings and said the faking of bank statements was a "stupid thing to do" and "an action I deeply regret".

However, he added he felt it had "no bearing whatsoever on the personal choice by Princess Diana to take part in the interview".

BBC director-general Tim Davie has also made a "full and unconditional" apology.


Have Princes William and Harry said anything?

Prince William recorded a video statement harshly condemning the BBC's practices.

"BBC employees lied and used fake documents to obtain the interview with my mother," he said, "made lurid and false claims about the Royal family which played on her fears and fueled paranoia, displayed woeful incompetence when investigating complaints and concerns about the program, and were evasive in their reporting to the media and covered up what they knew from their internal investigation."

William added that the interview contributed to the worsening of his parents' relationship, as well as her feelings of paranoia and isolation.

Prince Harry released a statement Thursday thanking "those who have taken some form of accountability," which he says is the first step toward justice.

"Yet what deeply concerns me is that practices like these -- and even worse -- are still widespread today," he said. "Then, and now, it's bigger than one outlet, one network or one publication."


Personal life

Family

Bashir's great-grandmother's name was Watley, and she served as a Starfleet officer during the mid-23rd century. In 2373, when the USS Defiant traveled back to 2268 by way of the Orb of Time, he encountered a Lieutenant Watley aboard the USS Enterprise. Bashir became momentarily convinced that Lieutenant Watley was his great-grandmother, and that he may be facing a predestination paradox. Since no one ever knew his great-grandfather, he thought that he might be destined to fall in love with Lieutenant Watley and become his own great-grandfather. ( DS9 : " Trials and Tribble-ations ")

Bashir did not have a positive relationship with his parents for many years. Bashir believed his parents had had him genetically enhanced as a child because they were disappointed by him, a child who was "small for [his] age, a bit awkward physically, not very bright". He lived his life as a child and a young adult to try to please his parents, even choosing a medical career because of them instead of one in tennis. His father thought that Bashir considered himself better than his parents because of the enhancements. They would often argue and Bashir felt compelled to stay away from his parents. He blamed them for changing him and he felt "unnatural", a "freak". Both Bashir and his parents misunderstood each other, however: Bashir's parents had had him genetically enhanced because they loved him and were worried about him and Bashir didn't think himself better than his parents, but, along with thinking his parents were disappointed in him, believed his father didn't take responsibility for the problems he brought on himself and his family. When the family secret about Bashir's illegal enhancements became public by accident, Bashir's father brokered a deal with Starfleet to be incarcerated so that Bashir could retain his position in Starfleet. Their interactions during this stressful time brought the family closer together and helped them understand each other. ( DS9 : " Doctor Bashir, I Presume ", " Distant Voices ")

Friendships

Miles O'Brien

O'Brien and Bashir sing "Jerusalem" together

Bashir's best friend was Miles O'Brien. At first they did not get along O'Brien felt that Bashir was annoying. This all changed when both men were marked for assassination after helping to destroy biological weapons. O'Brien was wounded, and Bashir helped save him. They enjoyed playing darts and racquetball. Together they had many adventures in the holosuites, the most noteworthy being the Battle of Britain and The Alamo. They even built a scale model of the Battle of the Alamo. ( DS9 : " The Storyteller ", " Armageddon Game ", " Rivals ", " Homefront ", " The Changing Face of Evil ")

Bashir is surprised by Miles' admission

When O'Brien was given twenty years of prison memories for a crime he did not commit by the Argrathi and could not adjust, he attempted to kill himself. One of the false memories was that he had killed his best friend in prison. It was Bashir who was able to talk him out of the attempt and get him help. Bashir was dismayed when during the final battle of the Dominion War, O'Brien told him he was leaving for Earth to become a professor at Starfleet Academy. ( DS9 : " Hard Time ", " What You Leave Behind ")

Although Bashir fell in love with Ezri Dax in 2375, he confessed that he liked Miles "a little bit more", indicating the strong bond of friendship that formed between the two over their seven years of service together on Deep Space 9. ( DS9 : " Extreme Measures ")

Martok

Martok and Bashir were both prisoners at Internment Camp 371. Ever since their escape, Martok had always trusted and respected Bashir's medical expertise.

Elim Garak

An amused Bashir with Garak in 2371

Bashir struck up an unlikely friendship with Elim Garak. He was interested in him because he thought Garak might be a spy. Garak first introduced himself to Bashir during the Tahna Los incident on the station, in such a flirtatious way it confused Bashir and left him quite flustered. They worked together to expose a plot by Dukat to embarrass a Cardassian official who wished to reconcile Cardassia with Bajor.

They had many lunches together. It was during one of these luncheons that Bashir discovered an implant that was killing Garak and he was able to save him. Bashir and Garak often discussed literature during their lunches and frequently debated the differences between Human and Cardassian written works. Garak also became Bashir's sidekick in Bashir's holoprogram about international spies. Together, they saw many combat duties during the Dominion War. ( DS9 : " Past Prologue ", " Cardassians ", " The Wire ", " Distant Voices ", " Our Man Bashir ")

Relationships

Jadzia Dax

Dax having a personal conversation with Bashir on the Defiant

Bashir was infatuated with Dax from the very beginning, when they met on a transport to Deep Space 9, and since then desperately pursued her. Quark once said of Bashir as being there every other day "crying into his synthale over her". ( DS9 : " Emissary ", " Playing God ") She enjoyed his flirtatious attempts to become intimately involved with her, and according to Ezri Dax, would have entered a romantic relationship with him had Worf not come along. ( DS9 : " Emissary ", " A Man Alone ", " Starship Down ", " Afterimage ")

Melora Pazlar

Melora was an Elaysian who was briefly commissioned to Deep Space 9. She and Bashir had a brief romantic affair, during which Bashir worked on a way to adapt Nathaniel Tero's neuromuscular adaptation theory into a working, long-term solution to Melora's gravity problems. Melora ends up pulling the plug on the treatment, as she wants to be able to return home. She leaves the station and her and Bashir's relationship presumably ends. ( DS9 : " Melora ")

Leeta

Leeta's first meeting with Bashir and Dax

Leeta first showed interest in Bashir in 2371. She faked a cold in order to meet him. They broke up a year later, in 2373. They went to Risa to complete the Bajoran Rite of Separation. Later that year, Nog helped Bashir retrieve his teddy bear, Kukalaka, from Leeta, who had failed to give it back after their break-up. ( DS9 : " Explorers ", " Let He Who Is Without Sin. ", " In the Cards ")

Sarina Douglas

Bashir first met Sarina Douglas when he was studying a group of genetically-enhanced Humans. The following year, he helped restore her to a normal life by using a neurocortical probe, helping her relate to other Humans. He fell in love with her, and she appeared to fall in love with him as well. In the end Julian's affection for her almost drove her back in seclusion, so he let her go. ( DS9 : " Statistical Probabilities ", " Chrysalis ")

Ezri Dax

Julian and Ezri, the morning after

When Ezri arrived on the station, Bashir was drawn to her because she carried Jadzia's memories. At first, they tried to avoid each other. But nothing could stop their attraction to each other, culminating in a passionate kiss in a turbolift on the way up to Ops. An annoyed Worf sends them back down, but they didn't appear to notice. They spent their first romantic night together on the eve of the final battle of the Dominion War. ( DS9 : " The Dogs of War ", " What You Leave Behind ")


Bashir, frustrated with the country’s leadership, led a successful coup in 1989. He became chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation, which ruled the country. Bashir dissolved the parliament, banned political parties, and strictly controlled the press. He was supported by Hasan al-Turabi, a Muslim extremist and leader of the National Islamic Front (NIF). Together they began to Islamize the country, and in March 1991 Islamic law (Sharīʿah) was introduced. This move further emphasized the division between the north and the mainly animist and Christian south.

In October 1993 the Revolutionary Council was disbanded, and Bashir was appointed president of Sudan he retained military rule, however. He was confirmed as president by an election held in 1996. Bashir’s ally Turabi was unanimously elected president of the National Assembly. On June 30, 1998, Bashir signed a new constitution, which lifted the ban on political parties. In December of that year, however, he used military force to oust Turabi, who, he believed, was plotting against him. On March 12, 2000, Bashir declared a three-month state of emergency, which, by stages, he thereafter extended indefinitely. After the December 2000 elections in which he was once again confirmed as president, he dismissed the cabinet.


What Bashir family records will you find?

There are 267 census records available for the last name Bashir. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Bashir census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.

There are 320 immigration records available for the last name Bashir. Passenger lists are your ticket to knowing when your ancestors arrived in the USA, and how they made the journey - from the ship name to ports of arrival and departure.

There are 195 military records available for the last name Bashir. For the veterans among your Bashir ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.

There are 267 census records available for the last name Bashir. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Bashir census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.

There are 320 immigration records available for the last name Bashir. Passenger lists are your ticket to knowing when your ancestors arrived in the USA, and how they made the journey - from the ship name to ports of arrival and departure.

There are 195 military records available for the last name Bashir. For the veterans among your Bashir ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.


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This is a playable version of my Qasr Bashir Roman fort. It was built about AD 300 under the emperor Diocletian, as part of the "Limes Arabicus." This was a defensive system of forts along the Roman empire's eastern border, in what is now Jordan & Syria. It's one of the best-preserved Roman forts in the world, and surprisingly very little-excavated!

It was a small fort, likely a cavalry fortlet holding 60 horses & soldiers. Probably meant to be a small, mobile force that could keep eyes on the peoples moving across the desert from the east. But there are many unknowns. We don't even know the name of the garrison.

Throughout the fort build, I have placed little signpost notes to help explain a bit what you see and why I put it there. I hope you have fun exploring, and maybe getting at least a little feel for what such a place might have seemed like, 1700 years ago.


Watch the video: Qasr Bshir Karak, Jordan