On August 7, 1987, Lynne Cox braves the freezing waters of the Bering Strait to make the first recorded swim from the United States to the Soviet Union.
Lynne Cox’s swimming career began in her native New Hampshire when she was just nine years old. Not long after that, her parents moved the family to California so that Lynne and her siblings could live near the ocean and have access to better swim coaching. In 1971, under the direction of Coach Don Gambril, Cox joined her swim club in a swim of the 31-mile Catalina Channel off the coast of Southern California. Cox proved to be a natural at open-water swimming, and at the age of 15 she swam the notoriously difficult English Channel in just nine hours and 57 minutes, breaking the world record for both men and women. Two years later, Cox swam the Channel again, and again she broke the record, with a time of nine hours and 36 minutes.
By 1987, when Cox decided to try her luck at swimming the Bering Strait, the Cold War was just beginning to thaw, and under the leadership of reformer Mikhail Gorbachev, the Soviet Union opened their border to Cox. Her rigorous training regiment included regularly swimming in water at between 38 and 42 degrees Fahrenheit. Cox–who rarely swam in a wetsuit regardless of water temperature–donned just a swimsuit as she set out from the shores of Little Diomede, Alaska, about 350 miles north of Anchorage, in water just above freezing. With a team of physiologists monitoring her swim, Cox stayed in the water for 2 hours and 16 minutes, crossing the international dateline and continuing all the way to Big Diomede on the coast of the Soviet Union, 2.7 miles up the Bering Strait. Her swim is considered one of the most incredible cold water swims in history.
The next year, while signing the Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces treaty with President Ronald Reagan at the White House, Gorbachev referred to Cox’s impressive achievement: “Last summer it took one brave American by the name of Lynne Cox just two hours to swim from one of our countries to the other. We saw on television how sincere and friendly the meeting was between our people and the Americans when she stepped onto the Soviet shore. She proved by her courage how close to each other our peoples live.”
READ MORE: The First Woman to Swim the English Channel Beat the Men’s Record by Two Hours
How an American swimmer melted the ice of the Cold War
Lynne Cox, 30, succeeded in swimming across the 2.7 mile Bering Strait.
In 1987, 30-year-old Lynne Cox almost froze to death swimming across the Bering Strait from the U.S. to the USSR. Her goal, in addition to making athletic history, was to acquaint herself with the Soviet society she had been taught to fear. Not only was she the first person to accomplish this daring feat, she succeeded in bringing the Soviets and Americans closer together.
In the remote region that separates Russia&rsquos Far East from Alaska, the division between two small islands was a stark reminder of Cold War animosity. In the middle of the Bering Strait, the 2.7 miles between the Diomede Islands - Soviet Big Diomede and Alaska&rsquos Little Diomede - were coined the &ldquoice curtain.&rdquo To this day, it&rsquos the only border Russia shares with the U.S. It overlaps with the International Date Line so that the difference between these two countries is literally night and day.
American swimmer Lynne Cox before a one-hour swimming from the Tolsty Cape to the Listvyanka village across the mouth of the Angara River.
For more than 40 years, no citizens from either country were permitted to step onto the rocky shores of Big Diomede. Before a shift in Soviet and U.S. policy in 1948, indigenous Inupiat tribes had been hunting, fishing, and moving between these islands for thousands of years. But as Cold War tensions rose, native people were stripped of their lands, traditions, and the friendships they had made across the border. In fact, Lynne and her entourage, (a medical support team, two native guides, and a small group of journalists), were the first Americans allowed on Big Diomede since 1948. But first, Lynne had to receive special permission from the Soviet government. Over the course of 11 years, she wrote to four different Soviet leaders: Leonid Brezhnev, Yuri Andropov, Konstantin Chernenko, and Mikhail Gorbachev. Her only response came from the latter just two days before she attempted the swim - &ldquothe most significant experience of her life.&rdquo
Lynne was already an extremely accomplished swimmer: At the age of 14 she swam across the Catalina Channel, and at 15 and 16 she made record breaking swims across the English Channel. She also became the first woman to cross the Cook Strait, the Straits of Magellan, and the first person to swim around the Cape of Good Hope. Nevertheless, Lynne said that the water of the Bering Strait was colder than anything she had experienced before.
On Aug. 7, 1987 Lynne jumped into the icy water off Alaska&rsquos Little Diomede and swam towards the Soviet border. She recalled, in an op-ed for the Washington Post, how excited and afraid she was as she plunged into the water. She was at constant risk of catching hypothermia, and there was even a possibility that she might die , so a team of doctors watched over her from a support boat. Lynne swam for two hours and five minutes as her hands turned grey and her limbs stiffened.
A Soviet tea party
When she finally reached the shore, she was met by a handful of Russians including regional government officials, members of the KGB, and Soviet Olympic athletes. They greeted her warmly, lifting her up from the water and wrapping her in blankets. A picnic had been prepared on the beach with samovars of tea and biscuits. But Lynne&rsquos body temperature was dropping rapidly. The Soviets led her to a tent where their doctor, Rita Zakharova, covered her with hot water bottles and a sleeping bag. Then, remarkably, the doctor herself embraced Lynne to warm her. &ldquoTo have this human contact,&rdquo said Lynne in an interview with the BBC, &ldquoafter so many years growing up afraid of the Soviets - and here was this person basically warming me up to get me back to life again.&rdquo
As a special surprise, the Soviets invited Inupiat natives to the gathering where they sang folk songs as Lynne recovered.
A treaty of friendship
World-renowned Swimmer Lynne Cox arrives at the 2003 Glamour "Women of the Year" Awards at the American Museum of Natural History, Nov. 10, 2003 in New York City.
Four months after her historic feat, the U.S. and the USSR reached an agreement to eliminate their short and intermediate-range missiles. During the ceremony, which took place in Washington, Gorbachev led everybody in lifting their glasses for a toast:
&ldquoLast summer it took one brave American by the name of Lynne Cox just two hours to swim from one of our countries to the other. We saw on television how sincere and friendly the meeting was between our people and the Americans when she stepped onto Soviet shore. She proved by her courage how close to each other our peoples live.&rdquo
Lynne&rsquos swim made athletic, social, and political history. Though, perhaps her most astounding accomplishment was inspiring mutual compassion between the world&rsquos greatest superpowers.
To this day, there have been few other successful attempts to swim across the Bering Strait. Most recently, in August 2013, an international relay of swimmers from 17 different countries successfully swam from Vladivostok in Russia to the Cape Prince of Wales in Alaska.
If using any of Russia Beyond's content, partly or in full, always provide an active hyperlink to the original material.
V tento den v roce 1987 Lynne Cox vzdoruje mrazivým vodám Beringova průlivu, aby první zaznamenané plavání ze Spojených států do Sovětského svazu.
Lynne Coxova plavecká kariéra začala v její rodné New Hampshire, když jí bylo pouhých devět let. Nedlouho poté se její rodiče přestěhovali do Kalifornie, aby Lynne a její sourozenci mohli žít v blízkosti oceánu a mít přístup k lepšímu plavání. V roce 1971 se Cox pod vedením trenéra Dona Gambrila připojila ke svému klubu v plavání 31 kilometrového kanálu Catalina u pobřeží jižní Kalifornie. Cox se při plavání na volném moři ukázala jako přirozená a ve věku 15 let plavila po notoricky obtížném kanálu La Manche za pouhých devět hodin a 57 minut, čímž překonala světový rekord mužů i žen. O dva roky později Cox znovu zaplaval Kanál a znovu překonala rekord s časem devíti hodin a 36 minut.
V roce 1987, když se Cox rozhodla vyzkoušet své štěstí při plavání na Beringovu úžinu, se studená válka teprve začala roztát a pod vedením reformátora Michaile Gorbačova otevřel Sovětský svaz Coxovi hranice. Její přísný výcvikový pluk zahrnoval pravidelné plavání ve vodě při 38 až 42 stupních Fahrenheita. Cox'who málokdy plavala v neoprenovém obleku bez ohledu na teplotu vody. Jen se vydala na plavky, když vyrazila z břehů Malé Diomede na Aljašce asi 350 mil severně od Anchorage, ve vodě těsně nad mrazem. S týmem fyziologů, který sledoval její plavání, zůstala Cox ve vodě 2 hodiny a 16 minut, překročila mezinárodní datelin a pokračovala až k Big Diomede na pobřeží Sovětského svazu, 2,7 mil po Beringově úžině. Její plavání je považováno za jedno z nejneuvěřitelnějších plavání studenou vodou v historii.
Příští rok, když podepsal smlouvu o jaderných silách pro střednědobý dolet s prezidentem Ronaldem Reaganem v Bílém domě, Gorbachev se zmínil o působivém úspěchu Coxe: „Loni v létě trvalo plavat jednoho statečného Američana jménem Lynne Cox jen dvě hodiny, než se plavil z jedné z naše země do druhé. V televizi jsme viděli, jak úprimné a přátelské bylo setkání našich lidí a Američanů, když vstoupila na sovětské pobřeží. Odvahou dokázala, jak blízko jsou naše národy. “
ČTĚTE VÍCE: První žena, která koupala anglický kanál, porazila rekord mužů o dvě hodiny
Ezen a napon, 1987-ben, Lynne Cox felrobbantja a Bering-szoros fagyos vizeit, hogy az első regisztrált úszást elindítsa az Egyesült Államokból a Szovjetunióba.
Lynne Cox úszási karrierje született New Hampshire-ben kezdődött, amikor csak kilenc éves volt. Nem sokkal ezután a szülei Kaliforniába költözött a családhoz, hogy Lynne és testvérei az óceán közelében élhessenek, és jobb úszási edzést kapjanak. 1971-ben, Don Gambril edző irányítása alatt, Cox csatlakozott úszó klubjához a 31 mérföldes Catalina-csatorna úszásánál, Dél-Kalifornia partjainál. Cox természetesnek bizonyult a nyíltvízi úszás során, és 15 éves korában mindössze kilenc órában és 57 percben úszta a hírhedten bonyolult La Manche csatornát, megtévesztve a férfiak és a nők világrekordját. Két évvel később Cox ismét elcsúsztatta a Csatorna csatornáját, és megint megtörte a rekordot, kilenc óra és 36 perc alatt.
1987-re, amikor Cox úgy döntött, hogy kipróbálta szerencséjét a Bering-szoros úszásánál, a hidegháború csak kezdett megolvadni, és Mihail Gorbacsov reformátor vezetése alatt a Szovjetunió kinyitotta határát Cox felé. Szigorú edzői ezred rendszeresen úszott vízben 38-42 fok Fahrenheit között. Cox, aki a vízhőmérséklettől függetlenül, ritkán úszott egy kosztümruhában, csak fürdőruhát készített, amikor az alaszkai Little Diomede partjától, Anchoragetól kb. 350 mérföldre északra, a fagypont fölött vízbe indult. Az úszást figyelő fiziológusok egy csoportjával Cox 2 órán át és 16 percig a vízben maradt, átkelve a nemzetközi naplementekor, és egészen a Szovjetunió partján, 2,7 mérföldre a Bering-szorosig tartó Big Diomede felé haladva. Úszását a történelem egyik leghihetetlenebb hidegvizes úszójának tartják.
A következő évben, miközben a Fehér Házban Ronald Reagan elnökkel közösen megkötötte a nukleáris erők közötti egyezményt, Gorbacsov Cox lenyűgöző eredményére utalt: „Tavaly nyáron egy bátor amerikainak, Lynne Cox névnek köszönhetően, két óra alatt el kellett úszni az egyik a többi országunk. A televízióban láthattuk, milyen őszinte és barátságos volt a találkozó népünk és az amerikaiak között, amikor a szovjet partra lépett. Bátorságával bizonyította, hogy népünk milyen közel áll egymáshoz. ”
TOVÁBBI OLVASSA: Az első nő, aki úszni kezdi a English Channel-t, két órán keresztül verte meg a férfiak rekordját
Il 7 agosto 1987, all'età di trent'anni, effettuò a nuoto la traversata del braccio di mare tra le isole Diomede partendo dalla sponda americana per approdare su quella sovietica. 
La traversata a nuoto durò due ore e sei minuti  e avvenne in condizioni al limite del proibitivo poiché, pur essendo piena estate, la temperatura dell'acqua era intorno ai 5 ºC.   .
L'intento dell'iniziativa fu quello di favorire la distensione tra i due Paesi.  in seguito Michail Gorbačëv ricevette personalmente Lynne Cox al Cremlino  e, successivamente, la menzionò tra gli ispiratori dello storico Trattato sulle forze nucleari a medio raggio, firmato assieme a Ronald Reagan a Washington l'8 dicembre dello stesso anno. 
«Last summer it took one brave American by the name of Lynne Cox just two hours to swim from one of our countries to the other. We saw on television how sincere and friendly the meeting was between our people and the Americans when she stepped onto the Soviet shore. She proved by her courage how close to each other our peoples live.»
«L'estate scorsa ad una coraggiosa americana di nome Lynne Cox ci sono volute solo due ore per nuotare da uno dei nostri paesi all'altro. Abbiamo visto in televisione quanto sia stato sincero e amichevole l'incontro tra il nostro popolo e gli americani quando è entrata sulla sponda sovietica. Ha dimostrato con il suo coraggio quanto vicini gli uni agli altri vivono i nostri popoli.»
Mentre l'impresa di Lynne Cox ebbe molto rilievo nell'Unione Sovietica, Ronald Reagan pare non fosse informato del fatto, tanto che affermò di non sapere a chi si fosse riferito Gorbačëv quando la menzionò al momento della firma del trattato.      
1987 में इस दिन, लिन कॉक्स ने बेरिंग जलडमरूमध्य के बर्फ़ीले पानी को संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका से सोवियत संघ में पहली बार तैरने के लिए बनाया।
लिन कॉक्स के तैराकी कैरियर की शुरुआत उनके मूल न्यू हैम्पशायर में हुई जब वह सिर्फ नौ साल की थीं। उसके बाद लंबे समय तक, उसके माता-पिता परिवार को कैलिफोर्निया नहीं ले गए ताकि लिन और उसके भाई बहन समुद्र के पास रह सकें और बेहतर तैराकी कोचिंग तक पहुंच सकें। 1971 में, कोच डॉन गैम्ब्रिल के निर्देशन में, कॉक्स ने दक्षिणी कैलिफोर्निया के तट से 31 मील कैटलिना चैनल की तैराकी में अपने तैराकी क्लब में शामिल हुए। कॉक्स खुले पानी में तैराकी में एक प्राकृतिक साबित हुआ, और 15 साल की उम्र में उसने केवल नौ घंटे और 57 मिनट में कुख्यात मुश्किल अंग्रेजी चैनल को तैरकर पुरुष और महिला दोनों के लिए विश्व रिकॉर्ड तोड़ दिया। दो साल बाद, कॉक्स ने चैनल को फिर से घुमाया, और फिर से उसने नौ घंटे और 36 मिनट के समय के साथ रिकॉर्ड तोड़ दिया।
1987 तक, जब कॉक्स ने बेरिंग जलडमरूमध्य में तैरने के लिए अपनी किस्मत आजमाने का फैसला किया, तो शीत युद्ध थमने लगा, और सुधारक मिखाइल गोर्बाचेव के नेतृत्व में, सोवियत संघ ने कॉक्स के लिए अपनी सीमा खोली। उसकी कठोर प्रशिक्षण रेजिमेंट में 38 और 42 डिग्री फ़ारेनहाइट के बीच नियमित रूप से पानी में तैरना शामिल था। पानी के तापमान की परवाह किए बिना कॉक्सोवा में शायद ही कभी कोई वेटसूट में तैरता हो, क्योंकि उसने लिटिल डायमेड, अलास्का के तट से लगभग 350 मील की दूरी पर, एंकोरेज के उत्तर में, फ्रीजिंग के ठीक ऊपर पानी में तैरने की कोशिश की थी। उसे तैरने की निगरानी करने वाली फिजियोलॉजिस्ट की एक टीम के साथ, कॉक्स 2 घंटे और 16 मिनट तक पानी में रहा, अंतर्राष्ट्रीय डेटलाइन को पार किया और सोवियत संघ के तट पर बिग डायोमाडे के लिए सभी तरह से जारी रखा, बेरिंग जलडमरूमध्य तक 2.7 मील। उसे तैरना इतिहास में सबसे अविश्वसनीय ठंडे पानी के तैरने में से एक माना जाता है।
अगले साल, व्हाइट हाउस में राष्ट्रपति रोनाल्ड रीगन के साथ इंटरमीडिएट रेंज न्यूक्लियर फोर्सेस संधि पर हस्ताक्षर करते हुए, गोर्बाचेव ने कॉक्स की प्रभावशाली उपलब्धि का उल्लेख किया: "पिछली गर्मियों में लिन ब्रसेल्स के नाम से एक बहादुर अमेरिकी को एक में से तैरने के लिए सिर्फ दो घंटे लगे। दूसरे देशों को। हमने टेलीविज़न पर देखा कि जब वह सोवियत तट पर कदम रखता था, तो हमारे लोगों और अमेरिकियों के बीच कितनी ईमानदारी और दोस्ताना मुलाकात थी। उसने अपने साहस से साबित किया कि हमारे लोग एक-दूसरे के कितने करीब रहते हैं। ”
READ MORE: इंग्लिश चैनल पर तैरने वाली पहली महिला ने दो घंटे तक पुरुषों के रिकॉर्ड को हराया
Sign up for daily news!
Stay informed with WPR's email newsletter.
But my body basically says, "Lose the hands, lose the feet, keep the core warm and keep the brain and lungs and heart going."
SP: OK. So you had your practice swim. You realized you could do that. And now it was time for the real one, for the whole one mile touching land on Antarctica. What happened?
LC: Well, we took the ship down to an area called Paradise Harbor, looking for beaches where I could land.
There are areas that are huge glaciers and that just sort of slide right down to the ocean. And you can't swim near those glaciers because you're afraid of the falling icebergs.
So we kept looking for places where we could land, but there weren't many because the wind had shifted and there the icebergs that sort of accumulated in different areas and a lot of them were the beaches. We searched for probably half the morning until we came to a place in a harbor, this just beautiful area where the beaches maybe 800-yard wide, (looking like) terracotta stone. And there are glaciers on either side of it.
We saw that the weather was fairly calm and decided that it was a good day for a swim.
SP: How difficult was that swim?
LC: Really, really, really, really hard.It was the most difficult thing I've ever done. Mostly because I had done the test swim only a day before and it took a huge amount out of me. And also I had had some nerve damage from that first swim. So I realized that my first line of defense of being able to tell how I was doing on the peripheral area, you know, on the skin level was gone.
But it was also hard because I really didn't like shivering so hard at the end of the first test swim. Your body has to work awfully hard when it's that cold to get warm again. And I think I was working as hard shivering as I had done during that first test swim. And I actually thought, you know what? I swam nine tenths of a mile. Maybe that should count as the Antarctic mile.
And then I thought: I've come this far and this would be short as a goal. And I really should go for the mile. And I really wanted to swim to the continent, not the subcontinent. And so, I think I just decided it was time to do it when the conditions are right and we went forward.
SP: Now, it sounds just miserable. I mean, it's basically a survival test. Can you do it? Is there anything at all enjoyable about this?
LC: It's not miserable and it's not a survival test. I mean, there those are elements in it. But it's also the idea that you are jumping into unknown waters, that you are swimming through water that is so clear that you can see penguins jumping in toward the end of the swim and swimming with you. You can see them swimming through the water and see their water bubbles coming up all around you. And you are sort of in a world that nobody else has really been in in this way before or maybe even wanted to ever do it.
SP: Now, you've said this was your hardest swim that you've ever done, but you've done some pretty hard swims earlier years. I mean, there was one, for instance, down in New Zealand where you after a few hours you actually were further back from where you had started from because the waves were so big.
LC: (I had) been swimming between the north and south islands of New Zealand and there were two storms converging and we weren't aware of it because we didn't have the weather satellite stuff that we have now. And so after five hours of swimming, I was further from the finish than I had started. The current had carried me around the North Island and I was really fighting to go on.
SP: But you did go on?
LC: Well, I did go on because I had a school of dolphins who came in and started swimming with me, with the people in the boats. They were all around our boats and the water visibility was about 50 feet. And you could look down and see dolphins swimming around. They would suddenly leap out of the water and then spin and spiral and click and squeak and chatter.
They stayed with me for about an hour. And in that time, I sort of lost the sense of "I can't do this anymore." So I kept going. And periodically throughout the next I don't know how many hours — the swim wound up taking 12 hours and two minutes.
But throughout the swim, the dolphins would come back in moments when I didn't feel like I could go any further. And actually, toward the end of the swim, they wound up guiding us right into an area where I could land on shore.
லினி காக்சுக்கு நீச்சல் பயிற்சி அளிக்கும் நோக்கத்துடன், நியூ ஆம்ப்சயரிலிருந்து கலிபோர்னியாவுக்கு இவருடைய பெற்றோர்கள் குடியேறினர். காக்சு தம் நண்பர்களுடன் கேடலினா தீவு கால்வாயை நீந்திக் கடந்தார். 1972 மற்றும் 1973 ஆம் ஆண்டுகளில் இங்கிலாந்திலிருந்து பிரான்சு வரை இங்கிலீசு கால்வாயை இரண்டுமுறை காக்சு நீந்திக் கடந்து சாதனை படைத்தார். 1975இல் நியூசிலாந்தின் 16 கிலோமீட்டர் தொலைவு குக் நீரிணையில் 10 டிகிரி வெப்ப நிலை கடல் நீரில் நீந்தினார். இந்தச் சாதனை செய்த முதல் பெண் என்ற பெருமையைப் பெற்றார். சிலி நாட்டின் மகெல்லன் நீரிணையில் நீந்திய முதல் வீரர் என்றும் தென்னாப்பிரிக்காவில் கேப் ஆப் குட் ஹோப்பில் வெற்றி பெற்ற முதல் வீரர் என்றும் பெயர் பெற்றார். அண்டார்க்டிகா கடலில் 1.6 கிலோமீட்டர் தொலைவு நீந்தினார். இதன் பட்டறிவு நிலைகளை ஸ்விம்மிங் டு அண்டார்க்டிகா என்னும் நூலில் விவரித்துள்ளார்.
Everything you need to know about the Cold War
The world didn&rsquot have time to rest after the devastating World War II, with a new global war soon after. Thankfully, just a &ldquocold&rdquo one. But why did former allies, who yesterday greeted each other warmly and shook hands along the Elbe River, become enemies? Who is to blame for the start of this conflict? You can read how historians answer these questions and more here.
Kim Philby was the best-known member of the Cambridge Five Soviet spy ring in the UK.
The Cold War wasn&rsquot about major battles between the Soviet Army and Western Allies&rsquo troops on any battlefield. This was a hidden war between special services and intelligence officers. Read our materials about major CIA operations against the Soviet Union and those by the KGB.
During the whole second half of the 20th century, the two superpowers had been preparing for the outbreak of a &ldquohot&rdquo war, which could have broken out at any minute. However, until this moment came, it was vitally important to prepare for the hostilities as best as possible: get the full information on the enemy&rsquos military potential, unlock its weaknesses, find out about its latest technology developments, etc. Nobody could do this job better than spies.
Read about the highest-paid Soviet traitor engineer Adolph Tolkachev, who during six years gave the CIA complete detailed information about top secret Soviet missiles.
And here you will find unique photos of the rare and special spy equipment and weapons, confiscated by Soviet counterintelligence and kept nowadays at the Russian FSB Central Border Museum. The rich collection includes pistols, mini cameras, recording devices, knives, fake wigs and moustaches - all belonging to CIA agents.
If you ever visit Moscow, use our guide to see where the KGB and CIA confronted each other in the Soviet capital. Spy games were held even at one of the country&rsquos main symbols - Saint Basil&rsquos Cathedral, two steps away from the Kremlin.
It would be wrong to suppose that while the CIA and Mi6 infiltrated into the USSR, the KGB sat idly by. Read about Kim Philby, the Soviet Union&rsquos best spy in Britain, who for 10 years was head of the department devoted to countering Soviet espionage, but in fact was Moscow&rsquos most important agent in London.
Philby wasn&rsquot the Soviet intelligence&rsquos only successful agent. Read about other effective spies, who occupied high positions in western special services, but remained devoted to the ideals of the World Revolution.
Did you know that courtesy of Melita Norwood, Stalin was better informed about the construction of the British nuclear bomb than most members of the UK Cabinet? Find out how this happened.
Cuban Missile Crisis
A P2V Neptune US patrol plane flying over a Soviet freighter during the Cuban missile crisis.
In 1962, the Cold War was the closest to turning into a hot one. The secret deployment of nuclear missiles and tens of thousands of Soviet servicemen to Cuba is still considered one of the finest military operations in Russian history. Find out how it went down here.
The crisis was solved due to direct negotiations between two countries&rsquo leaders - Nikita Khrushchev and John F. Kennedy. However, the crucial role of the less notable actors remains mainly forgotten. Read here about how an American TV correspondent and a Soviet agent contributed much to averting the disaster.
While Moscow and Washington tried to negotiate, their Navies kept tracking each other off the coast of Cuba. Few know that one Soviet submarine armed with nuclear torpedoes was ready to launch an attack on the Americans. Read why this didn&rsquot end up happening.
The Cuban Missile Crisis wasn&rsquot the only episode, when the nuclear nightmare could be launched. Read about how, in 1983, the fate of the whole planet was in the hands of one Soviet officer.
Hot conflicts of the Cold War
Soviet troops leaving Afghanistan.
I. Khodzhayev, Boris Yusupov/TASS
The Soviet Union and the U.S. didn&rsquot lead an open war, but nothing prevented them confronting each other in regional proxy wars. Besides, no major conflict in the world happened without superpowers covertly sending their soldiers there. The most remarkable example is the Korean War, during which the American and Soviet aces fiercely fought each other in the skies.
One of the most dangerous areas, where Americans and Soviets could have engaged in fighting was the open sea. Submarines permanently followed each other, ready to terminate the opponent, if the latter was preparing a potential nuclear strike. To shake the chaser off the tail, Soviet submarines conducted an unbelievable and almost impossible maneuver, which American sailors dubbed - &ldquoCrazy Ivan&rdquo.
There were also other dangerous episodes that could have had disastrous consequences. Read how U.S. Air Force bombed Soviet territory, how the two countries shot down each other&rsquos planes and how a Soviet submarine rammed into a U.S. aircraft carrier.
A group of State Department announcers huddle around the microphone after the initial shortwave broadcast in Russian to Russia from New York City on Feb. 17, 1947.
Words were by no means less important during the Cold War, than weapons. Read how the Voice of America radio station tried to reach the common Soviet citizens, and how the USSR tried to prevent this.
To depict an enemy at its worst is an indispensable part of each propaganda war. Check out our anti-American poster collection.
Did you know that it was the CIA who first published Boris Pasternak&rsquos &lsquoDoctor Zhivago&rsquo in Russian in the West? Find out why they did this here.
Don&rsquot miss our list of movies devoted to the topic of the Cold War. There you can find classics, filmed during the period of the conflict, as well as newer, post-war ones, made with an effort of a neutral eye, without any ideological cliche.
The US basketball team shows their frustration to the decision of the officials giving the gold medal to the Soviet Union in at the Olympic games in Munich, West Germany, in 1972.
Soviet-American battles in the hockey or basketball arenas were sometimes more essential than clashes between pilots in the skies over Korea or the Soviet-Iranian border. A triumph of one or the other country in sporting competition loudly demonstrated the superiority of the winner to the whole world.
During the 1972 Olympic games, the U.S. and Soviet basketball teams played one of the most scandalous finals in history. Read our article to find out why Americans refused to acknowledge the USSR&rsquos victory.
Tensions between the superpowers were sometimes so high, that even for the sake of the Olympic Games, they couldn&rsquot give their confrontation a break. Here you can read why the Soviet Union and the countries of the Eastern bloc &lsquomissed&rsquo the Olympics in Los Angeles in 1984.
Check out our list of the most interesting movies about the Soviet-American battles in sport: from hockey to chess.
Common people caught in the middle
Katya Lycheva at McDonald's.
Not everybody was fond of the Cold War, and of living in permanent fear. While governments and special services fought each other, some people tried to peacefully overcome the Iron Curtain.
In the late 1950s, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev was obsessed with a revolutionary idea - to sow the whole country with corn. But the USSR didn&rsquot have much experience in this area, so the Soviets asked the Americans for help. And one farmer agreed. Moreover, he even became friends with the mighty Soviet leader.
American businessman Armand Hammer was a unique man. Being so close to the Soviet leadership, he became a true bridge between the two nations. There is an opinion, however, that he occupied such a prestigious position thanks to his work on the Soviet special service.
In 1983, one small American girl named Samantha Smith sent a letter to Soviet leader Yuri Andropov with a direct question: whether he was going to start a nuclear war or not. She was invited to the USSR to see herself that &ldquoin the Soviet Union, everyone is for peace and friendship among peoples&rdquo. Several years after this notorious visit, the USSR sent its own emissary to the U.S. - Katya Lycheva.
In 1987, American swimmer Lynne Cox convinced Mikhail Gorbachev to let her swim across the Bering Strait between the U.S. and the USSR to demonstrate to both superpowers how close their people really were. Read her incredible story here.
End of the war
Crowds of GDR citizens started to dismantle it to reestablish the connection with West Berlin, Nov. 9, 1989.
When Mikhail Gorbachev chose the path of &ldquoperestroika&rdquo and normalization of the relations with the West in the mid 1980s, the Cold War era was coming to and end. You can read about the major events that brought the global confrontation to its end on our website, including: the disarmament and termination of the missile potential by the Soviets, the fall of the Berlin Wall and the large-scale withdrawal of the Soviet troops out of the Eastern Europe.
If using any of Russia Beyond's content, partly or in full, always provide an active hyperlink to the original material.
Lynne Cox, Motivational Speaker, Who is Lynne Cox?PO1 William "Chip" Nagel
Lynne Cox is an American long-distance open-water swimmer, motivational speaker, and author. Over the course of more than 35 years, spanning a period equal to 8 Olympic Games, Lynne accomplished swims setting world records, opening borders, contributed to medical research, supported environmental causes, and inspired people to pursue their dreams.
Cox is best known for her swim across the Bering Strait on 7 August 1987. The swim opened the border between the US and Soviet Union. Both US President Ronald Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev hailed her accomplishment at the signing of the INF Missile Treaty at the White House. She twice held the overall record for the fastest crossing of the English Channel from England to France – achieving her first record as the youngest and fastest in 1972. She was the first to swim across the Strait of Magellan, around the Cape of Good Hope, across the Strait of Gibraltar, across Lake Baikal, Lake Titicaca and the Beagle Channel. Her 2002 1.2 mile swim in Antarctica broke boundaries and contributed to medical science. Overall, Lynne has completed over 60 swims around the world, and setting records.
As a world-class athlete, Lynne has championed the sport of open-water swimming, advocated for Title IX, and managed the U.S. women’s water polo and led efforts to establish women’s water polo as an Olympic sport.
322 BC – Battle of Crannon between Athens and Macedon following the death of Alexander the Great.
626 – Battle at Constantinople: Slavic/Persians/Avarenvloot defeated
768 – Stephen III [IV] begins his reign as Catholic Pope
936 – Otto I the Great becomes King of Germany
1409 – Council of Pisa closes
1461 – Ming Dynasty Chinese military general Cao Qin stages a coup against the Tianshun Emperor.
1479 – Battle of Guinegate: Emperor Maximilian I vs King Louis XI
1485 – Henry Tudor’s (Henry VII to be) army lands in Milford Haven, South Wales
1573 – Francis Drake’s fleet returns to Plymouth after a year spent raiding for Spanish treasure
1575 – Spanish troops conquer Oudewater, almost all inhabitants died
1606 – Possible first performance of Shakespeare’s tragedy Macbeth performed in the Great Hall at Hampton Court Palace for King James I.
1620 – Johannes Kepler’s mother arrested for witchcraft
1620 – Battle at Ponts-the-Ce, Poitou: French king Louis XIII beats his mother Marie de Medici
Astronomer Johannes Kepler
1710 – Sidney, 1st Earl of Godolphin resigns as English minister of Finance
1714 – The Battle of Gangut: the first important victory of the Russian Navy during the Great Northern War against Sweden
1750 – Slave uprising on Curacao
1760 – Ft Loudon, Tennessee surrenders to Cherokee Indians
1782 – George Washington first creates Purple Heart medal (original name Badge of Military Merit) as commander of the Continental Army
1789 – Congress creates Department of War & Lighthouse Service
1802 – Napoleon orders re-instatement of slavery on St Domingue (Haiti)
1814 – Pope Pius VII reinstates the Society of Jesus (Jesuits)
1819 – Battle of Boyacá Bolívar defeats Spanish in Colombia
1820 – 1st potatoes planted in Hawaii
1864 – Battle of Moorefield, WV
French Emperor Napoléon Bonaparte
1879 – The opening of the Poor Man’s Palace in Manchester.
1882 – Hatfields of south WV & McCoys of east Ky feud, 100 wounded or die
1884 – Germany annexes Angra Pequena (Southwest-Africa)
1885 – 5 German warships anchor at Zanzibar
1888 – Theophilus Van Kannel of Phila patents revolving door
1893 – 53rd Congress (1893-95) convenes
1900 – Diamond workers in Amsterdam strike
1904 – Train derailed on bridge in Eden Colo during a flash flood, kills 96
1907 – Walter Johnson wins 1st of his 416 wins, 7-2 over Cleveland
1908 – The first train to travel the length of New Zealand’s North Island ‘main trunk line’, leaves Wellington
1909 – US issues 1st Lincoln penny
1912 – Progressive (Bull Moose) Party nominates Theodore Roosevelt for pres
1914 – Engagement between British cruiser HMS Gloucester and German cruisers SMS Breslau and SMS Goeben off Greece
26th US President Theodore Roosevelt
1914 – French government awards King Albert of Belgium the Great Cross
1914 – French troops under Gen Bonneau occupy Altkitrch at Elzas
1914 – German army occupies city of Liege, Belgium
1914 – Lord Kitchener says “Your country needs you” poster spreads over UK
1914 – Russia invades East Prussia
1915 – Assault against Russell’s Top at Gallipolis, 232 Australians die
1915 – St Louis 3rd base coach Miller Huggins, calls for ball Bkln rookie obliges, Huggins steps aside, & Card runner scores
1921 – Cyclist Piet Moeskops becomes world champ sprinter
1925 – League of Nation advises against Turk/Iraqi division of Mosoelgebied
1927 – Peace Bridge between US & Canada dedicated
1927 – US rum smuggler Horace Alderman kills 3
1929 – Charles Ruijs de Beerenbrouck forms Dutch government
1929 – Ruth ties record by hitting grand slams in consecutive games
1929 – Jo Baer (born Josephine Kleinberg), Seattle USA, American artist
1930 – A large mob estimated at 2,000 lynch two young black men, Thomas Shipp and Abram Smith in Marion, Indiana
1930 – Richard Bedford Bennet forms Canadian government
11th Prime Minister of Canada Richard Bedford Bennett
1930 – Canadian Prime Minister Mackenzie King loses the election to Richard Bedford Bennett of the Conservative Party
1933 – The Iraqi Government slaughters over 3,000 Assyrians in the village of Sumail. The day becomes known as Assyrian Martyrs Day.
1934 – US Court of Appeals upheld lower court ruling striking down government’s attempt to ban controversial James Joyce novel “Ulysses”
1935 – 60% of voters agrees to nazism in Danzig (Gdansk)
1938 – Leo Durocher, hits 2,000th Dodger home run
1938 – Nazis close theologic department of Innsbruck university
1940 – Churchill recognizes De Gaulle government in exile
1940 – Largest amount paid for a stamp ($45,000 for 1 1856 British Guiana)
1940 – Alsace Lorraine is annexed by the Third Reich (Germany) during World War II
1941 – 551 Jews are shot in Kishnev ghetto in Romania
Baseball Player and Manager Leo Durocher
1942 – 1st American offensive in Pacific in WW2, Guadalcanal, Solomon Is
1942 – Dutch resistance bombs Rotterdam railway
1942 – Transport 16 departs with French Jews to nazi-Germany
1943 – Red Army recaptures Bogodukov
1944 – Anton de Kom arrested by Surinam resistance fighter
1944 – Canada/Polish offensive direction Falaise: Total Cooperation
1944 – German counter attack at Avranches fails
1944 – July 20th Plot trial under Roland Freis in Berlin begins
1944 – US 3rd Army reaches suburbs of Brest, Brittany
1944 – IBM dedicates the first program-controlled calculator, the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (known best as the Harvard Mark I).
1946 – 1st coin bearing portrait of Negro authorized
1947 – Balsa raft Kon Tiki crashes into a Polynesian archipelago reef
1947 – The Bombay Municipal Corporation formally takes over the Bombay Electric Supply and Transport (BEST).
Ethnographer, Archaeologist and Explorer Thor Heyerdahl
1947 – Thor Heyerdahl and his fellow adventurers aboard the Kon-Tiki reach the Tuamotu Islands, French Polynesia after 101 days at sea crossing the Pacific Ocean
1948 – 1st Dutch government of Beel resigns
1948 – Delfo Cabrera wins 11th Olympic marathon (2:34:51.6)
1949 – “All after Love” closes at Mark Hellinger Theater NYC after 121 perfs
1950 – Police bar white players-Lou Chirban, Stan Mierko, & Frank Dyle, from playing in Negro League
1951 – Douglas D-558-II Skyrocket reaches 1,992 kph
1951 – US viking rocket reaches 210 km height (record)
1953 – Eastern Airlines enters jet age, uses Electra prop-jet
1954 – “Golden Apple” closes at Alvin Theater NYC after 125 performances
1954 – Charles Mahoney becomes 1st US black to serve as a full UN delegate
1955 – Bar-Ilan University founded in Israel
1955 – KSTF TV channel 10 in Scottsbluff-Gering, NB (CBS/NBC) begins
1955 – Tokyo Telecommunications Engineering, the precursor to Sony, begins selling its first transistor radios in Japan.
Baseball Player Ted Williams
1956 – Boston Red Sox fine Ted Williams $5,000 for spitting at Boston fans
1956 – British government sends 3 aircraft carriers to Egypt
1956 – Dynamite transport explodes in Colombia about 1200 die
1957 – US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
1959 – Explorer 6 transmits 1st TV photo of Earth from space
1959 – The Lincoln Memorial design on the U.S. penny goes into circulation. It replaces the “sheaves of wheat” design
1960 – Côte d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast) gains independence from France
1960 – Students stage kneel-in demonstrations in Atlanta churches
1960 – Wiffi Smith wins LPGA Waterloo Golf Open
1961 – Cosmonaut Gherman Titov circles Earth for a full day in Vostok 2
1961 – Soviet premier Khrushchev predicts USSR economy will surpass US
1962 – USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR
1963 – Jacqueline Kennedy becomes 1st US First Lady to give birth (Patrick Kennedy) since Mrs Cleveland
US First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis
1964 – 31st NFL Chicago All-Star Game: Chicago 28, All-Stars 17 (65,000)
1964 – Turkey begins air attack on Greek-Cypriots
1964 – US Congress approves Gulf of Tonkin resolution
1965 – Lee Kuan Yew, Prime Minister of Singapore signs a separation agreement with Malaysia, after 2 years of political union
1966 – Race riot in Lansing Michigan
1970 – 1st computer chess tournament
1970 – Christine Perfect (McVie) joins Fleetwood Mac
1970 – WDHN TV channel 18 in Dothan, AL (ABC) begins broadcasting
1970 – Shootout at Marin Courthouse in San Rafael, California, kills 4, including the presiding judge
1971 – Apollo 15 returns to Earth
1971 – A Catholic man is shot dead by a British soldier in Belfast
1972 – Hall of Fame inducts Berra, Sandy Koufax, Lefty Gomez & Early Wynn
Founder of Modern Singapore Lee Kuan Yew
1974 – Philippe Petit walks tightrope strung between twin towers
1976 – Chako Higuchi wins LPGA Colgate-European Golf Open
1976 – US Viking 2 goes into Martian orbit after 11-month flight from Earth
1976 – Scientists in Pasadena, California, announce Viking I found strongest indications to date of possible life on Mars
1977 – “Shenandoah” closes at Alvin Theater NYC after 1,050 performances
1978 – Eddie Mathews, Addie Joss, & Larry MacPhail inducted to Hall of Fame
1978 – Thousands of mourners file past body of Pope Paul VI
1980 – Hurricane Allen ravages Caribisch area, about 70 killed
1981 – The Washington Star ceases all operations after 128 years of publication.
1983 – “Merlin” closes at Mark Hellinger Theater NYC after 199 performances
1983 – 1st World Track & Field Championships
1983 – 65th PGA Championship: Hal Sutton shoots a 274 at Riviera CC LA
1983 – Bobby Murcer Day at Yankee Stadium
1983 – Grete Waitz of Norway wins 1st all-women Marathon (Helsinki, Finland)
1983 – Patti Rizzo wins LPGA Boston Five Golf Classic
1983 – Some 675,000 AT&T employees strike
1984 – David Rabe’s “Hurlyburly” premieres in NYC
1984 – Japan beats US for olympic gold medal in baseball
1984 – Jim Deshales becomes 1,000th playing Yankee
1985 – A delegation of the South African Council of Churches meets with SA President P W Botha, following calls by the church for urgent discussions on the causes of unrest, forced removals and the emergency regulations in the country
Singer-songwriter & Actress Barbra Streisand
1985 – Barbra Streisand records “Broadway Album”
1985 – Baseball players end a 2 day strike
1985 – Takao Doi, Mamoru Mohri and Chiaki Mukai are chosen to be Japan’s first astronauts.
1986 – “Honky Tonk Nights” opens at Biltmore Theater NYC for 4 performances
1986 – Daniel Buettner, Bret Anderson, Martin Engel & Anne Knabe begin cycling journey of 15,266 miles from Prudhoe Bay Alaska to Argentina
1987 – 5 Central American presidents sign peace accord in Guatemala
1987 – Javed Miandad scores 260 v England at The Oval, 28 fours 1 six
1987 – Lynne Cox swims 4.3 km from US to USSR in 39°F (4°C) Bering Sea
1988 – Martha Nause wins Planters Pat Bradley International Golf Tournament
1988 – Writers guild end their 6 months strike
1988 – Rioting in New York City’s Tompkins Square Park.
1988 – Angola, Cuba and South Africa allegedly signed a cease fire treaty
1989 – U.S. Congressman Mickey Leland (D-TX) and 15 others die in a plane crash in Ethiopia.
1990 – Desert Shield begins – US deploys troops to Saudi Arabia
1990 – NY Yankee Kevin Mass sets record with 12th HR in 1st 92 at bats & becomes 21st to hit a ball into 3rd deck of Seattle’s Kingdome
1991 – Charles Austin breaks US high jump record at 7½”
1991 – Court rules Manuel Noriega, may access some secret US documents
1991 – Darrin Lewis hits his 1st major league HR
1991 – Manhattan Cable final day of amnesty to return illegal cable boxes
1991 – US sets 400m relay record at 37.67 seconds
1992 – Cleveland Indians turn a triple play
1992 – Tampa Bay group purchases SF Giants
1993 – “Camelot” closes at Gershwin Theater NYC after 56 performances
1993 – Tropical storm Brett ravages Venezuela, 118 killed
1994 – “Hedda Gabler” closes at Criterion Theater NYC after 33 performances
1994 – 1st telephone link between Israel & Jordan
1994 – Carolyn Hill wins McCall’s LPGA Golf Classic at Stratton Mountain
1994 – Ernesto Samper sworn in as president of Colombia
1997 – STS 85 (Discovery 23) launches into orbit
1997 – Ung Huot appointed Cambodia’s 1st premier
MLB Legend Barry Bonds
2007 – Barry Bonds of the San Francisco Giants breaks baseball great Hank Aaron’s record by hitting his 756th home run.
2007 – “Eclipse” 3rd book in Stephenie Meyer’s “Twilight Saga” is published by Little Brown – initial print run 1 million copies
2008 – Georgia launches a military offensive to surround and capture the capital of South Ossetia, Tskhinvali, from Russian control, starting the South Ossetia War.
2010 – Jerry Rice is inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame
2012 – 21 people are killed by a gun attack in a church in Okene, Nigeria
2012 – Heavy rain forces 20,000 people to flee their homes in Manila, Phillipines
2012 – 200,000 people are evacuated from Shanghai in anticipation of Typhoon Haikui
NFL Wide Receiver Jerry Rice
2013 – 11 people are killed by a bombing in Karachi, Pakistan
317 – Flavius Julius Constantius II, Emperor Egypt/Byzantine/Rome (337-61)
1282 – Princess Elizabeth of Rhuddlan (d. 1316)
1533 – Alonso de Ercilla y Zúñiga, Basque soldier and poet (d. 1595)
1560 – Elizabeth Báthory, Nyírbátor, Hungarian countess and serial killer
1574 – Robert Dudley, styled Earl of Warwick, English writer (d. 1649)
1598 – Georg Stiernhielm, “father of Swedish poetry” (Hercules)
1726 – James Bowdoin, American Revolutionary leader and politician (d. 1790)
1742 – Nathanael Greene, American Revoluntionary War General
1746 – Daniel W Wyttenbach, Dutch classical/historian
1751 – Wilhelmina FS, Princess of Prussia/Orange/wife of Willem V
1779 – Carl Ritter, cofounder of modern science of geography
1779 – Louis de Freycinet, French explorer (d. 1842)
1783 – John Heathcoat, inventor (lace-making machinery)
1783 – Princess Amelia of the United Kingdom (d. 1810)
1818 – Henry Charles Litolff, French composer/pianist
1823 – Faustina Hasse Hodges, composer
1826 – Carl AE Ahlqvist, [A Oksanen], Finnish poet (Suomalainen Runousoppi)
Most Prolific Female Serial Killer in History Elizabeth Báthory (1560)
1829 – Thomas Ewing Jr, Major General, Bvt (Union volunteers), (d. 1896)
1833 – Powell Clayton, Brigadier General (Union volunteers)/(Gov-R-Ark)
1836 – Evander McIvor Law, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1920)
1844 – Auguste Michel-Lévy, French geologist (d. 1911)
1860 – Alan Leo, British astrologer (d. 1917)
1862 – Victoria of Baden, Queen of Sweden (d. 1931)
1867 – Emil Nolde, [Hansen], German painter/graphic artist
1868 – Granville Bantock, English composer/conductor (Hebridean Symphony)
1868 – Ladislaus Bortkiewicz, Russian mathematician (d. 1931)
1870 – 19 kittens, born to Tarawood Antigone (4 still born)
1870 – Jozef Brems, Flemish apostole (vicar of Denmark)
1872 – Andries C D de Graeff, governor-general of Neth Indies (1926-31)
1876 – Mata Hari, [Margaretha G Zelle], dancer/courtesan/spy (WW I)
1877 – Ulrich Salchow, Swedish figure skater (d. 1949)
1879 – J J Kotze, South African cricket fast bowler (1902-07)
Exotic dancer, courtesan and convicted German spy Mata Hari (1876)
1880 – Ernst Laqueur, chemist/pharmacology/psychology (sexual hormones)
1883 – J Ringelnatz, writer
1884 – Billie Burke [Mary William Ethelbert Appleton], Washington, DC, American actress (The Wizard of Oz, Merrily We Live)
1885 – Gordon Harker, actor (Facts of Love, Champagne), born in London, England
1886 – Louis Hazeltine, inventor (neutrodyne circuit, making radio possible)
1887 – Jan HA Eman, Aruban politician
1887 – Luckey Roberts, composer
1895 – Edward Gill, baseball player
1897 – Franz J Weinrich, [Heinrich Lerse], German writer (Himmlisches)
1899 – Ricci Riano, England
1900 – Taylor Caldwell, novelist
1901 – Ann Harding, American actress (d. 1981)
1903 – Louis Leakey, Kabete Kenya, anthropologist (1964 Richard Hooper Medal), (d. 1972)
Archaeologist Louis Leakey(1903)
1903 – Saburo Moroi, composer
1904 – Ralph Bunche, founder/diplomat (UN) (Nobel 1950), born in Detroit, Michigan (d. 1971)
1906 – Gerhard Frommel, composer
1907 – Ben Carter, actor (Dark Alibi, Dressed to Kill), born in NYC, New York
1907 – Albert Kotin, American abstract painter (d. 1980)
1911 – R Nicholas Ray, Galesville WI, director (Rebel Without a Cause)
1913 – George Van Eps, American guitarist (d. 1998)
1914 – Ted Moore, South Africa, cinematographer (James Bond)
1918 – Cees Buddingh’, Dutch poet/writer/interpreter
1919 – John Hogan, Lowes, Kentucky, chemist (discovered methods of producing polypropylene), (d. 2012)
1920 – Jan Walravens, Flemish writer (Motionless at Sea)
1921 – Karel Husa, Prague Czechoslovakia, composer (Trojan Women)
Diplomat and Nobel Laureate Ralph Bunche (1904)
1921 – M J bin Gorion, writer
1921 – Manitas de Plata, Gypsy guitarist
1925 – Felice Bryant, Milwaukee, rock writer (Bye Bye Love)
1925 – Julian Orbon De Soto, composer
1925 – M. S. Swaminathan, Indian scientist
1926 – Amo Houghton, (Rep-R-New York)
1926 – Stan Freberg, satirist/ad executive/cartoon voice (Bertie), born in Los Angeles, California
1927 – Carl Switzer, IL, actor (Alfalfa-Our Gang)
1927 – Edwin W Edwards, (Gov-La)
1927 – Art Houtteman, American baseball player (d. 2003)
1928 – Amazing [James] Randi, Toronto Ontario, skeptic magician (Nova)
1928 – Herbert H Bateman, (Rep-R-Virginia)
1928 – Romeo Muller, American screenwriter (d. 1992)
1929 – Don Larsen, pitcher (NY Yankees), on what must have been a perfect day
1929 – James Pilditch, designer
1929 – Richard T Schulze, (Rep-R-PA, 1975- )
1929 – Ruth Carter-Stapleton, Plains Ga, 1st sister/evangelist
1929 – Don Larsen, American baseball player
1930 – Velio Tormis, composer
1931 – Charles E. Rice, American legal scholar and author
1932 – Ann Harding, US, actress (East is West, Janie)
1932 – Maria M L “Marijke” Bakker, Dutch actress (Mammaloe-Pipo the Clown)
1932 – Abebe Bikila, Ethiopian marathon runner (Olympic-gold-1960, 64)
1932 – Maurice Rabb, Jr., American ophthalmologist
1932 – Edward Hardwicke, British actor
1933 – Jerry [Eugene] Pournelle, US, sci-fi author (Mercenary, Red Dragon)
1936 – Charles Pope, US soul singer (Tams-Hey Girl Don’t Bother Me)
1936 – Rahsaan Kirk, Roland rocker
1936 – Richard L[ouis] Tierney, US, sci-fi author (Winds of Zarr)
1937 – Don Wilson, cricketer (England slow left-armer between 1963-71)
1938 – Dewi Lorwerth Ellis Bebb, rugby international/journalist
1938 – Helen Caldicott, Australian physician/anti-war activist, born in Melbourne, Victoria
1939 – Verna Bloom, Lynn MA, actress (After Hours, Badge 373)
1939 – Anjanette Comer, American actress
1940 – Marlyn Mason, San Fernando Cal, actress (Making It, Peyton Place)
1940 – Tom Barlow, (Rep-D-Kentucky)
1940 – Jean-Luc Dehaene, Belgian Prime Minister (1992-99), born in Montpellier, France, (d. 2014)
1941 – Thomas F Hartnett, (Rep-R-SC, 1981-86)
1942 – Anjanette Comer, Dawson Tx, actress (Baby, Lepke)
1942 – B J Thomas, Hugo, Oklahoma, American singer (Raindrops, Growing Pains Theme)
1942 – Garrison Keillor, Minn, PBS radio personality (Prairie Home Companion)
1942 – Masa Saito, wrestler (AWA/WWF/NJPW/CWFI)
1942 – Tobin Bell, American actor
1942 – Carlos Monzón, Argentine boxer
1942 – Caetano Veloso, Brazilian musician
1943 – Alain Corneau, director (Choice of Arms)
1943 – Lana Cantrell, Australian singer (Those Were the Days), born in Sydney, New South Wales
1943 – Giorgio Alverà, Italy, bobsledder (WC 1975 gold), (d. 2013)
1944 – David Rasche, St Louis MO, actor (Sledge Hammer)
1944 – John Glover, Kingston NY, actor (52 Pick-Up, Something Special)
1944 – Robert Mueller, Director of the FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation)
1945 – Alan Page, NFL defensive tackle (Minnesota Vikings)
1945 – Kerry Chater, rocker (Gary Puckett & Union Gap-Young Girl)
1945 – Patrice Mestral, composer
1946 – Ed Seykota, American commodities and futures trader
1947 – Ann Beattie, writer
1947 – Mosibudi Mangena, South African black leader (On Your Own)
1948 – Greg Chappell, cricketer (bro of Ian Elegant Aussie batsman 1970-84)
1948 – Marty Appel, American public relations executive and author
1949 – Carlo Novi, rocker
1949 – Walid Jumblatt, Lebanese political leader
1950 – David James Wottle, 800m runner (Olympic-gold-1972)
1950 – Rodney Crowell, country singer (She’s Crazy for Leavin’), born in Houston, Texas
1951 – Gary Hall, US swimmer (Olympics-bronze/2 silver-1968, 72)
1952 – Richard Joswick, rocker (Bo Donaldson & the Heywoods)
1952 – Alexei Sayle, British comedian
1953 – Anne Fadiman, American writer daughter of Clifton Fadiman
1954 – Caroline Aaron, Richmond VA, actress (Crimes & Misdemeanors)
1955 – Vladimir Sorokin, Russian writer
1955 – Greg Nickels, mayor of Seattle
1955 – Wayne Knight, American actor
1955 – Gregoris Valtinos, Greek actor and director
1956 – Kent V Rominger, Del Norte Colo, US Navy /astronaut (STS 73, 80, 85)
1957 – Alexander Dityatin, Leningrad, Russia, Soviet gymnast (3-time Olympic Champion)
1958 – Alberto Salazar, marathoner (NYC Marathon Winner)
1958 – Bruce Dickinson, heavy metal rocker (Iron Maiden-Run to Hills)
1958 – Larisa Karlova, USSR, team handball player (Olympic-gold-1976, 80)
1959 – Ali Shah, cricketer (Zimbabwe all-rounder in two Tests 1992)
1960 – David Duchovny, American actor (Fox Mulder in TV’s X Files), born in NYC, New York
1960 – Jacquie O’Sullivan, rocker (Bananarama-Venus)
1961 – Walter Swimburn, Irish jockey (Derby 1981)
1961 – Yelena Davydova, USSR, gymnist (Olympic-gold-1980)
1962 – Bruno Pelletier, Québécois singer
1963 – Marcus Lewis, Pontiac Mich, singer (Sing me a Song)
1963 – Patrick Kennedy, son of President Kennedy (lives only 3 days)
1963 – Patrick Newman, St Catharines Ontario, rower (Olympics-10-88, 96)
1963 – Harold Perrineau Jr., American actor
1964 – Patti Liscio, Santa Maria CA, golfer (1994 Chicago Challenge-49th)
1964 – Michael Weishan, American TV host
1964 – John Birmingham, Australian author
1965 – Caroline S Keggi, El Paso TX, LPGA golfer (1994 Dinah Shore-19th)
1965 – Elizabeth Manley, Canada, figure skater (Olympics-Silver-88)
1966 – Kristin Hersch, US singer/songwriter (Throwing Muses)
1966 – Tony Stargell, NFL cornerback (Tampa Bay Bucs, Chicago Bears)
1966 – Jimmy Wales, American internet entrepreneur
1967 – Charlotte Lewis, Kensington actress (Golden Child, Pirates), born in London, England
1967 – Jason Grimsley, Cleveland TX, pitcher (California Angels)
1968 – Leslie Lyness, Paoli PA, field hockey midfielder (Olympics-96)
1968 – Tomas Carbonell, Barcelona Spain, tennis star
1968 – Lynn Strait, American singer (Snot)
1969 – Dave Smits, soccer player (Willem II)
1969 – Jodi Figley, LPGA golfer
1969 – Keith Cash, NFL tight end (KC Chiefs, Oakland Raiders)
1969 – Ludovit Tatos, Lynnwood Wash, kayak (alt-Olympics-96)
1969 – Travis Brown, Durango Colo, cyclist (Olympics-96)
1970 – Eric Namesnik, US, 400m medley swimmer (Olympics-silver-1992, 96)
1970 – Joe Cocozzo, NFL guard (San Diego Chargers)
1971 – Chris T Jones, NFL tackle/wide receiver (Philadelphia Eagles)
1971 – Dominic Cork, cricketer (England all-rounder Hat-trick v WI 1995)
1971 – Kevin Gaines, WLAF DB (London Monarchs)
1971 – Sydney Penny, actress (Danni-New Gidget, Thorn Birds, All My Children)
1972 – Oscar Gray, NFL fullback (Seattle Seahawks)
1972 – Tony Bouie, NFL safety (Tampa Bay Bucs)
1972 – Willy Tate, NFL/WLAF tight end (KC Chiefs, Scottish Claymores)
1972 – Greg Serano, American actor
1973 – Bo Hanson, Australian rower (Olympics-96)
1973 – Kevin Muscat, Australian soccer defender (Olyroos, Olympics-96)
1973 – Kimmo Rinatnen, hockey forward (Team Finland Oly-Bronze-1998)
1973 – Danny Graves, American baseball player
1974 – Jeff Buckey, tackle (Miami Dolphins)
1974 – Philippe De Rouville, Victoriaville, NHL goalie (Pitts Penguins)
1975 – Alshermond Singleton, linebacker (Tampa Bay Buccaneers)
1975 – Edgar Renteria, Barranquilla Colombia, infielder (Florida Marlins)
1975 – Jimmy van Fessem, soccer player (Willem II)
1975 – Gaahl (Kristian Eivind Espedal), Norwegian musician
1975 – Koray Candemir, Turkish singer
Actress Charlize Theron(1975)
1975 – Charlize Theron, Transvaal, South Africa, actress (The Cider House Rules, Monster)
1976 – Dimitrios Eleftheropoulos, Greek footballer
1976 – Shane Lechler, American football player
1977 – Samantha Ronson, British DJ.
1978 – Alexandre Aja, French director
1978 – Jamey Jasta, American singer (Hatebreed)
1978 – Vanness Wu, Taiwanese singer
1978 – Cirroc Lofton, American actor
1979 – Eric Johnson, American actor
1980 – Aurélie Claudel, French model
1982 – Yana Klochkova, Ukrainian swimmer
1982 – Vasileios Spanoulis, Greek basketball player
1983 – Tina O’Brien, British actress
1987 – Sidney Crosby, Canadian hockey player
1988 – Melody Oliveria, American internet blogger
1994 – Jack Antonio, son of Virginia Madisen & Antonio Sabatto Jr
1994 – Sara Grayson, daughter of actress Katey Sagal
1996 – Tessa Allen, American actress
1869 – Inventor Ferdinand von Zeppelin (31) weds Isabella Freiin von Wolff from the house of Alt-Schwanenburg
1936 – Animator William Hanna (26) weds Violet Blanch Wogatzke (23)
1954 – Musician Johnny Cash (22) marries 1st wife Vivian Liberto (20)
1966 – Latin music king Xavier Cugat (60) weds singer Charo (20) at Caesars Palace in Las Vegas
1974 – Actress Faye Dunaway weds Peter Wolf of J Geils Band
1987 – “Magnum, P.I.” actor Tom Selleck (42) weds actress and dancer Jillie Mack (29) in Incline Village, Nevada
1995 – Rapper LL Cool J (27) weds Simone Johnson
Actor and Rapper LL Cool J(1995)
2004 – “The Wonder Years” actor Fred Savage (28) weds commercial real estate agent Jennifer Stone (31) in Los Angeles
2008 – Singer-songwriter Jewel (38) weds rodeo champion Ty Murray (42) at The Cove Atlantis Resort in Paradise Island, Bahamas
2008 – Singer Jewel Kilcher (34) weds rodeo cowboy Ty Murray (38) in the Bahamas
2010 – British pop star Robbie Williams (36) weds actress Ayda Field (31) in an intimate ceremony at Beverly Hills mansion
2010 – “Dancing in the Dark” host Rossi Morreale (33) weds one half of identical twin country duo “Kate and Kacey” Kacey Coppola at the Grande Antigua Resort and Spa in Antigua
461 – Majorian, Roman Emperor (assassinated) (b. 420)
479 – Emperor Yūryaku of Japan
1033 – Frederick II, duke of Upper Lorraine
1106 – Henry IV, Roman German king/emperor (1056/84-1105), dies at 54
1485 – Alexander Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany, Scottish prince
1547 – Cajetanus van Thiene, Italian saint, dies
1609 – Eustache du Caurroy, composer, dies at 60
1613 – Thomas Fleming, English judge (b. 1544)
1616 – Vincenzo Scamozzi, Ital architect (Procurazie Nuove, Venice), dies
1635 – Friedrich von Spee, German writer (b. 1591)
1639 – Martin van den Hove, Dutch scientist (b. 1605)
1657 – Robert Blake, English admiral (Dover, Dungeness), dies at about 57
1661 – Jin Shengtan, Chinese editor, writer and critic (b. 1608)
1712 – Friederich Wilhelm Zachow, composer, dies at 48
1786 – Friedrich Schwindl, composer, dies at 49
1798 – Johann Gottlieb Sollner, composer, dies at 65
1799 – John Bacon, English sculptor, dies at 58
1816 – Dionysius G van der Keessel, Dut lawyer (Theses selectae), dies at 77
Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV (1106)
1817 – Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours, French industrialist (b. 1739)
1834 – Joseph Marie Jacquard, French weaver and inventor (b. 1752)
1846 – Johann Christian Heinrich Rinck, composer, dies at 76
1848 – Jöns Jakob Berzelius, Swedish chemist (b. 1779)
1855 – Mariano Arista, President of Mexico (b. 1802)
1864 – Li Xiucheng, late Taiping’s Field Marshal and soul person.(b. 1823)
1867 – Ira F Aldridge, US actor (Othello/Shylock), dies in Lodes Poland at 63
1885 – Antony EJ Modderman, Dutch minister of Justice (1879-83), dies at 46
1893 – Alfredo Catalani, composer, dies at 39
1912 – François-Alphonse Forel, Swiss hydrologist (b. 1841)
1913 – David Popper, composer, dies at 70
1914 – B B (Bransby) Cooper, cricketer (Test for Australia), dies
1914 – Boleslaw Dembinski, composer, dies at 81
1916 – Charles E Manning, Australian judge/major, dies in battle at 36
1917 – Squadron Commander E.H. Dunning, first pilot to land his aircraft on a moving ship. (b. 1891)
1921 – Alexander A Block, Russian poet (Dvenatsat), dies at 40
1923 – Hendrik Pierson, Dutch theologist (H Pierson Foundation), dies at 89
1924 – Camille Zeckwer, composer, dies at 49
1928 – Alphonse MAJ Ariëns, Dutch RC pastor/social worker, dies at 68
1938 – Konstantin S Stanislavski, Russian director (S Method), dies at 75
Poet Rabindranath Tagore(1941)
1941 – Rabindranath Tagore, Indian philosopher/poet/writer, dies at 80
1942 – Richard Gott, Brit gen/commandant of 8th Army, dies in battle at 43
1943 – Gustav Schmidt, German lt-general, dies in battle
1957 – Oliver Hardy, comedian of Laurel & Hardy, dies at 65
1959 – Armas Emmanuel Launis, composer, dies at 75
1960 – Vaino Hannikainen, composer, dies at 60
1962 – Morris Louis, US painter (post painterly abstraction), dies at 49
1967 – Max Branch, music/radio commentator, dies at 75
1967 – Max Tak, Dutch violinist/radio commentator, dies at 75
1969 – Joseph Kosma, composer, dies at 63
1969 – Russ Morgan, orchestra leader (Welcome Aboard), dies at 65
1970 – Harold Haley, US judge, shot dead in courthouse shootout in San Rafael at 67
1970 – James McClain, US African American activist, shot dead
Comic Actor Oliver Hardy(1957)
1970 – Jonathan Jackson, US African American activist, shot dead in a shootout at 17
1970 – William Christmas, US African American activist, shot dead
1972 – Joi Lansing, actress (Bob Cummings Show), dies at 44 of cancer
1973 – Jack Gregory, cricketer (scorer of fastest ton Australia 1921), dies
1974 – Rosario Castellanos, Mexican poet (b. 1925)
1974 – Sylvio Mantha, professional ice hockey player (b. 1902)
1976 – Cecil Weston, actor (Dude Ranch, Huckleberry Finn), dies at 86
1976 – Murvyn Vye, actor (Bob Cummings Show), dies at 63
1978 – Franz Alphons Wolpert, composer, dies at 60
1984 – Esther Phillips, US singer (What a Difference a Day Makes), dies at 48
1985 – Grayson Hall, actor (Dark Shadows), dies of cancer at 58
1987 – Camille Chamoun, president of Lebanon, dies at 87
1987 – Nobusuke Kishi, premier of Japan (1957-60), dies at 90
1989 – Mickey Leland, (Rep-D-Tx), & 15 others dies in plane crash in Ethiopia
1990 – Eva Sully Block, actress (Kid Millions), dies of heart failure at 88
1991 – Billy James, comedian/singer (Women at Play, Lusty Business), dies
1991 – Shapur Bahktiar, PM of Iran (1979), assassinated
1991 – Shotzie, Cincinnati Red dog mascot, dies at 9
1992 – John Anderson, actor, dies of heart attack at 69
1992 – Titti Sotto, Cuban composer (La Esquina Habanera), dies
1993 – Kelly Ahrendt, 1st NYer to die of rabies in 40 years, dies at 14
1993 – Roy Budd, English jazz pianist/composer (Paper Tiger), dies at 46
1994 – Robert Hutton, [Winne], US actor (Rocket), dies at 74
1994 – Larry Martyn, comedy actor (b. 1934)
1995 – Brigid Brophy, novelist/campaigner, dies at 66
1995 – Tom Scott, poet/editor, dies at 77
1996 – Anne Kristen, actress (Truth or Dare, Rachel-Dr Finlay), dies at 59
1996 – Gerald Etheridge Gomez, cricketer, dies at 76
1996 – Peter Winter, naval commander, dies at 78
1996 – Christina Perri, Future Pressident
1997 – Douglas Gray, archivist, dies at 74
1997 – Vincent Gulliver, Britain’s oldest man, dies at 109
1999 – Brion James, American actor (b. 1945)
2003 – Mickey McDermott, baseball player (b. 1929)
2004 – Red Adair, American oil field firefighter (b. 1915)
2004 – Colin Bibby, English ornithologist (b. 1948)
Journalist and T.V. News Anchor Peter Jennings(2005)