Avery Island- AG-76 - History

Avery Island- AG-76 - History

Avery Island

An island in the salt water marshes of Iberia Parish, Louisiana, near the gulf coast.

(AG-76: dp. 11,500; 1. 441'6"; b. 56'; dr. 24'4"; s. 12.5 k.; cpl. 878; a. 15", 4 40mm., 12 20mm.; el. Basilan; T. EC2-S-Cl)

Avery Island (AG-76) was laid down under a Maritime Commission contract (MCE hull 3085) on 31 October 1944 at South Portland, Maine, by the New England Shipbuilding Corp.; launched on 13 December 1944; sponsored by Mrs. Robert LeBourdais; and acquired by the Navy and commissioned on 21 December 1944, Lt. Comdr. J. H. Graves, Jr., in command.

Avery Island steamed to the Atlantic Mine Iron Works, Brooklyn, N.Y., where she was placed out of commission on Christmas Eve for conversion work. Avery Island was recommissioned on 31 July 1945 at the New York Navy Yard; conducted trial runs in Long Island Sound and shakedown training in Chesapeake Bay; and underwent a yard availability at Norfolk, Va. With her training period complete, Avery Island reported on 6 September to Service Force, Atlantic Fleet, for duty.

On 7 September, Avery Island steamed out of Hampton Roads, bound for the Pacific. he transited the Panama Canal on 1 September; paused briefly at San Diego, Calif.; then continued on to Hawaii. The ship dropped anchor in Pearl Harbor on 14 October and, after embarking Navy personnel for transport to Japan, proceeded to Tokyo, where she remained until 18 November.

Avery Island returned to San Francisco, Calif., on 7 December an was overhauled at Hunters Point, Calif. Loaded with supplies and personnel for Operation "Crossroads," Avery Island sailed on 6 May as a unit of Joint Task Force 1. The ship reached Pearl Harbor on 14 May and got underway again on 22 May, bound for Bikini Atoll.

The ship entered the lagoon there on I June and carried out instrumentation tests during Operation "Crossroads," tests to determine the effects of atomic bombs on ships. Following the end of this mission, Avery Island returned to San Francisco on 21 August and shifted to San Pedro, Calif., on 3 October, and was assigned to the 19th Fleet. She steamed to Santa Cruz Basin on 13 November to undergo radiological decontamination before beginning deactivation procedures. The vessel was placed out of commission, in reserve, on 26 May 1947, at San Pedro.

The ship's designation was changed to AKS-24 on 18 August 1951. On 4 January 1960, Avery Island was transferred to the Maritime Administration, and she was subsequently sold for scrapping.


Company-Histories.com

Address:
Highway 29
Avery Island, Louisiana 70513
U.S.A.

Statistics:

Private Company
Incorporated: c. 1907
Employees: 230
Sales: $105 million (1996)
SICs: 2035 Pickled Fruits & Vegetables, Etc.

Company Perspectives:

Edmund McIlhenny had perfected a unique method of processing red peppers into a sauce. In fact, the method was granted a patent by the federal government. Succeeding generations have protected the McIlhenny heritage. Some member of the family has always personally shepherded Tabasco sauce through every step of the way from pepper harvesting through processing, through the wine-like fermenting and aging in white-oak barrels, to final blending and bottling. Family control is total. The McIlhenny heritage is as bright as the color of the red Tabasco sauce.

McIlhenny Company is a family-owned and operated manufacturer of Tabasco brand pepper sauce. Tabasco, perhaps the most famous of 150 pepper sauces available, actually started the pepper sauce industry. The company remains a leader in domestic pepper sauce with more than a 34 percent share of the market in the 1990s, as well as a longstanding provider of pepper sauce across the globe. As Mark Robichaux explained in the Wall Street Journal, the McIlhenny Company "still profits every day from developing the first widely sold hot sauce and, in essence, creating the market."

Early History of Avery Island

The history of the McIlhenny Company should begin with a discussion of Avery Island, since the Tabasco sauce recipe depended on the island's salt and peppers. Located 140 miles west of New Orleans and 150 feet above sea level, Avery Island--a 2,300-acre tract located in the bayou country of Louisiana&mdashtually was the uppermost portion of a salt mountain. The largest of five such salt domes, Avery Island had rich soil, Cyprus-lined waterways, exotic flora, and ancient oaks. The earliest artifacts found on the island--stone weapons for hunting--dated back 12,000 years. Evidence of mastodons and mammoths, saber-toothed tigers, and tiny three-toed horses also had been discovered there. If interpretations surrounding the basket fragments, stone implements, and Indian pottery found on the island are correct, a salt brining industry began there in 1300 A.D.

French explorers discovered the island sometime during the 18th century, and white settlers arrived in Avery Island by the century's end--when the Indians disappeared from the island. The salt brine springs, however, remained active, first distinguishing themselves during the War of 1812 when Andrew Jackson's troops used Avery Island salt in the Battle of New Orleans.

In 1818, Sarah Craig Marsh's father purchased some land on Avery Island, then known as Isle Petite Anse. Sarah Craig Marsh later married one Daniel Dudley Avery, and their descendants--through time and through marriage--came to control the whole island.

Mr. McIlhenny Visits 19th-Century Louisiana and Stays

During the mid-1800s, New Orleans was one of the largest, busiest cities in the United States. It was no surprise, then, that Edmund McIlhenny, an East Coast bank agent, should visit the city. A fifth-generation American of Scottish and Irish descent, McIlhenny was an accomplished marksman, yachtsman, and prize-winning horse breeder who loved good food. (Once at Antoine's restaurant he commented: "I enjoyed this so much. I feel like starting all over again." So he did: McIlhenny ate a second full-course dinner.)

In 1859 at the age of 43, McIlhenny married Mary Eliza Avery, the daughter of Sarah Craig Marsh and Daniel Dudley Avery. Avery, a lawyer and judge in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, also operated a sugar plantation on his land on Isle Petite Anse. In 1862, a massive rock salt deposit was discovered on the island, so the Averys moved from the city to the island to oversee the quarrying, which supplied salt to the blockaded Confederate states. The Avery family grew wealthy cultivating the island's rock salt and marketing the salt as a meat preservative.

McIlhenny enjoyed gardening as a hobby at the family's plantation on Isle Petite Anse. In 1848, a friend gave him some extra-spicy pepper seeds that the friend had come upon in Mexico during the Mexican-American War. (Later these peppers were identified as Capsicum frutescens. Although about 20 wild species were known in the New World--mostly in South America--only about five species had been cultivated domestically. The Tabasco peppers were the only Capsicum frutescens cultivar in the United States.) McIlhenny planted the seeds and began experimenting with recipes for a pepper sauce with which to season local southern Louisiana dishes from Spanish, French, American Indian, and African traditions.

The Civil War, however, interrupted his work. In 1863, Union troops invaded Isle Petite Anse and captured the salt quarries. The McIlhennys and Averys fled to Texas. Upon their return, McIlhenny and his in-laws found a changed Louisiana. A career in banking in New Orleans was out of the question after the Civil War, so the Averys and McIlhenny relocated to Isle Petite Anse permanently and began to rebuild. The island, the salt quarry, the sugar cane all were in ruins--except for the pepper plants. McIlhenny learned that the humidity caused the plants to grow heartily on the island, so--motivated by dullness of Reconstruction food--he resumed his pepper sauce experiments until he perfected a recipe that everyone seemed to enjoy.

Post-Civil War Recipe for Success

McIlhenny's recipe was elegantly simple. He mashed the peppers the day he harvested them, mixed them with a little Avery Island salt (a half coffee cup of salt for each gallon of crushed peppers), aged the mixture for 30 days in wooden barrels, added the "best French wine vinegar," aged the mixture another 30 days--hand stirring to blend the flavors--and strained the naturally bright red sauce into old perfume bottles sealed with green wax and topped with shakers. Family and friends suggested selling "that famous sauce Mr. McIlhenny makes" for additional income, so McIlhenny began marketing his creation.

McIlhenny thought about naming his pepper sauce Petite Anse Sauce after his island home. Other family members, however, did not share McIlhenny's enthusiasm for using this name for a commercial product, so he called the sauce Tabasco--a Central American Indian word meaning "land where soil is hot and humid." McIlhenny's Tabasco sauce became the original hot sauce--now a trademark and service mark of the McIlhenny Company.

In 1868, McIlhenny sent 350 samples to wholesalers in New York--including the E.C. Hazard Grocery Company, owned by the cousin of a friend. By 1869 McIlhenny received thousands of orders for the sauce at $1.00 a bottle. The wholesalers even sent Tabasco sauce as far away as England. In 1870 McIlhenny received a U.S. Letters Patent for his Tabasco brand pepper sauce. He quit banking and began a full-time career in pepper sauce manufacturing.

In 1872, McIlhenny established a London office to meet the heavy demands of the European market for Tabasco sauce. Throughout its history, Tabasco sauce remained a favorite in England. For example, when the product's availability in Great Britain became threatened by the "Buy British" campaign of the isolationist British government in 1932, a crisis of national proportions erupted. Unhappy without their pepper sauce--a staple in the House of Commons dining room--Members of Parliament protested and, with support of the press, the "Buy British" motto became "Buy Tabasco."

John Avery McIlhenny Continues the Tradition, 1890s

When Edmund McIlhenny died in 1890, his son John Avery McIlhenny assumed control of making the Tabasco sauce. Immediately upon taking his new position, John McIlhenny visited established commercial Tabasco customers throughout the United States. He intended to familiarize himself with existing accounts and to court new business. Some of his marketing efforts included bill posters large wooden signs in fields near cities drummers canvassing house-to-house in selected cities exhibits at food expositions circulars and folders and free trial-size samples. (Ironically, the company's marketing strategies changed little since John McIlhenny's plans. The McIlhenny Company relied heavily on print ads in trade and consumer periodicals to market Tabasco sauce throughout its history. It was many years from its establishment before the McIlhenny Company's first television commercial in 1985, although both print and TV ads were used widely in the 1990s.)

John McIlhenny also commissioned an opera company to perform the "Burlesque Opera of Tabasco." When in 1893 Harvard's Hasty Pudding Club asked permission to use Tabasco in one of its reviews, John McIlhenny bought the rights to the review and staged it in New York. Samples of Tabasco sauce were given away during the show's matinee performances. Other early marketing efforts included promotions such as a grocery store contest with a $3,000 prize and offers for famous painting reproductions in exchange for a Tabasco coupon and a 10 cents handling charge.

In 1898, John Avery McIlhenny joined the First Volunteer Calvary of the U.S. Army, serving as a Rough Rider with Teddy Roosevelt at San Juan Hill. McIlhenny traveled extensively after the Spanish-American War. In 1906 he left Louisiana to work for his friend President Roosevelt at the U.S. Civil Service Commission, eventually becoming the U.S. Minister Plenipotentiary to Haiti in 1922. Under John Avery McIlhenny's direction, the family's Tabasco business grew tenfold.

In 1907, Edmund Avery McIlhenny ("Mr. Ned"), the second son of the inventor of Tabasco sauce, became president of the just-formed McIlhenny Company, which was created to manufacture and market Tabasco sauce. Mr. Ned's brother, food authority Rufus Avery McIlhenny, served as the new company's production supervisor during this time. Rufus McIlhenny was also responsible for engineering and purchasing.

Mr. Ned grew the business both domestically and internationally, as well as successfully defended the company in several trademark infringement suits attempted by competing companies. Many competing pepper sauces were regional imitations of Tabasco sauce but, unlike competing brands, Tabasco contained no food colorings, stabilizers, garlic, or other ingredients. Tabasco also was the only national brand aged for three years in white-oak barrels. Other pepper sauces were made from cayenne peppers, which ranked between 1,000 and 3,000 on the Scoville Scale. (A pharmacist named Wilbur Scoville devised a scale by which to judge the intensity of hot peppers and related products. He reserved a zero rating for the mildest of peppers, i.e., an ordinary bell pepper. Mayan habanero peppers--the hottest of the hot--measured about 350,000 on the pharmacist's scale.) Tabasco sauce, however, was made from Capsicum peppers, so it rated higher on the scale than competing cayenne-pepper products: between 9,000 and 12,000. Tabasco sauce was "not just an old stand-by," revealed John Mariani in Sports Afield, "but a lovely, aromatic, beautifully balanced sauce with a true Louisiana vinegar tang to it."

Tabasco Sauce and the Environment

In addition to developing the McIlhenny Company, Mr. Ned preserved the natural environment of Avery Island through a variety of conservation efforts. Before becoming the company's president, Mr. Ned--a self-trained biologist--traveled the world on scientific expeditions. When Mr. Ned returned to Avery Island to run operations at the Tabasco factory, he realized that the snowy egret--a bird native to Louisiana--was all but extinct from plume hunters pillaging the species for feathers for ladies' hats. Mr. Ned captured eight snowy egrets and established a colony for them in which to multiply and live safely. Thousands of egrets and migratory birds have found homes since then in the Bird City rookery on Avery Island. In the 1990s, 20,000 snowy egrets and other water birds could be found on the island.

Mr. Ned also brought the nutria--fast-breeding, brown furry rodents with webbed feet and long, hairless tails--from South America to Louisiana in the 1930s. Plant life, too, was protected by Mr. Ned. When oil was found on Avery Island in 1942, Mr. Ned insisted that work crews bury pipelines or paint them green to blend with the surrounding Jungle Gardens.

Walter Stauffer McIlhenny and the 1940s

The son of John Avery McIlhenny succeeded Mr. Ned as the leader of McIlhenny Company. The great-great-grandson of President Zachary Taylor (on his mother's side), Walter Stauffer McIlhenny joined the family business during the 1940s. He built the brick Tabasco sauce plant and brought new management and marketing techniques to the company. Under his guidance, McIlhenny Company stayed true to its traditions. Walter McIlhenny refused offers to sell the business and recoiled from changing the recipe for Tabasco sauce. In fact, Walter McIlhenny's production process remained virtually unchanged from his ancestor's.

As others before him, Walter McIlhenny planted 75 acres of peppers on Avery Island. Workers hand-picked the hot peppers when they ripened. (He equipped each worker with le petit baton rouge (a red stick) by which to identify the correct shade of ripe peppers.) Walter McIlhenny himself hand weighed the day's harvest. Then the harvested peppers were chopped and packed with a little Avery Island salt in 50 gallon white-oak wooden barrels for three years. When properly aged, the pepper mash was inspected personally by McIlhenny. Then vinegar was added to the mixture, which was stirred by a mechanical arm for about four weeks (a rare modification of Edmund McIlhenny's hand stirring of the mixture with wooden paddles). Finally, the mixture was strained of seeds and pepper skins and bottled, but only the mixture went into the containers. No preservatives, additives, coloring, or flavoring ever went into a bottle of Tabasco sauce.

Tabasco Sauce Goes to War

Nicknamed "Tabasco Mac" by his fellow Marine Corps reservists, Walter McIlhenny served his country as well as his company with distinction. Stationed at Guadalcanal, he received the Navy Cross and a Silver Star during World War II before earning the rank of Brigadier General. He, too, was a distinguished marksman and a member of the President's One Hundred. Since soldiers were close to his heart, Walter McIlhenny created a C-ration cookbook for use by members of the U.S. Armed Forces during the Vietnam Conflict. Knowing that the U.S. Armed Forces used Tabasco sauce liberally on their C-rations, Walter McIlhenny produced the Charley Ration Cookbook or, No Food Is Too Good for the Man up Front. Copies were sent to soldiers with bottles of Tabasco sauce. Walter McIlhenny even designed a Tabasco bottle holster that attached to a cartridge belt. This tradition continued into the Gulf War when every third MRE (Meals Ready to Eat) contained a small package of Tabasco sauce and a recipe booklet. Eventually every MRE included Tabasco sauce.

Walter McIlhenny continued to select personally the pepper seeds for the next crop from the plants grown on Avery Island. The seeds were treated, dried, and stored on the island and in a bank vault until the next year's planting. Up until the 1960s, all plants used for Tabasco sauce were grown on Avery Island. When a shortage of harvesters caused concern, the company turned to the land and laborers of Mexico for planting and harvesting the pepper crops. (Mechanical harvesters proved less competitive than Latin American workers for the company.) Though all pepper plants start on the island, Avery Island peppers accounted for only a small amount of the peppers used in production since the 1960s. Peppers grown in Columbia, Honduras, Venezuela, or other countries eventually comprised about 90 percent of those used in manufacturing. In addition to the labor considerations, the company adopted this practice to ensure a constant supply of peppers since the Avery Island crop could be imperiled by disease or weather for example, Hurricane Andrew threatened (but did no lasting damage to) the Avery Island pepper crop and Tabasco factory in 1992.

The growing cycle for the pepper plants remained unchanged over the years: workers planted seeds in greenhouses in January. In April, seedlings were moved to their respective fields on Avery Island or abroad. Workers harvested peppers by hand beginning in August.

Edward McIlhenny Simmons and the 1990s

Like his predecessors, Edward McIlhenny Simmons, the company's next president and a great-grandson of Tabasco's inventor, remained personally involved in the growing of peppers and making of Tabasco sauce. He continued the tradition of selecting 1,200 pepper plants annually for 70 pounds of seeds for future crops. Simmons stored 20 pounds of the seeds in a bank vault in New Iberia and 50 pounds at the company's headquarters as a safeguard against crop loss.

So Tabasco sauce production continued as it had for more than 100 years. As Robichaux wrote: "The shape of the bottle has changed little, as has the process of making the sauce." Nevertheless, the McIlhenny Company expanded the Tabasco line over the years to include chili powder, seasoned salt, and popcorn seasonings. The company also created a Bloody Mary mix, a Seven-Spice Chili recipe, and a picante sauce for Tabasco consumers. "We've been a one-product company long enough," said Edward McIlhenny Simmons in Americana magazine in 1991.

The year 1991 also brought the first acquisition for the company. McIlhenny Company purchased Trappey's Fine Foods, manufacturer of Red Devil pepper sauce and other seasoning-related items. The McIlhenny Company marketed these recently acquired products under a new name: McIlhenny Farms. The acquisition allowed the company to offer a wider variety of merchandise, including pepper jelly, ketchup, and molasses.

The amount of Tabasco sauce manufactured daily of course grew with demand. During the 1990s millions of bottles of the sauce had been sold throughout the world, with production requiring labels to be printed in no less than 15 languages. In 1996, for example, more than 50 million bottles of Tabasco sauce were sold in at least 105 countries. Canada alone used 250,000 bottles in one year. Japan, the largest consumer of Tabasco sauce abroad, imported the sauce for sushi, spaghetti, and pizza recipes.

By 1997, the factory on Avery Island operated four production lines. In total, 450,000 two-ounce bottles could be manufactured daily with all lines in operation. (Each two-ounce bottle typically contained about 720 drops of Tabasco sauce, so the factory had the potential to manufacture about 324 million drops of Tabasco sauce each day in 1997.)

The company also launched an interesting and unusual interactive web site--PepperFest--in 1996 to reach the multitude of Tabasco consumers. "With users of Tabasco products located all over the world," explained executive vice president Paul C. P. McIlhenny in a press release, "it just makes sense to offer accessible information via the World Wide Web. We want people to have fun visiting our PepperFest, and at the same time we welcome their feedback and suggestions."

The Sauce with Universal Appeal

Indeed, Tabasco might be a household word throughout the world. McIlhenny's pepper sauce "traveled to Khartoum with Lord Kitchener," revealed Pat Mandell in Americana, "and was carried on Himalayan expeditions, in the mess kits of World War I doughboys, and aboard Skylab. It is the quintessential ingredient in Bloody Marys. Its pungent flavor enlivens gumbos, eggs, steaks and stews, salads, chicken a la king, French onion soup, and jambalaya." The pepper sauce even was approved for Kosher cooking. As the first commercial hot sauce ever, the elixir, its founder, and his descendants became known in legend, lore, and fact for creating a new product and a market. As Cal Garrett, a manager with rival Durkee's Red Hot sauce, said: "They've built a great niche."

Callahan, Maureen, "Fifteen Foods with Hidden Healing Power," Redbook, October 1991, p. 138.
Deveny, Kathleen, "Rival Hot Sauces Are Breathing Fire at Market Leader Tabasco," Wall Street Journal, January 7, 1993, p. B1.
Mandell, Pat, "Louisiana Hot," Americana, February 1991, pp. 26--32.
Mariani, John, "In Praise of (Very Hot) Sauces," Sports Afield, May 1996, p. 50.
"McIlhenny Company: Announcing the Tabasco Sauce 'Ultimate Summer Cookout' Online Sweepstakes," M2 Presswire, May 16, 1997.
McIlhenny Company, "Ask Mr. Broussard, the Tabasco Historian," PepperFest: A Livin', Breathin' Festival on the World Wide Web &#064 http://www.tabasco.com.
McIlhenny Company, "One Click Ahead," PepperFest: A Livin', Breathin' Festival on the World Wide Web &#064 http://www.tabasco.com.
"McIlhenny Company: McIlhenny Company Launches Tabasco PepperFest Website," M2 Presswire, August 27, 1996.
McIlhenny Company, Recipes from the Land of Tabasco Pepper Sauce, Avery Island, LA: McIlhenny Company.
Moore, Diane M., The Treasures of Avery Island, Lafayette, LA: Acadian House Publishing, 1990.
Morcos, Ann, "Wetlands Pest," Boys' Life, January 1996, p. 17.
Naj, Amal, Peppers: A Story of Hot Pursuits, New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 1992.
"New on the Web: The McIlhenny Company," Telecomworldwire, May 20, 1997.
Reynolds, J. R., "L.A. House of Blues Is Foundation HQ," Billboard, July 30, 1994, p. 19.
Rice, William, "Tabasco Sauce Stands up to a Hurricane," Detroit Free Press, November 18, 1992.
Robichaux, Mark, "Tabasco Sauce Maker Remains Hot after 125 Years," Wall Street Journal, May 11, 1990.

Source: International Directory of Company Histories , Vol. 20. St. James Press, 1998.


Avery Island steamed to the Atlantic Basin Iron Works, Brooklyn, New York, where she was placed out of commission on Christmas Eve for conversion work. Avery Island was recommissioned on 31 July 1945 at the New York Navy Yard conducted trial runs in Long Island Sound and shakedown training in Chesapeake Bay and underwent a yard availability at Norfolk, Virginia. With her training period complete, Avery Island reported on 6 September to Service Force, Atlantic Fleet, for duty.

On 7 September, Avery Island steamed out of Hampton Roads, bound for the Pacific Ocean. She transited the Panama Canal on 15 September paused briefly at San Diego, California then continued on to Hawaii. The ship dropped anchor in Pearl Harbor on 14 October and, after embarking Navy personnel for transport to Japan, proceeded to Tokyo, where she remained until 18 November.

Avery Island returned to San Francisco, California, on 7 December and was overhauled at Hunters Point, California. Loaded with supplies and personnel for Operation Crossroads, Avery Island sailed on 6 May as a unit of Joint Task Force 1. The ship reached Pearl Harbor on 14 May and got underway again on 22 May, bound for Bikini Atoll.

The ship entered the lagoon there on 1 June and carried out instrumentation tests during Operation Crossroads, tests to determine the effects of atomic bombs on ships.


Avery Island steamed to the Atlantic Basin Iron Works, Brooklyn, New York, where she was placed out of commission on Christmas Eve for conversion work. Avery Island was recommissioned on 31 July 1945 at the New York Navy Yard conducted trial runs in Long Island Sound and shakedown training in Chesapeake Bay and underwent a yard availability at Norfolk, Virginia. With her training period complete, Avery Island reported on 6 September to Service Force, Atlantic Fleet, for duty.

On 7 September, Avery Island steamed out of Hampton Roads, bound for the Pacific Ocean. She transited the Panama Canal on 15 September paused briefly at San Diego, California then continued on to Hawaii. The ship dropped anchor in Pearl Harbor on 14 October and, after embarking Navy personnel for transport to Japan, proceeded to Tokyo, where she remained until 18 November.

Avery Island returned to San Francisco, California, on 7 December and was overhauled at Hunters Point, California. Loaded with supplies and personnel for Operation Crossroads, Avery Island sailed on 6 May as a unit of Joint Task Force 1. The ship reached Pearl Harbor on 14 May and got underway again on 22 May, bound for Bikini Atoll.

The ship entered the lagoon there on 1 June and carried out instrumentation tests during Operation Crossroads, tests to determine the effects of atomic bombs on ships.


A history of hot sauce and the secret island where TABASCO is made

You may have known America's oldest and most popular hot sauce – Tabasco brand – originates in Louisiana, but did you know there's an island where the peppers are grown and the sauce is made? Yep, and you can visit it.

Tabasco brand's peppers have been grown by five generations of the McIllhenny family on Avery Island, La. It is a salt-dome island in Iberia Parish, where relatively few people live. The island is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Tabasco's website describes it as: "a mysteriously beautiful place where the red peppers grow, the factory hums, and abundant wildlife can be seen in Jungle Gardens."

Peppers growing on Avery Island, La.

Those interested in a tour of the Tabasco operations and a museum located at 329 Avery Island Road can call 337-373-6139 or visit the website.

History of hot sauce

Chili peppers are some of the earliest plants cultivated, proving human beings have always liked hot foods. According to PepperScale.com, "Their use goes all the way back to the beginning of civilization. Archaeological digs have found evidence of chili peppers being eaten as far back as 7,000 BC. Several millennia later, chili peppers would be domesticated. It was around this time that the earliest hot sauces were invented this shows that humans have a long history of using them as condiments to enhance the flavor and nutritional value of foods."

A modern bottle of Maunsel White's sauce, left, and Maunsel White in DeBow's Review in 1853.

Skb8721 | Wikimedia Commons

A sauce made in 1807 in Massachusetts is thought to be the first commercial product, PepperScale.com says. Newspaper advertisements show it was sold as "cayenne sauce." Another sauce was introduced in the mid-1800s by J. McCollick & Company of New York.

Maunsel White, an Irish immigrant and veteran of the War of 1812, grew what is thought to be the country's first crop of chili peppers in the mid-1800s on his Plaquemines Parish, La., plantation, PepperScale.com says. He developed sauces – Maunsel White's Essence of Tobasco Pepper and Maunsel White's 1812 Hot Sauce – but never marketed them commercially, although his family did after his death in 1863.

The TABASCO brand

That's where Louisiana businessman Edmund McIllenny stepped in. "A food lover and avid gardener, Edmund McIlhenny was given seeds of Capsicum frutescens peppers that had come from Mexico or Central America," according to the company's official history. "On Avery Island in South Louisiana, he sowed the seeds, nurtured the plants and delighted in the spicy flavor of the peppers they bore. Many years later field hands used a little red stick, or le petite bâton rouge, to measure the ripeness of the peppers."

Sauces helped make a boring diet more palatable, the history said. "The diet of the Reconstruction South was bland and monotonous, especially by Louisiana standards. So Edmund McIlhenny decided to create a pepper sauce to give the food some flavor and excitement."

The factory where Tabasco Sauce is made.

In 1868, McIlhenny grew his first commercial pepper crop and began bottling sauce to sell to stores. He called it Tabasco and patented the sauce in 1870.

The making of the sauce is much the same as it was 150 years ago, although it is aged longer.


Avery Island- AG-76 - History

An island in the salt water marshes of Iberia Parish, Louisiana, near the gulf coast.

(AG - 76: dp. 11,500 l. 441'6" b. 56' dr. 24'4" s. 12.5 k. cpl. 878 a. 1 5", 4 40mm., 12 20mm. cl. Basilan T. EC2-S-C1)

Avery Island (AG-76) was laid down under a Maritime Commission contract (MCE hull 3085) on 31 October 1944 at South Portland, Maine, by the New England Shipbuilding Corp. launched on 13 December 1944 sponsored by Mrs. Robert LeBourdais and acquired by the Navy and commissioned on 21 December 1944, Lt. Comdr. J. H. Graves, Jr., in command.

Avery Island steamed to the Atlantic Basin Iron Works, Brooklyn, N.Y., where she was placed out of commission on Christmas Eve for conversion work. Avery Island was recommissioned on 31 July 1945 at the New York Navy Yard conducted trial runs in Long Island Sound and shakedown training in Chesapeake Bay and underwent a yard availability at Norfolk, Va. With her training period complete, Avery Island reported on 6 September to Service Force, Atlantic Fleet, for duty.

On 7 September, Avery Island steamed out of Hampton Roads, bound for the Pacific. She transited the Panama Canal on 15 September paused briefly at San Diego, Calif. then continued on to Hawaii. The shop dropped anchor in Pearl Harbor on 14 October and, after embarking Navy personnel for transport to Japan, proceeded to Tokyo, where she remained until 18 November.

Avery Island returned to San Francisco, Calif., on 7 December and was overhauled at Hunters Point, Calif. Loaded with supplies and personnel for Operation "Crossroads," Avery Island sailed on 6 May as a unit of Joint Task Force 1. The ship reached Pearl Harbor on 14 May and got underway again on 22 May, bound for Bikini Atoll.

The ship entered the lagoon there on 1 June and carried out instrumentation tests during Operation "Crossroads," tests to determine the effects of atomic bombs on ships. Following the end of this mission, Avery Island returned to San Francisco on 21 August and shifted to San Pedro, Calif., on 3 October, and was assigned to the 19th Fleet. She steamed to Santa Cruz Basin on 13 November to undergo radiological decontamination before beginning deactivation procedures. The vessel was placed out of commission, in reserve, on 26 May 1947, at San Pedro.

The ship's designation was changed to AKS-24 on 18 August 1951. On 4 January 1960, Avery Island was transferred to the Maritime Administration, and she was subsequently sold for scrapping.


Later Descendants

For more on the family towards the end of the century, see Edward Avery McIlhenny, Tabasco, rothfeder2007, and usner2013.

See “Biographical Information,” UNC Finding Aid. See also “Avery, Daniel Dudley,” and “Avery, Dudley,” s.v., in the Dictionary of Louisiana Biography usner2013.↩

See “Biographical Information,” UNC Finding Aid. See also “Avery, Daniel Dudley,” and “Avery, Dudley,” s.v., in the Dictionary of Louisiana Biography usner2013.↩

See “Biographical Information,” UNC Finding Aid. See also “Avery, Daniel Dudley,” and “Avery, Dudley,” s.v., in the Dictionary of Louisiana Biography usner2013.↩

See Avery Family Papers, Records of the Antebellum Southern Plantations, Series J, Part 5, Reel 11, for bills of lading, account books with suppliers, etc.↩

Detail Exemption for John M Avery, Avery Family Papers, Records of the Antebellum Southern Plantations, Series J, Part 5, Reel 11, Frame 573, link.↩

See C. S. Longcope to D. D. Avery, July 19, 1865, Avery Family Papers, Records of the Antebellum Southern Plantations, Series J, Part 5, Reel 11, Frame 679 Longcope to Avery, June 12, 1865, Avery Family Papers, Records of the Antebellum Southern Plantations, Series J, Part 5, Reel 11, Frames 665-667.↩

Cara Taylor Evans to Sarah Avery, July 18, 1865, Avery Family Papers, Records of the Antebellum Southern Plantations, Series J, Part 5, Reel 11, Frames 673-676.↩

See Cara Peirce to Sarah Avery, June 29, 1865, Avery Family Papers, Records of the Antebellum Southern Plantations, Series J, Part 5, Reel 11, Frame 671.↩

Recipients of wedding announcements included H. B. J. Hadley of Houston, Tom Hill of Columbia in Brazoria County, Dr. J. Haden of Galveston, C. S. Longcope of Houston, Rhoda Milby of Houston, Mr. and Mrs. Manly of Galveston, the Raudles of Brenham, Mr. and Mrs. Sledge of Chapell Hill, DeWitt C. Stone of Galveston, William Sharp of Houston, Upshaw or Upshur of Chapell Hill. Also a few listed in Havana and Mexico, as well as most members of the Weeks Family. Avery Family Papers, *Records of the Antebellum Southern Plantations, Series J, Part 5, Reel 11, Series 2, Folder 54.↩

See rothfeder2007 “Avery, Daniel Dudley,” and “Avery, Dudley,” s.v., in the Dictionary of Louisiana Biography. A letter from Avery to Thomas O. Moore, written from Houston, suggests they were there until May at least. See Moore Papers, LSU, Box 1, Folder 15.↩

See Dudley Avery to Daniel D. Avery, October 31, 1865, Avery Family Papers, Records of the Antebellum Southern Plantations, Series J, Part 5, Reel 11, Frames 705-707 and November 21, 1865, Frames 714-716 Sarah Avery to Daniel Dudley Avery, November 27, 1865, Avery Family Papers, Records of the Antebellum Southern Plantations, Series J, Part 5, Reel 11, Frames 725-727.↩

Dudley Avery to Daniel D. Avery May 12, 1865, Avery Family Papers, Records of the Antebellum Southern Plantations, Series J, Part 5, Reel 11, Frame 652-655. At the same time, however, Dudley shared his doubts that state notes (which he had tried unsuccessfully to exchange in Iberia) would be redeemed.↩

Avery Family Papers, Records of the Antebellum Southern Plantations, Series J, Part 5, Reel 11, Frames 668-670.↩

Charles [Nibbins? Gibbens?] to P. H. Foley, August 30, 1865, Avery Family Papers, Records of the Antebellum Southern Plantations, Series J, Part 5, Reel 11, Frames 684-685.↩

See P. H. Morgan to D. D. Avery, October 19, 1865, Avery Family Papers, Records of the Antebellum Southern Plantations, Series J, Part 5, Reel 11, Frames 699-700.↩

James W. Reeve to DD Avery, September 15, 1865, Avery Family Papers, Records of the Antebellum Southern Plantations, Series J, Part 5, Reel 11, Frames 688-689.↩

M. Judson to DD Avery, September 27, 1865, Avery Family Papers, Records of the Antebellum Southern Plantations, Series J, Part 5, Reel 11, Frames 692.↩

John Winthrop to DD Avery, September 30, 1865, Avery Family Papers, Records of the Antebellum Southern Plantations, Series J, Part 5, Reel 11, Frames 693-695.↩

Dudley Avery to DD Avery, November 21, 1865, Avery Family Papers, Records of the Antebellum Southern Plantations, Series J, Part 5, Reel 11, Frames 714-716.↩

Mary McIlhenny to mother, November 21, 1865, Avery Family Papers, Records of the Antebellum Southern Plantations, Series J, Part 5, Reel 11, Frames 717-719.↩

Jack Avery to DD Avery, November 21, 1865, Avery Family Papers, Records of the Antebellum Southern Plantations, Series J, Part 5, Reel 11, Frames 721-722.↩

Sarah Avery to DD Avery, November 27, 1865, Avery Family Papers, Records of the Antebellum Southern Plantations, Series J, Part 5, Reel 11, Frames 725-727.↩

List of Avery Family Servants, Avery Family Papers, Records of the Antebellum Southern Plantations, Series J, Part 5, Reel 11, Frames 988-991.↩


List of people/families enslaved by the Avery family of Morganton, NC

This is where the unmarked graves of enslaved Africans/Americans are. I hope to add a marker in this area.

This is a listing of poeple enslaved* by the Avery-family. I’ve divided them into family groupings. I hope it will help their descendants in their searches for their family history. I’ve also added a brief history of the Avery family to help put these enslaved Africans and Americans in a wider historical context and timeline.

*A note on the terms I’m using. Race and racial slavery are such painful and difficult issues in our collective history that I am trying to do my small part by reexamining even the terms used to discuss it. The words we use reflect our beliefs using different words can undermine those beliefs. So, for instance, rather than calling the people on this list “slaves,” they are “the enslaved” – which describes what was done to them but does not define them by it. And it places culpability squarely where it belongs – on those people like my ancestors who engaged in the enslavement of other human beings.

I also use the term “racial slavery” for slavery as it was practiced in the U.S. Slavery, of course, has been practiced, and practiced in different ways, throughout human history. The Cherokee took those defeated in battle as slaves, but then often eventually adopted them into the family with full familial rights. Slavery as practiced by whites in the U.S. was an institutionalized system of degrading, devaluing, and using people of African descent. Our economy was built on it and an entire field of pseudo-science was created to justify it (e.g. different races were believed to be different species).

The Avery family of Swan Ponds, Burke County, NC

Waightstill Avery, who founded the Swan Ponds plantation (I don’t say he “built” it because, of course, it was built by enslaved people), was born in 1741 in Groton, Connecticut. He was educated at Princeton University. In 1778, in New Bern, NC (on the east coast) he married a young wealthy widow, Leah Probart Franks. After a few years in eastern N.C., Waightstill and Leah moved to Burke County, N.C. in the foothills of the Appalachian mountains in western N.C. Swan Ponds plantation, just outside Morganton, was established. They had four children – Polly Mira Avery, Elizabeth Avery, Isaac Thomas Avery, and Selina Louise Avery. Leah and Waightstill lived at Swan Ponds until their respective deaths. Waightstill Avery died in 1821 and Leah died in 1832.

Their son, Isaac Thomas Avery (1785-1864), inherited the plantation and some portion of the enslaved population. In 1815 he married Harriet Eloise Erwin (1795-1858). The Erwins were a wealthy local family. They owned a plantation called Belvidere and, presumably, some of those enslaved by the Erwins went with Harriet to Swan Ponds. They had ten children (that survived into adulthood): William Waightstill Avery, Isaac Erwin Avery, Mary Martha Avery, Justina Harriet Avery, Alphonso Calhoun Avery, Laura Myra Avery, Willoughby Francis Avery. Three of their sons – William Waightstill Avery, Clark Moulton Avery, Isaac Erwin Avery – died in the Civil War, fighting on the wrong side of history. Their father died in 1864 after hearing of the deaths of William and Clark.

After emancipation, many of those who had been enslaved (having few options) stayed in the area. There are still many Avery descendants, both black and white, in the area around Morganton.

The people the Avery family enslaved (and who died before emancipation) are buried in unmarked graves near the small Avery family cemetery. I hope to raise enough money to put a permanent marker of some kind near or on the place where these enslave people lie, and on it all their names.

Slave cabins were on this ridge along the tree line. Swan Ponds in 1900, more or less as it would have been during the time of slavery.

Enslaved family groups on the Avery plantation

Tina [from Franck family, with Leah]

child Benna , b. 14 May 1772

Diana born 13 th Dec. 1780

Children Lilph & Rose b. 15 April 1770

Manual (Emanual?)

Mary (purchased Sept 6, 1814)

Daughter Chassey , b. August 1816

Romeo & Big Luie have 9 children at home Dec. 1815

  1. Mara 7. Eliza or Liz
  2. Pat 8. Dashee
  3. Jacob 9. Mimee
  4. Nan
  5. Vinee
  6. Jos . (or Joseph, and possibly given to Harriet Avery Chambers in Isaac Thomas Avery’s will)

Eliza [possibly daughter of Romeo & Big Louie becayse she named a son Romeo?]

Twins, Jacob & Mary , b. 12 Sept. 1829, d. Sept. 1840 from fever

Daughter Luann , b. 18 Aug. 1841

July hath 8 children 1815

  1. Hampton
  2. Dick
  3. Henry
  4. Peter
  5. Chenee
  6. George
  7. Sally
  8. Ginny

Monday hath 7 children living at home 1815

  1. Stephen
  2. Luie M.
  3. Will
  4. Anthony
  5. Emperor
  6. Sue
  7. Jack

Diana hath 6 children living at home 1815

  1. Ab (Abraham, Abner, or Absalom?)
  2. Li
  3. Isam
  4. Balam
  5. Celia
  6. Cinthia

[Same Diana? Son Cyrus , b. 10 Jan. 1838 “bought by Forney and paid.”]?

Bet hath two children (could be Betty or Elizabeth)

Felix hath 3 children

Twins, Two smart healthy daughters , b. Sept. 1818

Son Billy “being a Mulatto ” b. 2 Jan. 1805

15 August 1837

Boy child b. 28 March 1838

Child (no name) b. 8 April 1838, d. 4 weeks old

Boy child died soon after birth

Boy Child b. 24 August 1838, d. same day

16 April 1829

Child Robert Ad___ b. 14 May 1829

Son b. August 1829, d. 4 days after birth

Daughter Polly , b. 19 Nov. 1841

Linda and Abnus

Daughter Hulda , b. 20 Sept. 1854

Caty & Alfred

Daughter Milly , b. Swan Ponds in January

Son Anthony , b. 22 Oct. 1854

Son Balaam , b. 22 Oct. 1852, d. 1852

Jenny (& Cathe?)

Son Willoughby Francis , b. 18 March 1855 (the fact that her son is named Willoughby Francis could indicate that the child was fathered by Willoughby Francis Avery)

(mentioned in Willoughby Francis Avery’s will in 1876)

Daughter Lovina , b. Nov. 17 1856

Son Ephraim , b. January 26, 1861, d. Dec. 4, 1862

March 25th 1855

two boys , b. Dec. 15th 1860 died soon after the birth

Mary Esther

Son John Carson , b. June 24, 1855? (The Carsons were also a well-to-do local family who had many enslaved Africans/Americans. This boy could have been fathered by one of them.)

Daughter Mary , b. March 10th 1862

Margaret (owner Isaac Erwin Avery)

Son Clingman August 2, 1855?

daughter Lititia , b. Dec. 6, 1862

[same Margaret as Isaac T. Avery’s Margaret?)

Cinthy ( Abbi ’s daughter) [same Abb as Abb Boy Child b. 24 August 1838, d. same day?]

Son Elisha , b. August 26 , 1855?

Daughter Matilda , b. December 20 1850

Son Samuel , b. 10th March 1857 at Swan Ponds

Son Capt. James Wilson , b. August 4th 1861, d. 26 April 1862

Cecelia (in Yancey, NC)

Daughter Ann , b. December 1856

Twin sons b. 16th May 1857, William & The other died in October 1857

Daughter Missy , b. August 14

Margaret (owner Isaac Thomas Avery)

child named ___ , b. Nov. 23 (1855?) died at 5 months old

Daughter Elvira , b. October 12, 1860

Cindy was delivered of two boys, b. Dec. 15th 1860 died soon after the birth

Julia & Homer ’s

Son Romeo , b. January 6, 1861

Thine had at the Crab Orchard (in Plumtree, NC) in Mitchel

Daughter Louisa , b. About the 20th of August

Mary ( Thines’ daughter)

Son Logan , b. 30 September 1861

bore three children on Jan 19, 1862 – two sons and one girl Rache l. Of the boys, one died in May & one in August

Daughter Sally , b. February 20, 1862

Surak (Sarah?)

Son Will Phifer , b. Sept. 11th 1862

(The Phifers were also a local white family. The use of the Phifer name could indicate that one of the Phifer men had fathered the child.)

Daughter called —— , b. & died October 24, 1862

Roxanna & Lige (Elijah)

(There are many stories about an enslaved man named Elijah or Lige, which I’ll post soon. He was – through the Avery family’s telling of the stories – the prototypical “faithful slave” of Southern myth. Obviously his own version of events would be different and fascinating! If anyone descended from Lige reads this, I’d love to hear from you.)

Cecilia & Alfred ’s

Daughter Delphy , b. in Mitchell [Crab Orchard in Plumtree?] in 1862


Jungle Gardens Avery Island History

You can see anything from thousands of white birds, to alligators right at your feet, to 300 year old live oaks with beautiful moss hanging from them to a giant buddha overlooking an algae covered swamp. Today jungle gardens and bird city are open to the public.

The jungle gardens of avery island.

Jungle gardens avery island history. The majestic oak trees, dripping with spanish moss, form a canopy over the road. See how it’s made during a factory tour, pick up a few souvenirs at the tabasco country store, and tour the island’s jungle gardens. I was always going somewhere else, but thinking at the same time that we should plan a trip to avery island to see jungle gardens, the tabasco factory and bird city.

The island was a sugar plantation formerly known as petite anse island. Touring avery island and jungle garden. The mcilhenny family has made tabasco® sauce on avery island, louisiana for over 5 generations.

Avery island is the home of louisiana’s iconic hot sauce: Jungle gardens 7k trail, 5k run weather history based on a 5 year average and a race date of november 4th , avery island, la can expect temperatures between 70℉ and 76℉ with humidity around 83% and precipitation of 0. This is one of the most beautiful places.

Jungle gardens at avery island subject: Hwy 329, avery island, la 70513. Oaks and learn the history of the island.

One of jungle gardens' primary attractions is a bird sanctuary called bird city.it provides roosts for snowy egrets and other wildfowl species. In 1895 mcilhenny raised eight egrets in captivity on the island, and released them in the fall for migration. The gardens arose from the visionary efforts of edward avery mcilhenny to establish a nature preserve more than a century ago.

Following the war, the shortage of available labor continued and operations at jungle gardens would never again approach their previous scale. Turning onto the gravel path into jungle gardens, the scenery looks like something out of a film. 646 reviews #2 of 6 things to do in avery.

Hwy 329, avery island, la 70513. Avery island jungle gardens [closed] is a 3 mile moderately trafficked loop trail located near avery island, louisiana that features a lake and is good for all skill levels. Mcilhenny, the third president of mcilhenny company, and a well known naturalist.

23 reviews of avery island a.k.a. Jungle gardens was created by edward avery “ned” mcilhenny. It sits about 130 miles (210 km) west of new orleans.

It is the home of the interrelated avery and mcilhenny families See more ideas about tabasco, island, jungle gardens. Things to do in avery island

It is a driving tour during which you see birds, gators, flowers, oaks and learn the history of the island. 646 reviews #2 of 6 things to do in avery. Things to do in avery island

Hotels near (lft) lafayette regional airport You see, the tabasco factory was built on an island that is home to north america’s first ever salt rock mine in 1862. Courtesy of ogden museum of southern art.

Born on avery island in 1872, ned was an arctic explorer, naturalist and conservationist. Jungle gardens avery island, louisiana. After edward mcilhenny's death in august 1949, his.

General public hours and admission rates: Exploring the jungle gardens of avery island is an experience of pure louisiana nature with a dash of tabasco hot sauce. Jungle gardens the salt dome island is home to tabasco sauce, avery island lies about 140 miles west of new orleans.'mr.

Mcilhenny enterprises, inc., avery island, la history continued. What you need to know! The gardens were created by edward avery mcilhenny, second son of edmund mcilhenny, the inventor of tabasco sauce.

Naturalists, bird watchers and visitors from around the world will enjoy the gently rolling landscape, botanical treasures and abundant wildlife. Things to do in avery island Ninas, paul (artist) l ocated in iberia parish, avery island is the largest of five salt domes along the louisiana coast.

As a young man, he studied the plants and animals in the avery island area. Built on a salt dome, it's a mysteriously beautiful place where the red peppers grow, the factory hums, and abundant wildlife can be seen in jungle gardens. Visit avery island, the jungle gardens, the tabasco factory for many years, i drove past the avery island exit, never stopping.

Ned's' mcilhenny, son of the founder, made the jungle garden for exotic plant and animal species. And the mcilhenny company, maker of tabasco brand products for. Jungle gardens, avery island | a louisiana wildlife and nature preserve.

Jungle gardens is known for its majestic southern live oaks, often draped with spanish moss or resurrection fern, and for its azaleas, camellias, alligators, migratory birds, and many other unique species. While checking out the factory and store was cool, my favorite part of touring tabasco had to be avery island and jungle gardens.

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Your safety and the safety of our staff is important to us. COVID-19 is an extremely contagious disease that is believed to mainly spread from person-to-person contact. Jungle Gardens is doing its part to mitigate transmission intensity, and we ask you, our visitors, to do the same and help us reduce the spread of COVID-19. All posted instructions must be followed while visiting Jungle Gardens, including instructions about wearing face coverings and social distancing. By visiting Jungle Gardens, you voluntarily assume all risks related to exposure to COVID-19.

Jungle Gardens reserves the right to modify its hours of operations, capacity, or visitor guidelines as circumstances require and to deny entry or access to any person who fails to follow these guidelines or whose conduct puts our staff, visitors, or property at risk.

Know Before You Go

As Jungle Gardens starts to reopen, we’ve put new safety measures in place based on guidance from the CDC and Louisiana State Government:

Your safety and the safety of our staff is important to us.

The number of people in our museum, designated tour stops, restrooms, elevators, and giftshops are limited to allow for safe social distancing.

Visitors are required to wear face coverings at all times upon arrival to Avery Island. Visitors ages six and older are required to wear a face covering during their visit. Face coverings are also strongly recommended for visitors between the ages of two and six. Face shields are not permitted as a substitute for a face covering but may be worn over a face covering or mask. Face coverings or masks with an exhalation valve are not permitted. Face coverings should be worn over the nose and mouth. Face coverings may only be removed while eating or drinking in designated spaces.

Hand-sanitizing stations are provided for visitors throughout our facilities, and frequently scheduled and enhanced cleaning is conducted.

Safe social distancing guidelines have been implemented, including one-way paths and directional guidance. Videos implemented throughout the TABASCO™ tour experience are limited in the number of people per viewing.

Limiting the number of personal belongings brought into our facilities is encouraged. We will not be allowing storage requests of any kind during this time.

We reserve the right to deny access to any non-compliant guest.

Experience the natural beauty and tranquility of Jungle Gardens - a 170-acre semitropical garden that stretches along Bayou Petite Anse on Avery Island. Naturalists, bird watchers and visitors from around the world will enjoy the gently rolling landscape, botanical treasures and abundant wildlife.

Attractions range from beautiful flowers to birds to Buddha (a magnificent centuries-old statue on the grounds). In season, visitors can see azaleas, camellias and colorful bamboo - as well as alligators, deer and the thousands of snowy egrets that nest in Bird City. It’s a nature lover’s dream that’s open to tourists every day of the year.


Watch the video: Avery Island. Whats in a Name? Lost Louisiana 2006