William Parker was born in Liverpool on 27th May 1915. A left-back, he joined Hull City in 1937. He played 30 games for the club before being signed by Major Frank Buckley, the manager of Wolverhampton Wanderers in 1938. He joined a squad that included Stan Cullis, Gordon Clayton, Bill Morris, Dennis Westcott, George Ashall, Alex Scott, Jack Taylor, Tom Galley, Dicky Dorsett, Bryn Jones, Joe Gardiner and Teddy Maguire.
In the 1938-39 season Wolves finished second to Everton. However, Parker only played in three games and he left the club at the end of the season.
William Parker died in 1980.
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William Parker's great grandfather was John Boteler William Parker's great grandfather was Hyde Parker William Parker's great grandmother was Sarah Parker William Parker's great great grandfather was Hugh Smithson William Parker's great great grandfather was Hyde Parker William Parker's great great grandmother was Mary Parker William Parker's 3x great grandfather was Henry Parker William Parker's 3x great grandmother was Margaret Parker William Parker's 4x great grandfather was Alexander Hyde William Parker's 5x great grandfather was Lawrence Hyde William Parker's 5x great grandmother was Barbara Hyde William Parker's 6x great grandfather was Lawrence Hyde William Parker's 6x great grandmother was Anne Hyde
William Parker's grandchildren:
William Parker's granddaughter was Amy Shearer
William Parker's great uncles and aunts:
William Parker's great uncle was Harry Parker
William Parker's former in laws:
William Parker's former son in law was Arthur Hext
Based in New York City, William Parker is the pre-eminent bassist in modern free jazz, and one of that scene's major catalysts. In addition to more than 50 titles under his own name -- and more than 100 as a sideman and collaborator -- he is also an accomplished poet, painter, and cultural critic. Parker co-founded the Improvisers Collective with his wife, the renowned dancer, choreographer, and poet Patricia Nicholson. Parker was the fulcrum of the collective he played in nearly all of its various ad hoc groups and led the Collective's enormous big band, which later recorded under his name as the Little Huey Creative Music Ensemble. An important document of their beginnings was the 1995 Black Saint offering In Order to Survive. As a bassist, Parker is possessed of a formidable technique, albeit an unconventional one it can be heard as a lead instrument in trios with Carter and Hamid Drake (Painter's Spring), duos with the drummer (Piercing the Veil), dozens of recordings with David S. Ware (including Flight of I and Shakti), and Matthew Shipp, including The Flow of X, Strata, and Our Lady of the Flowers. While leading various ensembles, Parker has explored and paid tribute to major artists from the Great Black Music tradition including Curtis Mayfield (I Plan to Stay a Believer: The Inside Music of Curtis Mayfield) and Duke Ellington (Essence of Ellington), with Little Huey Creative Music Orchestra. He has also explored jazz subgenres such as soul-jazz (Uncle Joe's Spirit House, with his organ quartet), the union of spoken word and jazz (Zen Mountains/Zen Streets: A Duet for Poet & Improvised Bass), vocal music via the box set Voices Fall from the Sky, and large-scale conceptual jazz works such as Alphaville Suite.
Parker grew up in New York City. Very early in his career he formed an association with Cecil Taylor he played Carnegie Hall with the pianist in the early '70s. Parker released his first album as a leader in 1979. Through the Acceptance of the Mystery Peace (on Parker's own Centering Records) featured saxophonists Charles Brackeen and Jemeel Moondoc, and violinist Billy Bang. Parker became Taylor's regular bassist in the '80s. He played on several of the pianist's European records, and on Taylor's 1989 domestic major-label release In Florescence on A&M. Parker left Taylor in the early '90s and began working more often as a leader. He released a big-band record for his own label, then began releasing a series of CDs for other companies, significantly Black Saint. Beside his activities as a leader and community organizer, Parker would continue to work as a sideman through the mid-'90s he remained the bassist of choice for downtown free players like David S. Ware, Matthew Shipp, and Rob Brown. The year 2000 was particularly busy for Parker as he recorded three of his own dates, including Painter's Spring and O'Neal's Porch, and appeared on numerous recordings as a sideman. The following year, in the wake of the World Trade Center terrorist attacks, Parker's Little Huey Creative Music Orchestra performed Distillation of Souls, dedicated to its victims, and released the live Raincoat in the River, Vol. 1: ICA Concert. He and drummer Hamid Drake issued the duet offering Piercing the Veil through AUM Fidelity, and his Song Cycle (with vocalists Lisa Sokolov, Ellen Christi, and pianist Yuko Fujiyama) was offered by Boxholder. In 2002, Parker appeared on no less than 15 albums, among them were Shipp's Nu Bop, Ware's Freedom Suite, and Rob Brown's Round the Bend, as well as four of his own trio and quintet dates. The latter, Raining on the Moon, featured vocalist Leena Conquest he also released Corn Meal Dance.
In 2003, he toured England with Spring Heel Jack, Evan Parker, Han Bennink, Shipp, and J. Spaceman. The album Live appeared from Thirsty Ear. Parker toured for much of the year, and released several concert recordings, some cut some years earlier. They included Spontaneous with Little Huey Creative Music Orchestra at CBGB from the year before, and Never Too Late But Always Too Early with Drake and Peter Brötzmann, captured in 2001. The William Parker Violin Trio issued Scrapbook, and he appeared on Shipp's Equilibrium and numerous other recordings.
Parker's prolific pace continued unabated. The breadth and depth of his various projects as a leader, collaborator, and sideman proved inexhaustible. In 2005, Thirsty Ear released a duet with Shipp entitled Luc's Lantern (named for the French film director Jean Luc Godard), while Eremite issued Fred Anderson's Blue Winter with Parker and Drake in the rhythm section. The following year saw Parker play on Kidd Jordan's Palm of Soul. He also released a duet recording with Drake entitled Beans, Little Huey Creative Music Orchestra's For Percy Heath, and Requiem by the William Parker Bass Quartet featuring Charles Gayle.
In 2007, Rai Trade released The Inside Songs of Curtis Mayfield while Parker (who'd begun the project in 2001 and evolved it over subsequent years) was performing the music of Fats Waller and Duke Ellington in a dance piece called "On Their Shoulders We're Still Dancing," choreographed by Patricia Nicholson. His own quartet saw the Petit Oiseux album released while Tamarindo, a trio group with Tony Malaby and Nasheet Waits, appeared in a self-titled offering from Clean Feed, and Rogue Art released Alphaville Suite: Music Inspired by the Jean Luc Godard Film by the William Parker Double Quartet. The bassist was named one of the "50 Greatest New York Musicians of All Time" by Time Out New York, received a New York State Music Fund commission for the long-form work Double Sunrise Over Neptune, and performed at Vision Festival XII in August. It was released by AUM Fidelity in 2008. The same year, Beyond Quantum with Anthony Braxton and Milford Graves was released by Tzadik, and the archival CT: The Dance Project with Cecil Taylor and Masashi Harada was issued by FMP. Among the Parker-related recordings to appear in 2009 were Farmers by Nature with Gerald Cleaver and Craig Taborn, Washed Away, Live at the Sunside with Drake and Sophia Domancich, Moondoc's complete Muntu Recordings box set, and the David S. Ware Quartet Live in Vilnius.
As the second decade of the new century began, Parker released I Plan to Stay a Believer: The Inside Songs of Curtis Mayfield, an expanded double-disc compilation of recordings from 2001-2010, via AUM Fidelity. The album made many jazz critics' year-end best-of lists. Centering Records released his Organ Quartet's Uncle Joe's Spirit House, and Parker appeared on over a dozen albums. The year 2011 held many highlights, not least among them Centering's three-disc solo bass box Crumbling in the Shadows Is Fraulein Miller's Stale Cake and Conversations from Rogue Art, which featured the bassist's solos and interviews with other musicians. Farmers by Nature also issued their sophomore effort, Out of This World's Distortions. No Business released the archival box set Centering: Unreleased Early Recordings 1976-1987 in 2012, while Altitude, a new recording, appeared from the bassist, Cleaver, and Joe Morris. The double-disc Essence of Ellington (billed to the William Parker Orchestra) was issued by Centering. The critical acclaim for the latter was universal.
In 2013, Parker was the recipient of a Doris Duke Artist Award. His quartet recorded Live in Wroclove, and he led the trio session Tender Exploration. AUM Fidelity released the eight-disc box set Wood Flute Songs: Anthology Live 2006-2012, which showcased his various ensembles. Parker appeared on many archival recordings in 2014 as well as in new trio settings led by James Brandon Lewis (Divine Travels) and Ivo Perelman (Book of Sound). The Farmers by Nature band also issued its third album, Love and Ghosts.
Parker revived Raining on the Moon for 2015's The Great Spirit. AUM Fidelity released the three-disc archival box For Those Who Are, Still. Conversations II: Dialogues & Monologues was issued by Rogue Art, and collected duet performances with Jordan interspersed with more artist interview snippets. Live at NHKM, in collaboration with Konstruct, was another of the more than 15 recordings the bassist's name was attached to that year. In spring 2016, Centering brought out Stan's Hat Flapping in the Wind, a series of songs with pianist Cooper-Moore and Sokolov on vocals. In July, Song Sentimentale appeared from Otoroku. It was compiled from three nights of concerts at Cafe Oto by Brötzmann, Parker, and Drake, and released as two separate volumes in different formats. Each contained a unique track listing. The following year Parker was an integral part of two important recording on as many labels: Art of the Improv Trio, Vol. 4 with saxophonist Ivo Perelman and drummer Cleaver on Leo, and Toxic: This Is Beautiful Because We Are Beautiful People with Polish saxophonist Mat Walerian and pianist Matthew Shipp on ESP-Disk. Parker also issued the co-led Bass Duo with Italian classical bassist Stefano Scodanibbio for Aum Fidelity. In 2018, via his Centering label, Parker released the three-disc box set Voices Fall from the Sky, a premier of two long-form works for singers (the title track and "Essence"), as well as a disc of previously issued songs. He followed it with a double disc companion containing the albums Flower In a Stained-Glass Window and The Blinking of The Ear.
A year later, Parker and his oldest flagship group, In Order to Survive, issued the double-length Live/ Shapeshifter, a program cut live in performance at Shapeshifter Lab in Brooklyn, New York. Co-produced by Parker and label boss Steven Joerg, it featured all-new compositions, including the extended suite "Eternal Is the Voice of Love" and "Newark" (dedicated to early group member trombonist Grachan Moncur III), as well as a new iteration of the band's theme. The group comprised original members pianist Cooper Moore and alto saxophonist Rob Brown, as well as drummer Hamid Drake, who joined in 2012. The set was released in June 2019. The following year, Parker, guitarist Nels Cline, and pianist Thollem McDonas recorded the collective jam Gowanus Sessions II for ESP-Disk.
In January 2021, Aum Fidelity released Parker's Migration of Silence Into and Out of The Tone World. The ten-disc box was comprised of completely unreleased instrumental and vocal suites (all for women's voices) composed and recorded between 2018 and early 2020. His music drew inspiration from not only jazz and free improvisation, but musical traditions from Africa, Asia, and European sources. The settings, from solo piano to voice and piano duets to works for chamber strings and full-on orchestral jazz ensembles, paired modern and ancient instruments. Singers on these sessions included Raina Sokolov-Gonzalez, Lisa Sokolov, Ellen Christi, Kyoko Kitamura, and Andrea Wolper. Pianist Eri Yamamoto performed Parker's "Child of Sound" solo.
William N. Parker
William N. Parker was an early innovator in the development of television broadcasting.
In 1926, Parker had just completed his sophomore year as an electrical engineering student at the University of Illinois-Urbana and was working part-time at GM Scientific Company. GM Scientific was run by two graduate students, A.J. McMaster and Lloyd P. Garner, and it supplied photoelectric cells to Ulysses Sanabria, an inventor who was barely out of his teens, yet was experimenting with television silhouettes in Chicago.
Parker also was exposed to Ray D. Kell’s research in television in 1927 when he took a summer job at General Electric. Kell and his colleagues demonstrated a mechanical television system based on a disc with a spiral of twenty-four holes placed in front of a neon light.
Parker continued to work with Garner and Sanabria throughout his college years and put on a demonstration of mechanical television at his campus.
He became general chief broadcasting engineer for Western Television in Chicago from 1928 to 1933. He built the first commercial system of television broadcasting equipment and receiver sets, installing them in Chicago in 1930. This mechanical television used a scanning disk with forty-five or ninety small holes to capture images and send them to local sets. The images were accompanied with sound transmitted over a radio frequency.
This technology was demonstrated to the public at the 1933 Century of Progress Exhibition, but it did not survive the economic consequences of the Great Depression. Nevertheless, Parker continued to work in the development of television in the late 1930s, helping to design some of the first electronic televisions at the Philco television group beginning in 1934.
In World War II, he worked on classified research for the Army and Navy on electronic tubes. Afterwards, he earned more than twenty patents at RCA Corporation for innovations in circuitry and tubes. His projects ranged from microwave devices to freeze-drying technologies to computers.
He died on February 27, 1997.
After collaborations with Shipp, Peter Broetzmann, Derek Bailey, and Charles Gayle, Parker recorded the live In Order To Survive (june 1993), with Rob Brown (alto sax), Denis Charles and Jackson Krall (drums), Cooper-Moore (piano), Grachan Moncur III (trombone) and Lewis Barnes (trumpet).
Testimony (december 1994), containing the 23-minute improvisation Sonic Animation, and Lifting The Sanctions (november 1997) were solo albums.
The live Flowers Grow In My Room (july 1994), credited to the Little Huey Creative Music Orchestra, featured Billy Bang (cello and violin), seven saxophonists, two bassists, another cellist, three trombonists, three trumpetists, plus drums, tuba and vibraphone. The same orchestra recorded Sunrise In The Tone World (february 1995) with Vinny Golia on reeds and Roy Campbell on trumpet and flugelhorn Raincoat In The River Vol.1 (febraury 2001) Mass For The Healing Of The World (may 1998) Spontaneous (may 2002) and For Percy Heath (october 2006).
His quartet with Cooper-Moore (piano), Rob Brown (alto sax) and Susie Ibarra (drums) began to be called In Order To Survive starting with Compassion Seizes Bed-Stuy (december 1995), followed by The Peach Orchard (august 1998), that includes the 25-minute Leaf Dance, and Posium Pendasem (april 1998).
Parker collaborated with Joe Morris, Ivo Perelman, Hamid Drake, Peter Kowald, Cecil Taylor, Anthony Braxton, and many others, and recorded duets with Joelle Leandre on Contrabasses (january 1996) as well as duets with Hamid Drake.
Song Cycle (sessions of october 1991 and march 1993) featured Yuko Fujiyama on piano and two vocalists.
The Cosmosamatics (february 2001) were Sonny Simmons, Michael Marcus, William Parker and Jay Rosen.
The live Emancipation Suite #1 (may 1999) was a trio with Alan Silva (synthesizer) and Kidd Jordan (tenor sax).
The All-Star Game (december 2000) featured Marshall Allen (alto sax), Alan Silva (bass), Hamid Drake (drums) and Kidd Jordan (tenor sax).
Fractured Dimensions (november 1999) featured Daniel Carter on alto sax, trumpet, clarinet and flute, Alan Silva (synthesizer and piano) and Roy Campbell ( trumpet and flugelhorn).
Luc's Lantern (recorded in 2004) was a trio with Eri Yamamoto (piano) and Michael Thompson (drums).
Corn Meal Dance (january 2007) ,was performed by Hamid Drake (drums), Eri Yamamoto (piano), Rob Brown (alto sax), Lewis Barnes (trumpet), and Leena Conquest (vocals).
Double Sunrise Over Neptune (premiered in june 2007) featured Rob Brown (alto sax), Dave Sewelson (baritone sax), Shayna Dulberger (bass), Shiau-Shu Yu (cello), Gerald Cleaver and Hamid Drake (drums), Joe Morris (guitar and banjo), Brahim Frigbane (oud), Bill Cole (reeds), Sabir Mateen (tenor sax and clarinet), Lewis Barnes (trumpet), Jessica Pavone (viola), Jason Kao Hwang and Mazz Swift (violins), and Sangeeta Bandyopadhyay (vocals).
Farmers By Nature, i.e. the trio of drummer Gerald Cleaver, bassist William Parker and pianist Craig Taborn, recorded the live Farmers By Nature (june 2008), Out Of This World's Distortions (june 2010), containing Tait's Traced Traits, and the double-disc Love And Ghosts (june 2011), containing the lengthy Bisanz, Love and Ghosts and Comte.
Billy Bang and William Parker recorded Medicine Buddha (may 2009), that contains the 22-minute Medicine Buddha and the 14-minute Eternal Planet.
He played acoustic bass, kora and double flute on At Somewhere There (july 2008), notably the 48-minute Cathedral Wisdom Light.
Conversations (march 2011) collects solo performances.
Winter Sun Crying (december 2009) featured the ICI Ensemble.
The triple-disc box-set Crumbling In The Shadows Is Fraulein Miller's Stale Cake (august 2010) collected solo bass performances such as Stained Glass Sky with Dancing Light (21:23), Crumbling in the Shadows is Fraulein Miller's Stale Cake (19:18), Equador/Resolution (24:54), Night Density (13:19), and Double Mystery (17:35), as well as reissuing Testimony.
Book Of Sound (october 2013) was a trio with saxophonist Ivo Perelman and pianist Matthew Shipp.
Parker played contrabass violin, sintir and bass shakuhachi on Pomegranate (march 2013) by Parrhesia, the trio created by cornetist Stephen Haynes along with guitarist Joe Morris and percussionist Warren Smith.
The William Parker Bass Quartet, that also featured guest Charles Gayle, performed Requiem (may 2004), the final set of the 2004 Vision Festival.
The Sonoluminescence Trio (David Mott on baritone sax, William Parker on contrabass and Jesse Stewart on drums) debuted with Telling Stories (march 2014).
The triple-disc For Those Who Are Still contains material recorded over a dozen years, notably the 28-minute For Fannie Lou Hamer (october 2000) and the 20-minute The Giraffe Dances (january 2012) for small ensembles, the ten-part suite Ceremonies For Those Who Are Still (november 2013) for jazz trio and symphony orchestra and the 25-minute trio improvisation Escapade For Sonny (november 2013).
Song For A New Decade (recorded in january 2010 and june 2012) documents the trio of Parker, Andrew Cyrille (drums) and Finnish saxophonist and composer Mikko Innanen (alto and baritone saxes, Indian clarinet, Uilleann chanter, nose flute, whistles, percussion).
Raining on the Moon, featuring Rob Brown on alto sax, Lewis Barnes on trumpet, Eri Yamamoto on piano, Hamid Drake on drums and vocals by Leena Conquest debuted with Corn Meal Dance (january 2007) and Great Spirit (january 2007), both recorded during the same sessions.
William Parker Quartet's live 75-minute piece of Ao Vivo Na Fabrica (august 2015) featured Rob Brown on alto sax, Lewis Barnes on trumpet, and Hamid Drake on drums.
The double-disc set Song Sentimentale (january 2015) collects three live improvisations by the trio of Peter Broetzmann (tenor sax, clarinet, tarogato), William Parker (double bass, guembri, shakuhachi, shenai) and Hamid Drake (drums, frame drum, voice): Shake-A-Tear (11:40), Stone Death (26:17) and Dwellers In A Dead Land (24:58).
The trio Eloping With The Sun, with Joe Morris (guitar, banjouke, banjo, double bass, fiddle, pocket trumpet and whistles) and Hamid Drake (drum set, frame drum, cymbals, gongs), debuted on Counteract This Turmoil Like Trees And Birds (january 2015).
Toxic, consisting of Polish reed player Mat Walerian (alto sax, bass & soprano clarinets, flute), Matthew Shipp (piano, organ) and William Parker (double bass, shakuhachi), debuted with This Is Beautiful Because We Are Beautiful People (december 2015), notably the 20-minute The Breakfast Club Day.
The double-disc Meditation/Resurrection (december 2016) documents quartets with Hamid Drake (drums, gongs) Rob Brown (alto sax), Jalalu-Kalvert Nelson (trumpet, kalimba) and Cooper-Moore (piano).
The four-disc box-set Frode Gjerstad With Hamid Drake And William Parker (june 2017) contains four lengthy improvisations.
William Parker (bass), Steve Swell (trombone), drummer Muhammad Ali (Rashied Ali's brother), Dave Burrel (piano) and Diane Monroe (violin) contributed to Celebrating William Parker @ 65 (january 2017).
Seraphic Light (april 2017) documents a live improvisation with Daniel Carter (saxes, trumpet, flute and clarinet) and Matthew Shipp (piano).
Lake Of Light: Compositions For AquaSonics (february 2017) is a music for waterphones (played by Jeff Schlanger, Anne Humanfeld and Leonid Galaganov), mainly the lengthy Lake of Light.
The triple-disc Voices Fall From The Sky (january 2018) was recorded by a large ensemble and 17 singers.
Music For A Free World (september 2017) featured Dave Sewelson on baritone & sopranino saxes, Steve Swell on trombone, William Parker on contrabass and Marvin Bugaloo Smith on drums.
The double-disc Flower In A Stained-Glass Window & The Blinking Of The Ear collects 17 compositions. recorded in March 2017 and in June 2018.
In Between The Tumbling A Stillness (february 2015), containing the 36-minute In Between, documents improvisations by the trio of William Parker (bass), Hamid Drake (drums) and Israeli reedist Assif Tsahar.
In Order To Survive (Rob Brown on alto sax, Cooper-Moore on piano and Hamid Drake on drums) returned after 21 years with Live/ Shapeshifter (july 2017), notably Eternal Is The Voice Of Love.
What If? (june 2019) documents a collaboration with Nate Wooley.
The trio of Matthew Shipp, William Parker (bass) and Mat Maneri (viola) recorded Symbolic Reality (august 2019).
Garden Party (june 2018) debuted the Dopolarians with Alvin Fielder (percussion), Kidd Jordan (tenor sax), Christopher Parker (piano, voice) and Chad Fowler (alto sax, saxello).
Parker also played on baritone saxophonist Dave Sewelson's More Music For A Free World with Steve Swell (trombone) and Marvin Bugalu Smith (drums).
Chief Parker’s time is past
William H. Parker was a monumental figure in the history of Los Angeles and of modern law enforcement. He took over as chief of the Los Angeles Police Department in 1950 after scandals had damaged its reputation. He raised its sense of mission, created its manual and weaned it from the corrupting influences of city politics. He also was an arrogant racist who so fiercely insisted on the LAPD’s independence that he antagonized colleagues and fellow law enforcement leaders from coast to coast, notably feuding with FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover for more than a decade.
His place in California history is secure, and his legacy is large and complex. The city’s police headquarters, Parker Center, has for decades borne his name. But those decades are enough, and Parker does not warrant similar commemoration at the new headquarters, scheduled to open by the end of the year. The City Council should reject the misguided proposal to name the building for him. It needs no moniker at all, and certainly not that of this complicated and flawed chief.
Any honest appraisal of Parker’s tenure must acknowledge his dualities -- his rigid professionalism alongside his vulgar comments on race relations his justifiable pride in his fellow officers alongside his absurd refusal to acknowledge the existence of police brutality his largely successful career against the shadow of his final months, which he spent in forceful defense of the LAPD’s unimpressive performance during the 1965 Watts riots. Parker is hardly the only major public figure to encompass such contradictions -- Hoover himself comes to mind -- but his most fervent supporters and his most dogged critics have depicted him one-dimensionally, distorting his record to suit their interests.
A window into Parker’s complexities comes from an unlikely and largely unexamined source: the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s long-running file on him (excerpts appear on the Op-Ed pages today). The documents capture the contentious relationship between Parker and Hoover, a professional wariness that occasionally boiled over into anger and ostracism. The file includes the reports of field agents and the special agent in charge of the bureau’s Los Angeles office, commencing soon after Parker’s appointment and continuing to his death in 1966.
In a 1953 entry, the agent in charge relayed to headquarters the comments of another police chief who attended a convention with Parker and said he “gave a complete demonstration of unjustified egotism.” The bureau shared that view, and Hoover himself had unbridled contempt for the chief. For a time, Hoover directed all of his agents to avoid Parker, only relenting in the summer of 1954, and then only grudgingly. He approved occasional professional contacts but warned Los Angeles agents that “you must always be extremely alert and on guard at all times in all dealings with Chief Parker.” Even after that point, the FBI would not assist in training LAPD officers because it distrusted the chief those contacts resumed only after Parker’s death.
Over the years, Parker’s occasional outbursts came in for scrutiny by the bureau. In 1955, for instance, some state courts began excluding illegally seized evidence from trials after a case in which the Supreme Court appended a memo to one of its decisions urging the attorney general to prosecute police officers who had illegally broken into a home to plant a wiretap. Parker loudly complained and argued for greater latitude for police to violate the law without consequence to the cases they were pursuing. At the FBI, one official concluded that “what Parker actually is advocating (perhaps unknowingly) is that the so-called ‘police state’ be established that police be above the law that the end justifies the means.” Those are richly ironic insights coming from Hoover’s FBI, but they reflect how far from the mainstream Parker’s views had strayed.
On race, the file reveals fewer complaints with Parker, perhaps because the bureau itself -- certainly Hoover -- was at least as intolerant as Parker toward the rising calls for racial justice. Nonetheless, the FBI dutifully collected some of Parker’s less temperate remarks, such as when he denounced proponents of civil disobedience, then led by Martin Luther King Jr., as employing a “revolutionary tool to overthrow existing governments.” He once enraged L.A.'s Mexican American community by suggesting that some immigrants were “not far removed from the wild tribes of Mexico,” and infuriated African Americans by describing the Watts riots this way: “One person threw a rock and then, like monkeys in a zoo, others started throwing rocks.”
Parker led the LAPD for 16 years. During that time, he restored its reputation in part by insisting on rigorous separation between officers and the communities they served. Police patrolled in cars, made arrests, booked suspects and returned to their cars to resume patrolling. That distance insulated police from the community and thus cut off opportunities to engage in corruption. Parker also oversaw the writing of the LAPD manual and insisted that pride and duty guide the department’s officer corps. All of that helped break the department’s longtime culture of corruption, and for that this city owes Parker a debt. Those same innovations, however, created an LAPD that was removed from its citizens, an almost all-white legion protective of its own, prone to force and racism. For those unfortunate developments, Los Angeles paid a dear price in Parker’s time and for generations to come.
In 1965, Watts erupted after a California Highway Patrol stop turned ugly the ensuing riots stretched across the better part of a week and left scores dead. Parker spent the rest of his life trying to explain and defend the actions of his officers during those angry days. He made his last public appearance on July 16, 1966, at the Statler Hilton downtown. As the event concluded, members of the Second Marine Division Assn. rose to give Parker a standing ovation. He slumped back in his chair and gasped for breath. Parker died 35 minutes later.
Parker’s body lay in repose in the rotunda of City Hall, and the outpouring of mourners reflected the divisions that he had long inspired. Thousands came to view him, Police Chief Ed Davis later said -- most to pay their respects, a few “to make sure the son-of-a-bitch was dead.”
William Parker (?—–?)
William Parker was a former slave and an abolitionist. As the principal leader in the 1851 incident in Christiana, Pennsylvania known as the Christiana Riot, Parker helped bring more attention to the problem of slavery in the long years leading up to the Civil War. The Christiana Riot would shed light on the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850.
According to his memoir, The Freedman’s Story, William Parker was born into slavery in Anne Arundel County, Maryland on the Rowdown Plantation. His mother, Louisa Simms, passed away at an early age and he was raised by grandmother. The date of Parker’s birth is unknown. Parker spent his early years on the plantation, but when he was in his late teens he escaped slavery and moved north to find freedom. Parker settled in Christiana, Pennsylvania and married Eliza Ann Elizabeth Howard, with whom he had three children.
After his move to the north William Parker had the opportunity to see Frederick Douglass, former slave himself and abolitionist, and the prominent abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison speak. Inspired by both of these men, and galvanized by his own experiences, Parker decided to devote himself to the cause of abolishing slavery.
As a part of the Lancaster Black Self-Protection Society, Parker occasionally secretly housed slaves on the run in his farmhouse. On the morning of September 11, 1851 Parker was giving refuge to Noah Buley, Nelson Ford, George Ford, and Joshua Hammond, all fugitive slaves from Maryland belonging to wealthy slaveholder Edward Gorsuch.
The Christiana Incident began when Gorsuch, along with a U.S. marshal and a posse, arrived at Parker’s door with a warrant for his slaves. Under the terms of the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850, Parker could be arrested and prosecuted for harboring the runaway slaves. William Parker, however, stood his ground and refused to give up the fugitives. His wife used a predetermined signal to call on other black and white anti-slavery people in the area who quickly arrived armed at the Parker house. In the ensuing confrontation Gorsuch was shot dead and one posse member was wounded.
Although the Christiana Incident would eventually prove to be a strong blow against slavery and specifically the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850, it was immediately problematic for Parker himself. Following the incident Parker and his family fled to Canada via the Underground Railroad. With encouragement from Frederick Douglass, Parker became the Canadian correspondent for Douglass’ paper, the North Star. Both Douglass and Parker used the incident to rally support for the anti-slavery cause. After the Civil War, in February and March of 1866, the Atlantic Monthly magazine published Parker’s memoir, The Freedman’s Story, which presented among other things, his version of events at Christiana. It is unknown when or where William Parker died.
William Parker - History
Parker Genealogy of Western North Carolina to 1750 A.D.
|PARKER||England to VA. to N.C.|
Note: For additional detailed family history, please RIGHT CLICK on links to open in NEW WINDOW .
An American Patriot
Birth: BET. 1740 - 1750 Virginia?
American Revolutionary War Facts:
William Parker was one of the " Overmountain men" that fought the British at two critical battles: " Battle of Kings Mountain " and " Battle of Cowpens ." Most Revolutionary War Records do not record or reflect Overmountain men by name, since they were considered Militia . However, you will find Continental Army (Regulars) in Official Revolutionary War Muster and Pension Records. Furthermore, Official Revolutionary War Archives, at best, often reflect only a partial listing of veterans and patriots.
( Militia strengths and weaknesses are portrayed in the Movie "The Patriot," starring Mel Gibson)
William Parker received the American Revolutionary War L and Grant - No. 2566 of 580 acres in 1788 - on the North side of Clinch River in Hawkins County, TN. He also received land grant No. 398 of 640 acres in 1783, in Davidson County, N.C. - now in TN. - on Station Camp Creek. Instead of currency for their patriotic war service, the government compensated or paid them with land grants. Sources: Jackson County Heritage Book, Land Grants, and American Revolutionary War Pension Records.
Clark, Elizabeth ( Clark, Elizabeth )
Birth: ABT. 1750
Born in Onslow, North Carolina, and served in the state militia of North Carolina during the Revolutionary War. He migrated to South Carolina after the war. His first wife was the daughter of Littleberry Walker of Colleton County, South Carolina. Their one child was John Parker, who married Rhoda Strickland, and their daughter, Nancy, married Arthur T. Albritton of Tattnall County, Georgia. He had two children by his second marriage, and they were Richard Hall Parker, who married Hannah Flowers, and Littleberry Parker, who married Mary Ann Wilson.
His third wife was Anna S. Hiers of Colleton County, South Carolina, and their children were Solomon Parker, who married (1) Harriet Baxter (see Baxter Families in the appendix), and (2) Jane Baxter William Hall Parker Jr., who married Jane Carter George Washington Parker, who married Sena Baxter (see Baxter Families in the appendix) Anna Susannah Parker, who married Hendley Foxworth Horne (see Henley Foxworth Horne in the appendix) Thomas Parker, who died a child Catherine Parker, who married William Brewer Jacob Parker who died a child, and Hampton Cling Parker, who married Catherine Baggs (see Archibald Baggs in the appendix).
William Hall Parker Sr. and his family migrated from South Carolina to Liberty County in 1811, and in 1817 he was granted 500 acres of land near Jones Creek Baptist Church (see Appendix Number 31). He was buried on his plantation, later owned by his grandson, Joseph H. Parker, and his wife was buried beside him when she died in 1857. William Hall Parker Jr. had 11 children and survived all but two of them. He was ordained a Baptist minister in 1844, and resided on a plantation in Liberty County. He was the first station agent at the Savannah, Albany & Gulf Railroad depot when it was established in 1857 at Johnstons Station (Ludowici).
When federal troops invaded Liberty County in December 1864, he was beaten by the troops on the front porch of his home for refusing to divulge information they sought. He was one of the organizers in 1866 of the New Sunbury Association, and a member of Altamaha Lodge No. 227, Free and Accepted Masons.
From "Sweet Land of Liberty, A History of Liberty County, Georgia" by Robert Long Groover Appendix Number 39, Page(s) 228-229 Used by the permission of the Liberty County Commissioners Office
From design to final shipment, from simple brackets to multifaceted assemblies, Noble Industries has been leading the way since 1968 by offering unprecedented flexibility and creativity in metal fabrication of seemingly impossible jobs. Our superior product quality has been the cornerstone to our growth and our history. Noble Industries was founded by William and Anita Parker. The Noble Industries family business that started in a barn with less than 300 sq ft has grown to 110,000 square feet facility on the north side of Indianapolis, Indiana in the town of Noblesville. We have 60+ employees that we consider our most valuable asset. Many have been employed by Noble Industries for over 20 years.
William Parker's philosophy is that "Every Day is Great" and it shows in the success we share with our employees & clients.
Although every year new customers and additional equipment is added, some Noble Industries Milestones are worth document:
1968 - Started making metal aquarium stands in the barn on a part-time basis.
1969 - Began full-time production of aquarium stands. Produced metal fabricated molds for rubber products, designed and produced tooling and dies. Success had started and Noble Industries was created.
1970 - Noble Industries is Incorporated
1972 - Moved from the barn to a new 5000 sq ft building at 3333 E. Conner St, Noblesville, IN
1974 - Expanded to 15,000 square feet, Roll forming and a 450 feet Powder Coating line is added to our metal fabrication operation.
1978 - The Noblesville facility was expanded to 30,000 square feet and Noble Industries designed and marketed its second captive product the Noble Pyramid auto ramp. Consumer Reports rated it the top rated auto ramp in the country.
1980 - The CNC era for Noble Industries started with the purchase of a new CNC Brake Press and a CNC turret press. The production of military shipping containers begins. These sealed and pressurized containers are to be used by United States Department of Defense to protecting the expensive M1 Tank transmissions as well as Jet engine during shipment.
1985 - Noble Industries announced its third product, the Noble Nitro Chiller. This cryogenic freeze is used in the heat treating industry to capture and use the extreme cold properties of liquid nitrogen to cool a chamber to -120 degrees Fahrenheit without consuming or contaminating the N2.
1994 - Our first Mazak CNC Laser and second Amada CNC Turret Press were purchased
1997 - Installation of a new state-of-the-art powder coating system is completed. This line places Noble Industries at the forefront in powder coating technology with a 6 state pretreatment system culminating with a DI water final rinse, Gema powder application booth with 8 automated and 2 manual powder application guns. Our line capable of handling parts up to 38" wide x 72" high x 150" in length.
1999 - The purchase and installation of our second Mazak CNC laser with load/unload automation.
2003 - Our Mazak 4000 Watt Space Gear was added bringing us to Three CNC Lasers. This machine adds the capability for flat or 3D Laser processing including tube and pipe laser cutting. The picture above shows both laser cutting additions.
2004 - Noble Industries reaffirms a commitment to tube and pipe fabrication with the addition of a Dutch Saw High Speed CNC Tube processing system with inline deburring as well as a adding CNC tube bending to the long list of capabilities.
2005 - Welding is given an technology upgrade with the purchase of our Genesis Robotic Weld Cell with Twin Fanuc Welding Heads.
2006 - Noble Industries achieves its ISO 2001 Certification and expanded our CNC Laser load/unload cell with our fourth Mazak CNC Laser with load/unload automation.
2010 - Noble Industries added a Salvagnini S4P4 panel punch & bending FMS Line, an EdgeMaster M100 Corner Former and our Virtek LaserQC
2012 - January 1st, Noble Industries owners Greg Parker and Brenda Parker Snyder stategically purchased Madsen Wire Products so that Noble Industries and Madsen Wire Products could offer full service metal fabrication services to their customers. By June, the growth at Noble Industries brought a need to add additional laser cutting capacity and metal forming equipment . Two (2) new Mazak 4000 Watt lasers were added in July and 2 Amada Press Brakes. In October the addition of a Mazak FMS system was added with a 10 sheet metal tower.
2013 - Highlights of equipment purchases in 2013 include a Chevalier Vertical Machining Center and a 350 ton CINCINNATI PRESS BRAKE 350MX10.
2014 - HIghlights of 2014 included new equipment for our powder coating line and GEMA OPTI FLEX AUTO & MANUAL GUNS.
2015 - Noble Industries added our 7th Laser , a 4000 Watt Mazak Space Gear
2016 - Our 40,000 square foot building expansion was started and competed in the first quarter of 2017.
2017 - With the building expansion complete, our metal fabrication management team started the new sheet metal processing flow. Plans were established to move the 7 Mazak lasers and purchase 1 more Mazak Space gear by the beginning of 2018. The 5S Program was initiated on the shop floor as well in 2017.
2019 - Noble Industries created OmniWall, the home, garage and commercial wall organization system. OmniWallUSA, the best tool organizer
Noble Industries: Professionalism and Flawless Execution
At Noble Industries we aim to handle all metal fabrication jobs with the most professional and flawless manner possible. This allows our customers the freedom to focus on their core competencies, fostering customer growth without the restriction of manufacturing constraints and large capital investment. You can count on us to deliver fabricated sheet metal products when you need them, how you need them.
Contact a knowledgeable Noble Industries professional at 800-466-1926 and let us know how we can meet your design, custom metal fabrication, powder coating and fulfillment needs.
In 1851, a Maryland Farmer Tried to Kidnap Free Blacks in Pennsylvania. He Wasn’t Expecting the Neighborhood to Fight Back
The muse for this story is a humble piece of stone, no more than an inch square. Sometime in the mid-19th century, it had been fashioned into a gunflint—an object that, when triggered to strike a piece of steel, could spark a small explosion of black powder and propel a lead ball from the muzzle of a gun with mortal velocity.
Archaeologists often come across gunflints. That’s because during the 19th century, firearms were considered mundane items, owned by rich and poor alike. Gunflints, like shell casings now, were their disposable remnants.
But this gunflint is special.
In 2008, my students and I, working with nearby residents, unearthed this unassuming little artifact during an archaeological dig in a little Pennsylvania village known as Christiana. We found it located in what today is a nondescript corn field, where a small stone house once stood.
For a few hours in 1851, that modest residence served as a flashpoint in America’s struggle over slavery. There, an African American tenant farmer named William Parker led a skirmish that became a crucial flareup in the nation’s long-smoldering conflict over slavery.
The Archaeology of Northern Slavery and Freedom (The American Experience in Archaeological Perspective)
Investigating what life was like for African Americans north of the Mason-Dixon Line during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, James Delle presents the first overview of archaeological research on the topic in this book, debunking the notion that the “free” states of the Northeast truly offered freedom and safety for African Americans.
It’s been 160 years since the uprising, which for most of its history was known as the Christiana Riot, but is now more often referred to as the Christiana Resistance, Christiana Tragedy, or Christiana Incident. In taking up arms, Parker and the small band of men and women he led proved that African Americans were willing to fight for their liberation and challenge the federal government’s position on slavery. Finding a broken and discarded flint offers a tangible piece of evidence of their struggle, evoking memories of a time when the end of slavery was still but a hope, and the guarantee of individual liberty for all people merely a dream.
The events at Christiana were a consequence of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, federal legislation passed in the wake of the Mexican-American War of 1846-1848. California, a key part of territory seized by the U.S. following that conflict, had rejected slavery in its constitutional convention in 1849 and sought entry to the Union as a free state. To placate white Southerners who wanted to establish a slave state in Southern California, Congress forged the Compromise of 1850. The Fugitive Slave Act, its cornerstone legislation, forced all citizens to assist in the capture of anyone accused of being a fugitive in any state or territory. A person could be arrested merely on the strength of a signed affidavit and could not even testify in their own defense. Any person found guilty of harboring or supporting an accused fugitive could be imprisoned for up to six months and fined $1,000, nearly 100 times the average monthly wage of a Pennsylvania farm hand in 1850.
In some places, alarmed citizens began pushing back against what they perceived to be an overreach of federal power. In Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, however, the new law began fanning racial tension. Many whites in the area resented the movement of formerly enslaved people across the southern border, perceiving it as an invasion of destitute illegals that would depress wages in factory and field. Others were simply “negro haters,” as William Parker himself put it, all too happy to assist federal agents in sending African Americans back across the border. Some unscrupulous Pennsylvanians profited from illegally trafficking free African American men, women, and children south into slavery. A new and insidious slave trade blossomed in the border states. The price of an enslaved person in nearby Maryland, for instance, jumped an estimated 35 percent following the passage of the law, which made kidnapping free people increasingly profitable and common. One infamous Philadelphia kidnapper named George Alberti was indicted twice for selling free people into slavery, and eventually admitted to kidnapping some 100 people over the course of his notorious career. The governor of Pennsylvania would pardon Alberti after he served less than a year of a 10-year sentence for kidnapping an infant.
With white Pennsylvania ambivalent at best about the fate of African Americans, it wasn’t shocking that someone decided to tell Maryland farmer Edward Gorsuch that two men who had escaped from his land two years before, Samuel Thompson and Joshua Kite, were hiding in William Parker’s rented house near Christiana.
William Parker, a 30-year-old tenant farmer born in Maryland, had escaped slavery just a few years prior, and had found refuge, if not full acceptance, in this quiet corner of Pennsylvania. Despite encountering sympathy from the Quaker community, Parker still feared for his safety. He joined other African Americans in the area to form mutual aid societies to defend against kidnapping, and established networks of lookouts to keep track of the movements of known kidnappers and their allies. One such network tipped off Parker that Gorsuch and a small band of relatives and supporters, accompanied by a notorious Philadelphia constable named Henry Kline who had been deputized as a U.S. marshal for the occasion, were hunting for Thompson and Kite. The black community of Christiana was on high alert.
Gorsuch’s armed posse crept through the rising mist at dawn on the morning of September 11, 1851, as Parker and his men waited at the house. Informed that kidnappers were about, but not knowing where they would strike, black neighbors for several miles around nervously waited for a distress signal calling out for help against the intruders.
Not knowing they had lost the element of surprise, Gorsuch and Kline attempted to storm the Parkers’ small stone house, only to be driven back down a narrow, winding stairway by armed defenders. Next they tried to reason with Parker, who, barricaded in on the second floor, spoke for the group. Parker refused to acknowledge Kline’s right to apprehend the men, dismissing his federal warrant as a meaningless piece of paper. As tensions mounted, Eliza Parker, William’s wife, took up a trumpet-like horn, and blasted a note out of an upstairs window. Startled by the piercing sound, the Gorsuch party opened fire at the window, hoping either to incapacitate Eliza with a bullet wound or frighten her into silence. Despite the danger, she continued sounding the alarm, which reportedly could be heard for several miles around.
Within half an hour, at least two dozen African American men and women, armed with pistols, shotguns, corn cutters and scythes, arrived to assist the Parkers. Several white Quaker neighbors also appeared at the scene, hoping to prevent a violent confrontation. Favored now by the strength of numbers, Parker, Kite, and Thompson emerged from the house to convince Gorsuch and Kline to withdraw. Kline, recognizing the futility of the situation, quickly abandoned his comrades and retreated. But an enraged Gorsuch confronted Thompson—who struck Gorsuch over the head with the butt of his gun. Shots rang out. Within minutes, Gorsuch lay dead on the ground, his body riddled with bullets and lacerated by corn knives. His posse did their best to flee. Son Dickinson Gorsuch had taken a shotgun blast to the chest at close range, barely had the strength to crawl from the scene, and was coughing up blood. Thomas Pearce, a nephew, was shot at least five times. Joshua Gorsuch, an aging cousin, had been beaten on the head, and stumbled away, dazed. Gorsuch’s body was carried to a local tavern, where it became the object of a coroner’s inquest. Despite their serious wounds, the rest of his party survived.
Retribution was swift. In the days that followed, every black man in the environs of Christiana was arrested on treason charges, as were the three white bystanders who had tried to convince Gorsuch to withdraw. The subsequent treason trial of Castner Hanway, one of the white bystanders, resulted in an acquittal. Despite the fury of both pro-slavery and compromise-favoring politicians, the prosecution, led by U.S. Attorney John Ashmead, moved to dismiss all charges against the other defendants, who were soon released. No one was ever arrested or tried on murder charges for the death of Edward Gorsuch, including the known principles at the Parker House—Kite, Thompson, Parker, Eliza and their family—who fled north to Canada and remained free men.
Over time, the black community of Lancaster County grew to remember the Christiana Riot as a tragic victory. The event’s significance was more complicated for the white community. In the short term, many Lancastrians followed the pro-slavery lead of James Buchanan, who lived in the community and was elected U.S. president in 1856. Thaddeus Stevens, an abolitionist politician who represented Lancaster in the U.S. House of Representatives and had assisted in the defense of the accused, lost his seat to a member of his own Whig party in 1852, spurned by constituents who could not tolerate his liberal views on racial justice. But after Buchanan’s election, Stevens was soon buoyed by growing anti-slavery sentiment and returned to Congress, and with the outbreak of the Civil War, Lancastrians both black and white rallied fully to the Union cause.
The Parker House, abandoned after the family fled for Canada, became a place of pilgrimage after the Union victory. Curious visitors from around the region sought out the abandoned “Riot House” and took pieces of it away with them as souvenirs. By the late 1890s the farmer who owned the land perceived the Parker House as a dangerous nuisance, and had it knocked down and plowed over. In the years to come, it became hidden in time, presenting as nothing more than a scatter of stone and debris in an otherwise unremarkable field.
That was how we found it when we visited the cornfield at the invitation of a group of community volunteers who were interested in rebuilding the house as a memorial to William Parker’s struggle. Black and white descendants of the participants in the uprising joined us at the excavation, spellbound when we uncovered the first fragment of foundation wall, a remnant of a place that resonated with the power of ancestors who had risked their lives to prevent neighbors from being kidnapped into slavery.
Archaeologists know that communities create and preserve deep knowledge of their local history. Often, stories of the past help communities create an identity of which they can be proud. This was certainly the case at Christiana.
We can say with some confidence that the small, square piece of stone recovered during the excavation is an artifact of the famous conflict. The gunflint was discovered nestled into the cellar stairs, right below the window where Eliza Parker sounded her alarm. We know that Gorsuch’s men fired at her from virtually this same spot, and that men in the house returned fire. By 1851, flintlocks were old-fashioned weapons, widely replaced by more modern and efficient firearms, but we know from records of the treason trial that the weapons William Parker and his associates wielded were “old muskets.” That suggests the flint we found may have fallen from one of their outdated guns.
The artifact gives us pause. The gunflint reminds us of the progress we have made in overcoming racial injustice in the United States, but also that the work to reconcile with the violent legacies of slavery is far from over. It reminds us that the cost of liberty is often steep, and that the events that have secured that liberty are often quickly forgotten. American stories like this one lie everywhere around us. They wait, mute, to be reconsidered, pointing to the past, and prodding us to tackle what yet is left to do.
James Delle is an archaeologist at Millersville University, in Millersville, Pennsylvania. He is the author of The Archaeology of Northern Slavery and Freedom.