Rogers Blood APD-115 - History

Rogers Blood APD-115 - History

Rogers Blood

(APD-115: dp. 1,650,1. 306'0", b. 37'0", dr. 12'7", s. 23 k.
cpl. 204, trp 162; a. 1 5", 6 40mm., 6 20mm., 2 dct., cl. Crosley)

Rogers Blood was laid down as DE 605 on 12 April 1945 by Bethlehem Shipbuilding Co., Hingham, Mass.; launched 2 June 1945, sponsored by Mrs. Robert M. Blood, redesignated APD-115 on 17 July 1945, and commissioned 22 August 1945 Comdr. John W. Higgins, Jr., USNR, in command.

On 8 September, Rogers Blood departed Boston for Guantan.lmo B y Nvhere she completed a 6-week shakedown cruise and was then ordered to Chester, Pa., to participate with Sahalo in Navy nay ceremonies which brought approximately 40,000 persons as visitors. She was in the Norfolk Navy Yard from 31 October to 15 November, then sailed to Jacksonville Fla., where she reported to the Atlantic Reserve Fleet. On 18 November she arrived at St. Johns River for layup.

Rogers Blood was placed out of commission in reserve 19 March 1946 and berthed at Green Cove Springs, Fla., where she remained until struck from the Navy list 1 June 1960 and sold 14 Deeember 1961 to the Southern Serap Material Co of Louisiana.


Early life [ edit | edit source ]

Rogers Blood was born at Manchester, New Hampshire, on 29 January 1922. At Manchester Central High School in Manchester, he was a popular athlete, and also demonstrated talents and skills as a scholar, leader, and organizer, serving as president of the Hi-Y Chapter, president of the Maskers, editor-in-chief of the Oracle, moderator of the Discussion Club, and member of both the tennis and ski teams. He was awarded the Rotary Cup in his senior year as the most outstanding student in his class. Rogers then entered Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire, as a member of the Class of 1944.


Polly Ann Rogers b. 1787 d. 1857

To State That the application for citizenship in the Cherokee Nation was made for Robert Dawson and family to the Cherokee Commission on Citizenship. September 24, 1881 at Tahlequah, Indian Territory by Francis M Dawson and his brother Elbert Dawson, claiming their rights to be admitted to Citizenship in the Cherokee Nation by reason of their descent from Polly Rogers. Who is claimed to have been a Cherokee Indian by blood and that Polly Rogers was a daughter of Captain John Rogers and Alsey Vann. also known through testimony as Annie Pruitt, that Robert Dawson was a son of Polly Rogers by Samuel R. Dawson Sr, a white man. The case continued from time to time until January 11, 1883, when the family of the Dawsons was admitted by the Cherokee Court of Commissioners commonly known as the "Tehee Court" composed of Thomas Tehee, President and of the commission: D.W.C. Duncan, Clerk of the Commission and Alex Wolfe and T.F. Thompson, Commissioners, upon practically the unsupported testimony of Dr. Arthur Baker. The other members of the Dawson family who were subsequently admitted were admitted upon the strength of the admission of the Robert Dawson family and proof of their relations to it.

Signed: William T. Hutchins and William W. Hastings. Attourneys for the Cherokee Nation.


Prejudice plays out in history: A review of JT Roger’s Blood and Gifts

When entering Timeline, patrons instantly feel immersed in a world of history and theatricality. In their current production, Blood and Gifts , the audience must climb through metal scaffolding to reach their seats. The walls are adorned with maps of Afghanistan, biographies and portraits of figures like Gulbuddin Hekmatyar and William Casey, and historical synopses of the Cold War. Furthermore, the performance transpires on the floor, encircled by the audience, enabling viewers to feel like a fly on the wall, a historical witness, rather than confined to the traditional distinction between stage and spectator.

For 15 years, Timeline has provided Chicago theatregoers with “Stories inspired by history that connect with today’s social and political issues.” Although TimeLine’s mission is commendable, its current production of Blood and Gifts serves as an unsettling reminder that history is oft-written from a very particular perspective- a perspective that reflects the mythologies produced by those in power.

The play centers on CIA operative James Warnock (Timothy Edward Kane) stationed in Pakistan to conduct a series of closed-door deals to provide arms to the Afghans resisting Soviet occupation. Over ten years, he forges relationships with an MI6 agent, and a KGB agent operative over their distances from their respective homelands. He also conducts missions with ISI, and befriends two Afghan militants that become Islamist extremists in the play’s final act of betrayal. Warnock’s aggrandized role as the American arbiter of justice eventually results in Soviet retreat.

Throughout the play, the Afghani and Pakistani characters serve primarily as the backdrop to Warnock and his white colleagues from British MI6 and the Russian KGB. While the image of Muslims throughout the play is varied based on their level of religiosity, the closing scene, in which Warnock is surrounded by Afghan militants arms raised with weapons in hand, chanting “Allahu Akbar!” leaves audiences with a simplistic view of Islam and reifies the dangerous association between Islam and violence.

Up until that point, the Muslim characters are not portrayed as holistically bad. In fact, the main Afghani character and leader of the secular anti-Soviet revolutionaries, Abdullah (Kareem Bandealy) is depicted throughout the play as a friendly and reasonable, albeit culturally traditional, man. In the last scene, however, Abdullah turns to Islam to rectify the loss of his son he turns to Islam and suddenly becomes wholly unreasonable, unifying with a vicious, former enemy whose brand of Islam justifies acid attacks against women and the killing of ‘infidels.’ This scene had the potential to demonstrate to Western audiences the desperation and sadness that leads a person to extremism and self-serving violence it had the powerful potential to humanize an enemy that Americans commonly demonize. Instead, it merely inspired shock and disappointment at Abdullah and sympathy for the naive, well-meaning American Jim.

In fact, the entire book is written in a manner that evokes emotion on behalf of the white, Western protagonists aiding war-torn countries, rather than the actual casualties of the war. Warnock, along with Simon (Raymond Fox), the MI6 agent, frequently commiserate about atrocities perpetrated by the Russians, expounding on their humanitarian obligation to liberate the people of Afghanistan from the Russian bear. Reminiscent of the white man’s burden, but now on the premise of an east-west conflict, the audience is inclined to lament the civil servants who sacrifice western luxuries and families in order to aide a foreign nation. Even in that final scene, after the military leader Abdullah has revealed to Jim that his son has been killed, pity is not directed towards the grieving father or even the dead boy, but to Jim, who has been deceived after years of service, which may have all been in vain since those still standing have turned to militant Islam.

Despite this, the play had some redeeming qualities. For example, the young Afghan soldiers’ infatuation with American music amidst the terrors of war and Russian occupation evokes a sensation bordering between empathy and pity. The audience is reminded of their youth and immaturity in a cute and humorous way. Audience members, however, must take it upon themselves to extrapolate from these scenes the underlying tragedy of these young boys’ situation the text in itself does not illicit empathy.

In another scene, Jim helps Abdullah and Saeed lobby a southern Christian congressman for US financial support, framing the appeal around their shared religiosity. In this context, Christians and Muslims relate to one another as people of the Abrahamic traditions fighting against the atheism of the Soviets. However, even in that thought-provoking moment, the author gaffed by comparing the Prophet Mohammed (PBUH) to Jesus Christ, an inaccurate representation of Islam as Muslims do not consider the prophet to be God.

The problem with Blood and Gifts is that it appears rooted in fact more than fiction, and thus it dupes the audience into feeling culturally and historically savvy by the end of the performance. In fact, after the show, a group of women in the front row immediately began animatedly admiring the play for all that it taught them: “20 years of history in two hours!” one woman exclaimed.

What this woman, and the vastly white upper-middle class audience surrounding her did not realize was that, while rooted in history, the play itself perpetuated harmful stereotypes about the nature of Islam. Instead of framing the story of extremism in the region as one in which Islam was manipulated and abused to further political and cultural agendas, the play depicts Islam as the catalyst that incites violence. Furthermore, it proffers a story of the CIA as a naïve, but well-meaning force, in political history in order to victimize only the white, American protagonist.

Ultimately, the play serves as a reminder that, as Mark Twain put it, “The very ink with which all history is written is merely fluid prejudice.”


Children’s exposure to domestic abuse

Children&rsquos exposure to domestic abuse is also correlated with negative outcomes, including psychosocial impact, which increases the chance for the children to engage in intimate partner violence later in life. Domestic abusers frequently rape their partners again, along the continuum of violent personality as well as the continuum of abuse, if you abuse your partner physically, you are far more likely to abuse your partner sexually. Imagine being a child raised in a home in which domestic abuse is occurring. The child is powerless to stop the abuse and as a result may build resentment towards the abuser or may come to blame the victim for not protecting themselves. The child&rsquos sense of family, attachment, safety, and power are all likely to be negatively impacted. Even if not physically or sexually abused directly, the child is negatively impacted.

Animal cruelty

Engaging in animal cruelty (any abuse or neglect of an animal including family pets, any behavior or action that jeopardizes the wellbeing, safety or health of the animal, including serious injury, abandonment, or death) is also a risk factor for engaging in violence towards humans. In one study, 65% of those arrested for animal cruelty engaged in assault against another person. This is consistent with other researchers. Those who engage in animal cruelty were 3 times more likely to commit other crimes, including murder, rape, robbery, assault, harassment, threats, and drug/substance abuse. In addition, of all 7 school shootings that occurred in the U.S. between 1998 and 2012, 43% of the boys had a history of engaging in animal abuse and of those 90% engaged in a close-up and personal manner which is of more significance in relating to those who also became aggressive to humans. Approximately 21-46% of serial killers appear to abuse animals when young, 4 and 90% of sadistic serial killers appear to engage in animal cruelty for both hands-on and hands-off abuse. 5 For more of a review on the connections between pet abuse and violence towards people. 6,7

Alcohol and drug use and abuse

Alcohol and drug use and abuse are also correlated with violent and sexual offenses. 8,9 A Disinhibition Model links alcohol and sexual aggression. 10,11 In that model it is proposed that three factors are present to merge alcohol and rape:

  1. Preexisting beliefs that alcohol serves to disinhibit, relax, etc. The strength of the disinhibition is related to amount of alcohol consumed, degree of social and personal inhibition (e.g., personality, predisposition for aggression and rape
  2. Consuming alcohol allows for the perpetrator and others to hold the perpetrator less accountable for his actions due to the alcohol intoxication
  3. The larger amounts of alcohol results in pharmacological effects including the inability to process inhibitory cues such as the victim&rsquos resistance, victim crying, yelling etc. When inhibitory cues are processed, a non-sex offender would cease the sexual behavior.

Therefore, it is not the alcohol that causes a man to sexually assault or rape but rather a confluence of factors and a decision to sexually assault or rape. For a thorough literature review of the role of alcohol in sexual assault and rape. 9,10

Violent personality

I will use the term violent personality to refer to the sociopath and psychopath, perhaps a more gentle term to use. Violent personality includes at the minimum the factors and behavior outlined in the DSM-5 for Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD). Other common diagnoses for violent personality include Narcissistic Personality Disorder and Borderline Personality Disorder, and Schizoid Personality Disorder. The DSM-5 diagnostic criteria are listed below.


Listen to "Will Rogers: Removing the Sting"

With Smithsonian historian Jim Barber

Rogers is well-remembered for his clever observations on American society. He loved baseball and hated prohibition. He embraced the downtrodden, while castigating the powerful. Although he developed personal friendships with several presidents of the United States, happenings at both the White House and the U.S. Capitol provided fodder for many of his jokes.

Part Cherokee, Rogers was born in 1879 on his father’s sprawling 60,000-acre ranch, in the Cherokee nation in Oklahoma. After the Curtis and Dawes Acts required re-allotments of Native American lands, the family ranch dwindled to 140 acres in the late 1890s in what was known as the Indian Territory before Oklahoma became a state. Rogers became a naturalized U.S. citizen after the 1898 Curtis Act disbanded tribal governments. Both of his parents had Cherokee blood, and though his successful father fervently wanted him to be well-educated, Rogers did not like school.

As a teenager, he left home, becoming a cowboy in Argentina and performing in Texas Jack’s Wild West Circus, which was touring South Africa. Showing off the roping skills he had learned from a freed slave, he developed an on-stage persona as the Cherokee Kid.

He was “so good to the point where he could use three ropes and he could lasso a horse and a rider with three ropes,” says historian and curator Jim Barber at the National Portrait Gallery. Rogers was a cowboy, Barber adds, but unlike other popular western stars of that era, he never carried a gun. Furthermore, Rogers was different from most boys. “He had wanderlust from an early age,” Barber says. That eagerness led him to explore continents rather than complete his education.

When he ended his first foreign adventures, Rogers toured the United States’ vaudeville circuit. He first received widespread national attention after quick thinking enabled him to rope a loose steer at Madison Square Garden. Over the years, his wife Betty suggested that he talk to the audience, and he began to realize that the crowds responded well when he spoke between roping stunts and explained why a particular attempt was unsuccessful. “If he missed a trick, he had a joke that he would use,” Barber says. Soon, Rogers saw an opportunity to share his observations on current affairs. He got a job with the Ziegfeld Follies in 1915 on Broadway. He worked there for ten years, becoming the undisputed star of the show. One of the highlights of the “One Life” exhibition is a photograph of Rogers lassoing a pyramid of Ziegfeld girls.

With rising fame, Will's political candor and influence grew (Above: Will Rogers by Charles Banks Wilson). In a 1934 broadcast, he offended African Americans using a slur that drew the ire of the NAACP. (NPG, gift of Charles Banks Wilson)

Beginning in 1918, Rogers appeared in more than 70 films. Most were silent, but he starred in 11 “talkies.” He worked alongside actors like Mickey Rooney and with legendary directors such as John Ford and Hal Roach. He began radio performances in 1922, and in the 1930s, he launched a weekly series sponsored by Gulf Oil. His pay for the first seven weeks was $50,000, and he donated half of that to the Red Cross. As his earnings rose, he became well-known for his philanthropy. In 1931, when drought-weary farmers in England, Arkansas, went to the Red Cross and learned that the agency had run out of relief applications, they staged a food riot to draw attention to hunger in the United States. Rogers jumped on their bandwagon and performed 50 fundraising shows in Arkansas, Texas and Oklahoma.

With rising fame, his political candor and influence grew. He became a “shrewd political commentator” in the guise of “the cowboy philosopher with a big smile who could lasso anything and make anybody laugh,” says the museum’s director Kim Sajet in the Portraits podcast. Despite some very specific positions on national issues, he never seemed to alienate large portions of the public. President Dwight D. Eisenhower explained this later, saying “his favorite tool was the witty barb—but though sharp, to puncture pomposity, it was never poisoned to leave a lasting wound.” However, at least once, Rogers did offend listeners. In a January 1934 broadcast, he used the N-word four times, drawing the ire of the NAACP and African American newspapers.

In his columns, Rogers encouraged Americans to prepare to defend their nation, but he was an isolationist who opposed U.S. involvement in the affairs of other nations. In early 1935, he showed his political clout when he spurred many of the 40,000 telegrams that flooded into Congress, leading to the 1935 rejection of plans for the United States to become a member of the World Court.

With a countrified accent, Rogers attempted to link arms with ordinary Americans, always reminding them of his Native American ancestry. “My ancestors didn’t come over on the Mayflower, but they met the boat,” he said. In reality, he grew up in an affluent family, and his success made him even richer. At the peak of his career, he bought 359 acres of land in Santa Monica that became home to a 31-room house, guest quarters, a polo field, a golf course, stables, horse-racing facilities and a roping arena.

Will Rogers (Above: by Walter K. Kinstler, c. 1923) was a cowboy, Barber says, but unlike other popular western stars of that era, he never carried a gun. (NPG)

Surrendering to his wanderlust again, Rogers set off on a round-the-world tour in August 1935. He “could not sit still,” according to Barber. Traveling with one of the world’s most celebrated pilots, Wiley Post, in a two-seater plane, he began his tour in Alaska. One day, Post got lost and landed on an Alaskan lagoon to get directions from people in the area. Then, the plane lifted off, quickly lost power, and slammed into the water, killing both men instantly.

“There is a curious parallel between Will Rogers and Abraham Lincoln,” said Carl Sandburg following the crash. “They were each figures whom we could call beloved with ease and without embarrassment.” Robert Sherwood, another Lincoln scholar, wrote that “the impact upon the people of America at the death of Will Rogers was similar to that produced by the death of Lincoln.” More than 50,000 people sweltered for hours waiting for an opportunity to walk past his flag-draped casket in a Los Angeles cemetery. Movie theaters nationwide darkened their screens for two minutes at the time the funeral was set to begin.

After his death, Americans from coast to coast sent in coins to support a Will Rogers memorial. In response, the Oklahoma legislature approved $200,000 for the project. Congress passed a bill allocating $500,000 for a memorial, but President Franklin D. Roosevelt vetoed the appropriation because the plan was vague. Workers broke ground on a smaller ranch-like memorial in April 1938, and it opened later that year with FDR making a tribute to Rogers.

Will Rogers has never slipped from American popular memory. The Story of Will Rogers, a biographical film starring Will Rogers Jr. and Jane Wyman, appeared in 1952. Almost 40 years later, The Will Rogers Follies, a Broadway musical with Keith Carradine playing Rogers, debuted in 1991 and won the Tony Award for Best Musical. The show focused on Rogers’s years with the Ziegfeld Follies—just one stop in the life of a man who was constantly on the move and could honestly say, “I never met a man I didn’t like.”


Physical examination

The physical examination should include:

  • Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Decreased vision might be indicative of optic nerve involvement or could be secondary to severe exposure keratopathy or retinal vein occlusion.
  • Color vision assessment to assess the presence of optic nerve involvement.
  • Proptosis measurements using Hertel exophthalmometry.
  • Visual field assessment via confrontation.
  • Assessment of pupillary function with particular attention paid to the presence of a relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD).
  • Ocular motility and presence of pain with eye movements. Also, there might be involvement of the III, IV, and V1/V2 cranial nerve in cases of cavernous sinus involvement.
  • Orbit exam should include documentation of direction of displacement of globe (e.g. a superior subperiosteal abscess will displace the globe inferiorly), resistance to retropulsion on palpation, unilateral or bilateral involvement (bilateral involvement is virtually diagnostic of cavernous sinus thrombosis Α] ).
  • Measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP). Increased venous congestion may result in increased IOP.
  • Slit-lamp biomicroscopy of the anterior segment if possible to look for signs of exposure keratopathy in cases of severe proptosis.
  • Dilated fundus exam will exclude or confirm the presence of optic neuropathy or retinal vascular occlusion.

Philip E, Lioyd A, Ashley B, et al. Evaluation and management of adult hypoglycemic disorders: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 200994:709–28.

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Yıldırım O, Dogan O, Semiz M, et al. Serum cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate levels in schizophrenic patients and their first-degree relatives. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 201165:584–91.

John W, Dan W, Robert F, et al. Abnormalities in glucose regulation during antipsychotic treatment of schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 200259:337–45.

Melkersson Kristina. Clozapine and olanzapine, but not conventional APD, increase insulin release in vitro. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 200414:115–9.

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Somnath M, Indral S, Sandal D, et al. Oral aripiprazole-induced severe hypoglycemia. Ther Drug Monit. 201234:245–8.

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Suzuki Y, Watanabe J, Fukui N, et al. Hypoglycemia induced by second generation antipsychotic agents in schizophrenic non-diabetic patients. BMJ. 2009338:1387–9.

Nagamine T. Hypoglycemia associated with insulin hypersecretion following the addition of olanzapine to conventional antipsychotics. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 20062:583–5.

Walter RB, Hoofnagle AN, Lanum SL, et al. Acute, life-threatening hypoglycemia associated with haloperidol in a hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipient. Bone Marrow Transplant. 200637:109–10.

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Adherence to the Protocol

Nonadherence was defined as either the failure to transfuse red cells within 24 hours after a patient’s hemoglobin fell below the assigned threshold or the administration of a transfusion when the hemoglobin level was above the assigned threshold. Multiple instances of nonadherence could occur for one patient. An instance of nonadherence was considered to be severe when it changed the classification of a patient with respect to receipt of any transfusion (i.e., when a patient’s hemoglobin level fell below the assigned threshold but the patient did not receive any transfusion or when a patient’s hemoglobin level never fell below the assigned threshold but the patient did receive a transfusion).


CONCLUSION

Medication-induced TD is a complex and unique neurologic disorder. While the reported incidence of TD seems to be less with atypical APDs compared to typical APDs, a risk of developing TD is associated with these medications, as well as others. A number of challenges with TD remain, including the ability to quantify the risk of TD caused by pharmacologic management, the difficulty of diagnosing TD even with DISCUS and other approaches, the exposure of older patients to both typical and atypical APDs, and the dyskinesia caused by other neurologic disorders. Additionally, the unclear pathophysiology of TD continues to be a problem for the successful treatment and management of the condition.

While no FDA-approved treatment for TD is available, several medication and supplement options are available to ameliorate its effects. One of the most promising options is BCAAs that appear to improve TD symptoms even for patients taking APDs. While BCAAs may not work for all patients with TD, BCAAs are inexpensive and easily acquired, making them an attractive approach to combat TD.

The best strategy against TD is prevention. Prevention of medication-induced TD is centered around clinical considerations for pharmacologic choices and altering dosages based on each patient's variables. Healthcare providers are responsible for educating themselves and their patients on the dangers associated with APDs and other TD-inducing medications and following up on patient medication compliance. Furthermore, long-term treatment with almost all of the medications mentioned in this paper is a major risk factor for developing TD. Healthcare providers should be vigilant in reassessing the course of treatment for their patients and only allow patients to stay on these medications for long periods if absolutely necessary.


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