(DE-362: dp. 1,745 (f.); 1. 306'; b. 36'7"; dr. 13'4"; s. 24 k.; cpl. 223; a. 2 5", 10 40mm., 3 21" tt., 2 dct., 8 dcp (hh.),cl. John C. Butler)
Rolf (DE-362) was laid down 20 March 1944 by Consolidated Steel Corp., Orange, Tex. launched 23 May 1944 sponsored by Mrs. Martha M. Roif, mother of Lieutenant (]unior grade) Rolf, and commissioned 7 September 1944 Lt. Comdr. Lester E. Hubbell, USNR, in command
Following shakedown off Bermuda, she departed Norfolk, Va., 30 November and reached San Diego 5 December. Rolf then sailed for the southwest Pacific and escorted a convoy from Hollandia, New Guinea, to Leyte Gulf. The ship subsequently operated under the Philippine Sea Frontier, and from May to August was part of a hunter-killer group at Subic Bay, Philippine Islands. Just prior to the close of hostilities, Rolf participated in a search for enemy midget submarines believed to be operating northeast of Casiguran Bay, Luzon.
Following the Japanese surrender, the destroyer escort sailed with a task group via Okinawa to Jinsen, Korea for operations in support of the Korean occupation. She ;ater took part in the occupation of China.
Rolf decommissioned 3 June 1946 and entered the Pacific Reserve Fleet at San Diego, where she remained until stricken from the Navy list I December 1972.
History of Rolfing
In 1920, Ida Pauline Rolf received her Ph.D. in biochemistry from the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University. Despite the resistance she faced as a woman in the field of science, she furthered her knowledge of the body through research in organic chemistry at the Rockefeller Institute.
Driven to find solutions to her own health problems as well as those of her two sons, she spent many years studying and experimenting with different systems of healing and manipulation.
Throughout most of her life she was intrigued with and explored many forms of alternative healing including homeopathy, osteopathy, chiropractic and yoga. The notion that proper alignment, physiologic function and anatomical structure are related is the basis of many of these healing methods.
Dr. Rolf agreed that the body functions best when the bony segments are in proper alignment. She added her observations that lasting improvement in alignment and an overall sense of well-being required a closer look at the effects of gravity on our bodies. She believed that the imbalances in structure placed demands on the body's pervasive network of soft tissues: muscles, fascia, tendons and ligaments, thereby creating compensations throughout the body structure.
Dr. Rolf posed this fundamental question: "What conditions must be fulfilled in order for the human body-structure to be organized and integrated in gravity so that the whole person can function in the most optimal and economical way?"
Her life's work was devoted to this investigation which led to the system of soft tissue manipulation and movement education that we now call Rolfing ® . In order to pass along her work to others and to make the education process accessible, she developed an expedient series of ten sessions, which came to be known as the Ten Series.
Dr. Rolf continues to be recognized as a pioneer and leader in soft tissue manipulation and movement education.
Since her death in 1979 at the age of 83, the Rolf Institute ® of Structural Integration has continued to share her work by certifying Rolfers &trade and Rolf Movement ® Practitioners, supporting research, and building upon her inspiration. Today, there are more than 1,950 Rolfers &trade and Rolf Movement Practitioners worldwide.
"This is the gospel of Rolfing:
When the body gets working appropriately,
the force of gravity can flow through.
Then, spontaneously, the body heals itself."
Photo of Dr. Rolf courtesy of David Kirk-Campbell, Certified Advanced Rolfer &trade
Rolf DE-362 - History
The Arid Thar
Over 60 per cent of the Great Indian Desert (Thar Desert) lies in Rajasthan. With precipitation annually fluctuating widely, the terrain is generally infertile. Summer temperature soars to 50 0 C bringing with it swirling dust-laden winds, often blowing at velocities of 140–150 km per hour. Amid a fragile scrubby vegetation, trees are few and far between—the most important being Khejri (Prosopis cineraria) because of its many benefits. Blackbucks and chinkara gazelles are found here along with partridges and quails.
The Great Sacrifice
About 18 km from Jodhpur is the small Khejarli village. Like other Bishnoi villages, this one, too, is green and especially rich in khejri trees. The morning of September 11, 1730, when strange men with large axes descended on the village on their horses, Amrita Devi rushed out of her house—as did other villagers—with her three daughters in tow to see what the excitement was all about. She learnt that these were the king’s men, with the mission to cut down and carry off the khejri trees to Mehrangarh Fort in Jodhpur. Maharaja Abhay Singh had decided to build a new palace and was in need of wood to keep the kilns going for construction material.
It was common practice then to burn lime in a kiln at very high temperature to obtain quicklime which, when mixed with sand and water, would become mortar used to bind and hold together stones and bricks for construction. To keep the kiln going, they needed plenty of wood. This posse had reached Khejarli for an assured supply.
Since cutting or injuring trees, especially khejri, is against Bishnoi dharma, Amrita Devi remonstrated with the men, but they were unmoved. She then hugged a tree and declared that even if she sacrificed her life to save just one tree, it would be a good bargain. The unyielding men nonchalantly chopped through her body to cut the tree. Her three daughters, though utterly shocked to see their mother’s severed head, followed in her footsteps bravely, hugging trees and meeting the same end. This made no impression on the royal party, and they continued their task with renewed vigour. The news spread like wildfire and Bishnois of 83 villages gathered at Khejarli. They held council and decided that for every living tree to be cut, one Bishnoi volunteer would sacrifice her or his life. In all, 363 Bishnois from 49 villages became martyrs that day. The very soil of Khejarli turned red with their blood.
The First Environmentalists
The Khejarli sacrifice was characterised by total non-violence, or ahimsa, on the part of the Bishnois who stood up to perform what they considered their bounden duty. For them, every plant or animal is a living being just as humans, and hence deserves to be protected. This served them well as it fosters a better relationship between human beings, their environment, their religious beliefs and each other, allowing all to live harmoniously. Today experts call this ‘sustainability’, and have labelled Bishnois as ‘India’s first environmentalists’. Yet, within their community it is simply understood to be their dharma.
Nearly 230 years after it happened, the Khejarli story inspired another environmental movement—the Chipko Andolan (1973) in the Tehri-Garhwal Himalaya. This, in turn, spawned the Jungle Bachao Andolan (1982) in Bihar and Jharkhand, the Appiko Chaluvali (1983) in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, and other similar protests. All these were aimed at preserving and protecting the natural environment and resulted in changing public policies. The ‘tree-hugging’ tactic of the Chipko Andolan and its messages gained popularity in many countries beyond India’s borders, leading to protests in Switzerland, Japan, Malaysia, The Philippines, Indonesia and Thailand.
Surely, Amrita Devi would have approved.
This article is part of Saha Sutra on www.sahapedia.org, an online resource for Indian arts, culture and heritage.
Dr S. Natesh is a botanist with a passion for documenting the heritage trees of India and plants that influenced history. He taught at Delhi University before moving to the Department of Biotechnology, GoI, where he headed several divisions. Currently he works at the DST Centre for Policy Research at IIT Delhi. His book on the heritage trees of India is slated to be published in 2021 with Roli Books.
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Characteristics [ edit ]
Appearance [ edit ]
Rolf is a white tiger with dark gray stripes who appears to be based on the white Bengal tiger. He has dark gray whiskers, pink around eyes, and blue on the insides of his ears.
Personality [ edit ]
Below is a brief description of the cranky personality. For more information, click here.
Rolf is a cranky villager, and will at first seem rude and belittling to other villagers, as well as the player. As time goes on, however, Rolf will warm up to the player, considering them his "only friend". Also, he will get along with his personality's female counterpart, the big sister villagers, due to their similar personalities, though he may still conflict with them if they have differing opinions. He may find it difficult to get along with other personalities, especially jock and peppy villagers, the latter of whom he complains about in conversation.
Johannes de Spira Becomes the First Printer in Venice
In September 1469, in order to initiate the new technology in their community, the Venetian Senate granted the German printer Johannes de Spira (Speyer) a five-year monopoly on printing in the city. This was the first monopoly on printing granted by a European government. Speyer probably set up shop in Venice well before September, since issued Cicero's Epistolae ad familiares in an edition of 100 copies in 1469. (ISTC no. ic00504000). "Four months" later he issued a second edition of 300 copies (ISTC no. ic00505000). Also in 1469 he published the first edition of Pliny's Historia naturalis, a long text, in an edition of 100 copies (ISTC no. ip00786000). In November 2013 a digital facsimile of the copy of the first edition of Pliny in the Bibliothèque de Saint Geneviève was available at this link.
From the text of the decree it appears that the Venetian Senate granted the monopoly to Speyer as a way of supporting his ongoing work, which they much admired. The manuscript of the grant is preserved in the Venetian State Archives (ASV, NC, reg. 1, c.55r). It is reproduced in color and translated in Primary Sources on Copyright (1450-1900), eds L. Bently & M. Kretschmer, www.copyrighthistory.org, from which I quote:
"The art of printing books has been introduced into our renowned state, and from day to day it has become more popular and common through the efforts, study and ingenuity of Master Johannes of Speyer, who chose our city over all the others. Here he lives with his wife, children and whole household practices the said art of printing books has just published, to universal acclaim, the Letters of Cicero and Pliny's noble work On Natural History, in the largest type and with the most beautiful letter-forms and continues every day to print other famous volumes so that [this state] will be enriched by many, famous volumes, and for a low price, by the industry and fortitude of this man. Whereas such an innovation, unique and particular to our age and entirely unknown to those ancients, must be supported and nourished with all our goodwill and resources and [whereas] the same Master Johannes, who suffers under the great expense of his household and the wages of his craftsmen, must be provided with the means so that he may continue in better spirits and consider his art of printing something to be expanded rather than something to be abandoned, in the same manner as usual in other arts, even much smaller ones, the undersigned lords of the present Council, in response to the humble and reverent entreaty of the said Master Johannes, have determined and by determining decreed that over the next five years no one at all should have the desire, possibility, strength or daring to practice the said art of printing books in this the renowned state of Venice and its dominion, apart from Master Johannes himself. Every time that someone shall be found to have dared to practice this art and print books in defiance of this determination and decree, he must be fined and condemned to lose his equipment and the printed books. And, subject to the same penalty, no one is permitted or allowed to import here for the purpose of commerce such books, printed in other lands and places. . . ."
"Scholars and writers too went more readily to Venice than to any other city, in their search for publishers, attracted by the excellence of the local paper stock and typography as much as relatively liberal atmosphere in the city. In contrast to other early modern states where censorship and state regulation took on early to encourage and protect the nascent trade, in Venice, the trade was left virtually uncontrolled in the first years of its development. It was only in 1515 when Andrea Navagero was appointed for the task of the official revision of books that the state began to exercise a degree of control over what was printed. Even then, this literary censorship was primarily concerned with the quality of printed books to secure commercially successful correct editions. Thus the natural play of economic forces had left printers free to establish their printing enterprises and compete against each other in an open market. In other words, Venice was an ideal place from which to begin the 'printing revolution.'
"The rapid expansion of the printing industry leaves no doubt that Venice was the first city in the world to feel the full impact of printing, and to experience the most important revolution in human communications, and a favourable territory in which the system of copyright could develop. This, however, did not make Venice into a champion of literary property. It would take a long time before the copyright holder was identified with the moral or aesthetic personality of the writer.
"The best-known explanation for the emergence of author's rights is a technological one, viewing the need to protect literary production as a consequence of the invention of printing. In a manuscript culture, texts were treated as common property, and copying another man's work was often considered more of a favour than an injury. . . .
In "Run for your Ed," it is shown that Rolf's house has a cellar, whose entrance is in the backyard. In an emergency, it is big enough to hide Rolf and his farm animals.
In "No Speak Da Ed," it is shown that Rolf has an underground lair. It is only accessible by turning a faucet that opens a trapdoor next to the shed. Inside is a deep staircase that leads down to a torchlit chamber. Inside this chamber are a throne, numerous sheep, and two large fire pits. The walls are made of brick and decorated with sheep banners.
یواساس رولف (دیئی-۳۶۲)
یواساس رولف (دیئی-۳۶۲) (به انگلیسی: USS Rolf (DE-362) ) یک کشتی بود که طول آن ۳۰۶ فوت (۹۳ متر) بود. این کشتی در سال ۱۹۴۴ ساخته شد.
|آباندازی:||۲۰ مارس ۱۹۴۴|
|آغاز کار:||۲۳ مه ۱۹۴۴|
|اعزام:||۷ سپتامبر ۱۹۴۴|
|درازا:||۳۰۶ فوت (۹۳ متر)|
|پهنا:||۱۱ متر (۳۶ فوت)|
|آبخور:||9 ft 5 in (3 m)|
|سرعت:||24 knots (44 km/h)|
این یک مقالهٔ خرد کشتی یا قایق است. میتوانید با گسترش آن به ویکیپدیا کمک کنید.
Rolf DE-362 - History
Figure 57.- Location of photographs in this chapter numbers correspond to figure numbers. [Base map courtesy of the National Geographic Society.]
[ 67 ] Areas of mare material occupy about 15 percent of the Moon's total surface. As shown in figure 14, most of them occur on the Earth-facing hemisphere. Mare areas are of two types, those that fill multiringed circular basins and those that fill irregular areas. The circular basins are believed to be impact features formed by the collision of giant meteoroids with the lunar surface these were later filled to varying degrees by mare material. The basins lie at successively lower levels to the east, with Mare Smythii-the easternmost of the mare basins on the near side-lying almost 5 km below nominal lunar radius. The irregular maria lie in lowlands. The largest of these is Oceanus Procellarum, which lies on the west side of the Moon and is almost 2 km below nominal mean lunar radius.
Mare filling is characterized by several distinctive features that indicate a volcanic origin. These include many broad low domes with summit craters. Some of these domes closely resemble terrestrial basaltic shield volcanoes. In other areas, irregular and steep-sided volcanic piles dominate. Elsewhere, clusters of domes occur as in the Marius and Rumker Hills. Another type of feature is the broad lobate flow fronts that mark the edges of lava flows these flow fronts extend several hundred kilometers in length and are as much as 100 m high. Other elongate flows closely resemble terrestrial flood basalts samples returned by Apollos 11, 12, 15, and 17 confirmed this resemblance.
Other typical features on the maria are sinuous rilles and wrinkle ridges. Many sinuous rilles originate in craters near the higher margins of the mare basins and flow into the lowlands. Apollo 15 collected samples from the margins of Hadley Rille and confirmed the hypothesis that sinuous rilles are basaltic lava channels. Wrinkle ridges occur in all mare regions and form circumferential or medially transecting patterns.
Ages of the maria are being determined by two methods. Absolute ages are given by radiometric techniques. From these we know that the sampled lunar basalts are much older than their terrestrial counterparts. The basaltic lava flows range in age from 3.15 to 3.85 billion years, so the episode of lava filling on the Moon must have continued for at least 700 million years. Relative ages can be established by counting craters in mare surfaces. Comparison of crater counts on the lightly cratered lava flows in the northern part of Oceanus Procellarum with radiometric dates obtained for the basalts returned to Earth suggests that the Procellarum flows may be as young as 2 billion years. This date needs to be confirmed because it more than doubles the time of lava production.
Analyses of the returned samples show that the chemical composition of mare basalts varies across the Moon. These differences have also been correlated with the subtle color changes seen in spectral reflectance measurements as a result, chemical variations can now be mapped far from the Apollo landing sites.-G.W.C. and H.M.
[For a high resolution picture- click here]
FIGURE 58 [above].-This mosaic of Apollo 17 frames extends across southern Mare Serenitatis, one of the larger multiringed basins on the Moon's near side (fig. 14). The average diameter of the basin is about 680 km. Its generally circular outline is mimicked by the systems of arcuate rilles near the outer edge of the basin and also by the large system of mare ridges extending from arrow to arrow. Another feature of Mare Serenitatis is the nearly continuous ring of dark mare material that occupies the outer part of its floor. When these pictures were taken, the Sun angle was too low to show differences in albedo clearly. However, part of the ring of dark mare material is visible near the Plinius Rilles (Rimae Plinius) and the Littrow Rilles (Rimae Littrow). The stratigraphic relationships between the dark and light mare units are described in figure 59, which is an enlargement of the small area outlined in this figure.-G.W.C.
[For a high resolution picture- click here]
FIGURE 59 [left].-Some of the strongest tonal, color, and structural contrasts among mare materials occur in Mare Serenitatis. Accordingly, it has become a classic area for studying the sequence (or stratigraphy) of mare rocks. Earlier studies of telescopic photographs seemed to provide evidence that the lighter materials in the center of the basin (top half of this view) were emplaced before the darker lavas erupted along the basin margin. However, pictures returned by Apollo 17 show that the opposite is true. The dark materials were emplaced first. They were then tilted northward and broken by faults, such as those that bound the Plinius Rilles, before the light lava flooded against them (Howard et al., 1973). The large mare ridge or wrinkle ridge deforms both light and dark mare units but is much more prominent in the lighter unit. Detailed spectral studies and visual observations by the Apollo 17 astronauts show that the lighter-toned mare is relatively browner and the darker mare is relatively bluer.-K.A.H.
[ 69 ] FIGURE 60 [right].-The southeastern margin of Mare Serenitatis and the surrounding Taurus-Littrow highlands are shown in this high Sun angle photograph. Also shown is the Apollo 17 landing site (large arrow) in a dark-floored valley between bright mountain massifs. The rectangle surrounding the landing site outlines the area covered by the two maps that follow in figures 61 and 62. The boundary between light mare material in the central part of the basin and the very dark mantling material surrounding the landing site area is indicated by several smaller arrows. The difference in albedo is much more pronounced in this picture than in the mosaic (fig. 58) at the beginning of this chapter because this picture was taken when the Sun was at a higher angle above the surface. Before the Apollo 17 landing, the dark material was interpreted to be a blanket of pyroclastic debris (volcanic cinders and ash). It was thought to be as young as Copernican in age (see fig. 13), and hence younger than most other mare materials elsewhere on the Moon. Analysis of samples returned from the Taurus-Littrow area has shown that while the dark material may be predominantly volcanic in origin, its age is considerably greater than had been predicted. The dark mantling material most likely consists of black and orange glass beads that form a layer on top of the valley floor basalt and are reworked into the regolith, thus causing the low albedo. -B.K.L.
[For a high resolution picture- click here]
[ 70 ] FIGURE 61 [above].-This is part of a premission geologic map of the Taurus-Littrow area, compiled by B. K. Lucchitta (Scott, Lucchitta, and Carr, 1972) and published before Apollo 17 was launched. The actual landing point was very near the center of the large circle marking the proposed landing site. Letter symbols and colors designate the different types of rock materials and their relative ages as deduced from study of photographs available before the mission. Some refinements could now be made based on samples and data gathered by the astronauts on the surface and from orbital experiments. Apollo 15 panoramic camera photographs were the principal source of information for the original map, but mapping camera photographs, Orbiter pictures, and Earth-based telescopic pictures were also used.
On the explanation accompanying the map, each unit is identified and its relative position in the lunar time scale is shown. The explanation on the original map also included a description of the physical characteristics of each unit and a.
Dotted where buried buried unit in parathensis.
Bar and ball on downthrown side dotted where buried
Line at base of slope, barb pointing downslope solid where steep and high open where gentle or low may coincide with contact
Interpretation: steep scarp in most places marks break in slope located near buried fault
Groove, scarplet, ledge, or sharp break in slope
Interpretation: slump scar, mass wasting trough, surface expression of fault, bedding plane, or trough between constructional ridges on Cb
Craters > 500 m, old craters, crater remnants, and inferred craters
Rimless or low rimmed Interpretation: degraded craters, graben remnants, and possibly volcanic craters locally may be mass wasting, or drainage, pits along faults
Ih: light halo dh: very dark halo Small circle or dot locates crater or pit Interpretation: excavated material, possibly locally volcanic material
. very brief interpretation of its origin and history. For example, unit pItm occurs on the steep hills north and southwest of the landing site and is interpreted to be composed of ancient rocks uplifted when the Serenitatis basin was formed. Unit Ips is a much younger, relatively smooth plains material that covers most of the Taurus-Littrow Valley. Before the mission it was interpreted as ejecta breccia or lava emplaced in a fluidized state samples and other data gathered during the mission confirmed it was mare lava. Dark mantle material is shown by dot or line shading rather than by letter symbols and color. Throughout most of the valley it appears to be on top of (hence, younger than) unit Ips. It was interpreted as a blanket of pyroclastic debris. Unit Cb, bright mantle material, was interpreted as a deposit of avalanche debris derived from the steep mountain partly shown in the lower left corner of the map.-G.W.C.
FIGURE 62 [above].-This is a topographic contour map of the same area as the geologic map in figure 61. Topographic contour lines in red are superposed on an orthophoto base composed of rectified and mosaicked panoramic camera frames. The area shown is part of a larger map prepared by the Defense Mapping Agency Topographic Center and is included here to show the relationship between geology and topography. The steepness of the mountain slopes along the north edge and in the lower left corner is indicated by the closely spaced contours at 50-m intervals. These slopes are underlain by the very old rocks of unit pItm. The overall levelness of the valley floor-the area filled by younger rocks of unit Ips-is indicated by the widely spaced contours at 10-m intervals. An exception is the belt of closely spaced subparallel contour lines extending northward near the left edge of the map. These define an east-facing scarp or mare ridge interpreted on the geologic map as a fault. The average difference in elevation across the scarp is about 80 m, suggesting at least that much vertical displacement across the fault. The location and size of craters on the valley floor are shown by the many sets of circular contours.-G.W.C.
[For a high resolution picture- click here]
[ 73 ] FIGURE 63 [above].-This stereoscopic view shows southwestern Mare Serenitatis "lapping against" its shore of ancient highlands or terrae. The highlands near the Sulpicius Gallus rilles in the lower part of the picture are unusually dark-- darker even than the mare. M. H. Carr (1966) suggested from telescopic study that the darkness of the highlands is caused by a thin mantle of dark material, perhaps consisting of volcanic ash. The numerous small bright spots are knobs of highland material. They may have once been covered by the dark mantle but, if so, have since shed it. As elsewhere around the outer part of Mare Serenitatis, the rilles and the dark mantle in this area were originally thought to be younger than the lighter mare to the north. Apollo 17 photographs such as these have changed that concept. Now, the lighter mare is interpreted as embaying the faulted dark materials, just as in the Plinius rilles area (figs. 58 and 59). Isolated islands of dark mantled highlands that escaped inundation are shown by the arrow. K.A.H.
[For a high resolution picture- click here]
[ 74 ] FIGURE 64 [above].-These two contrasting pictures of the same area in southeastern Mare Imbrium were taken by Apollo 15, but on different revolutions under different lighting conditions. The picture on the left was taken when the Sun angle was 17° the Sun angle was 2° when the picture on the right was taken. The large crater at the west edge is Timocharis. The area is dominated by three geologic units. The oldest is a fairly densely cratered fractured plains unit of moderate albedo that occupies the eastern part of the area. Next oldest is the mare unit in the central part, with its typically smooth, level surface and moderately low albedo. The youngest unit is the bright (high-albedo), highly textured ejecta surrounding Timocharis.
We have included the two pictures to illustrate the problems photogeologists sometimes face when drawing a contact line between units. The eastern edge of the mare is used as an example. Throughout most of the area shown the mare is in contact with the plains unit. Characteristically mare material is darker and smoother than plains material. Using the picture on the left in which albedo differences are enhanced because of the relatively high Sun angle, the contact might be drawn as shown. The line is equivocal in places, but, in general, it does satisfactorily separate darker areas from lighter areas. Using the picture on the right, in which surface relief is exaggerated because of very low Sun angle, the contact would be drawn as shown. Some areas dark enough to be mapped as mare in the first picture are here seen to be too roughly textured to be mare. As drawn, the line separates a unit that is both dark and smooth from a unit that is predominantly light and everywhere rugged.
Detailed stereoscopic examination of all available pictures of this area explains why some dark areas within the plains unit should not be classified as mare. In several of them there are structures resembling volcanic outlets (wide arrows on left photo). Similar structures were not found elsewhere within the plains unit. Therefore, it is likely that some if not all the darker areas of the plains are caused by veneers of dark volcanic ejecta so thin that the surface relief of the underlying plains is still visible.