Rashtrakuta Dynasty

Rashtrakuta Dynasty

The Rashtrakuta Dynasty ruled parts of South India from the 8th to the 10th century CE. At its zenith, their kingdom included the modern state of Karnataka in its entirety along with parts of the current Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Maharashtra and Gujarat. Their importance can be gauged from the writings of many Islamic travellers and scholars, especially Al-Masudi and Ibn Khordadbih (10th century CE), who wrote that all the other kings of India at that time prayed to the Rashtrakutas as a higher power and prostrated themselves in reverence before them, such was their influence and impression.

Origin & Rise to Power

The name 'Rashtrakuta' in Sanskrit means 'Country' (Rashtra) and 'Chieftain' (Kuta). This explains their lineage from the time of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka the Great (3rd century BCE) when they were primarily small clan heads in different parts of India. In some of the edicts of Ashoka (in Mansera, Girnar, Dhavali) the word Rathika appears, who may have been the ancestors of the Rashtrakutas. However, though many historians claim that the Rashtrakutas were the earlier Rathikas mentioned in those inscriptions, this theory is not backed up by enough archaeological evidence. Medieval Sanskrit literature reveals fragments of their lineage, which is thought to be from the Mauryan times as small clan heads.

Dantidurga made the final assault on the Chalukya king in 753 CE & thus established the Rashtrakuta Empire.

However, their rise began when Dantidurga (also knows as Dantivarman, r. until 756 CE), who was a feudatory of the Badami Chalukyas, defeated their King Kirtivarman II in 753 CE. Dantidurga's ascent started from the time when he helped the Chalukyas in their successful war against the incoming Arab army (between 731 and 739 CE). Soon, it became apparent that he was not satisfied in being just a vassal state and started exerting his influence through military aggression. He defeated the kings of Kosala and Kalinga, subdued the Gurjaras of Malwa, defeated other kings of Central India, and made friendship with the Pallava king Nandivarman II Pallavamalla of Kanchi by giving his daughter in marriage, before he made the final assault on the Chalukya king in 753 CE and thus established the Rashtrakuta Empire.

Expansion

Dantidurga died without a male heir and was succeeded by his uncle Krishna I (r. c. 756 - 773/774 CE). Krishna I gave the final death nail to their erstwhile masters, the Badami Chalukyas, when he routed them in 757 CE to end that dynasty's rule. He expanded his kingdom by invading the Ganga territory and defeating them, by subjugating the Konkan territories and sending his own son to the Eastern Chalukya kingdom of Vengi and accepting their submission without a fight. Krishna I is also culturally very important in the history of India because he was the man behind the construction of the exquisite Kailasa Temple of Ellora (a UNESCO World Heritage site now).

Krishna I was succeeded by his eldest son Govinda II (r. 774-780 CE). Govinda II's military adventures include his journey to the Eastern Chalukya kingdom upon instruction of his father and also helping a certain Ganga king in securing the throne from his brother. How he came to his end in life is not known but he was overthrown by his younger brother Dhruva Dharavarsha.

The ascension of Dhruva Dharavarsha (r. 780-793 CE) marks the golden period of the Rashtrakutas. He started his military conquests, first of all, by punishing all the kings who were friendly to his elder brother, and then venturing into the imperial Kannauj and defeating its king. Dhruva then defeated the Gurjara-Pratihara Kingdom of Central India and the Pala Kingdom of Eastern India which was centred around present-day Bengal, and thus with him started the tripartite struggle between the Gurjara-Pratihara Empire, the Rashtrakutas, and the Pala Dynasty to control the main heartland of India. The battle for Kannauj (located in modern-day Uttar Pradesh state) is one of the most important events in the medieval history of India. His other victories include subjugating the Vengi king who could only ensure peace by offering his own daughter in marriage to Dhruva Dharavarsha. He had also successfully moved against the Pallavas of Kanchi (present-day Tamil Nadu) and their immediate neighbours, the Western Ganga Dynasty.

Love History?

Sign up for our free weekly email newsletter!

Govinda III (r. 793-814 CE) succeeded his father Dhruva, and though he came to power through a family feud, soon proved to be militarily the most powerful emperor of this dynasty. Though Dhruva had successfully moved into North India in his time, he had not gained many lands. Govinda III rectified that by expanding his kingdom from Kannauj to the Cape Comorin (Kanyakumari now) and from the east of India from Banaras, Bengal etc. to the west of India mainly to the Gujarat territories, and thus on his way defeating numerous kings and rulers like the Gurjara-Pratihara king Nagabhata II, King Dharmapala of the Pala Empire, Pallava Dantivarman, Cholas, Pandyas, Vishnuvardhana IV of Vengi, and several others. Even the King of Ceylon (current-day Sri Lanka) admitted his own subjugation and continued as a feudatory of the Rashtrakutas by paying time to time tributes to them.

Amoghavarsha I was a scholar king under whom the art, literature, & culture of the kingdom flourished.

Next in line was the greatest of all the Rashtrakuta kings, Govinda III's son, Amoghavarsha I, also called Nripatunga (c. 814-878 CE). He ascended the throne at a very early age due to the death of his father in 814 CE but could not hold real power as an emperor until 821 CE. He was a scholar king under whom the art, literature, and culture of the kingdom flourished. He himself endorsed and wrote landmark pieces in both the Kannada and Sanskrit languages. He also made Manyakheta (Malkhed in Karnataka now) the centre of the empire by which they are known today as the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta.

Amoghavarsha I ruled for almost 64 years, and though he faced many wars and battles, by temperament he was a peace-loving ruler. He preferred friendly relations with his feudatories over war and used marriages and other amiable gestures to secure their loyalty. Being a lover of art and scholarship, scientists prospered under his rule and his kingdom was adorned with beautiful and intricate artworks and architecture all around. He also equally patronised Buddhism, Jainism, and Hinduism, but many scholars are of the opinion that personally he probably followed Jainism.

After Amoghavarsha I came various rulers (like Krishna II, Indra III, Amoghavarsha II, Govinda IV, Amoghavarsha III, Krishna III, Khottiga Amoghavarsha, Karka II, and Indra IV) with mixed successes. One of the notable successes was that of King Indra III (r. 915-928 CE), who captured Kannauj in the early 10th century (c. 916 CE). Inscriptions in temples in Tamil Nadu and its surroundings reveal that King Krishna III (r. 939-967 CE) invaded the Chola territory and defeated the Chola army decisively in the 10th century CE.

Government, Administration, & Military

The Rashtrakutas divided their kingdom into various provinces, and the provinces were further divided into districts. The kings or emperors of the Rashtrakutas were followed in hierarchy by a Chief Minister who had a cabinet of ministers and different army personnel under him. All the ministers had to undergo military training and be ready for war at any moment. The empire had a mighty army who were always kept ready, especially in their capital city for any incursion or invasion. It was divided into three units; infantry, cavalry, and elephants. It was always diligently trained and kept in proper shape all the time. Feudatory kingdoms would pay tributes, and in case of a special warlike situation or a natural calamity, the administration would also exact some special taxes to meet the expenses, but not at the cost of the happiness and well-being of its subjects. However, the precarious balance that the Rashtrakutas had to maintain between war and well-being, between defence and invasion, between expansion and their administration, ultimately led to their decline.

Society

The subjects of the Rashtrakuta Empire looked up to their emperor or king as the ultimate authority who was expected to look after them and uphold the current social justice, order, and peace. However, for day-to-day matters, there were guilds or co-operatives who would decide on any disputes as per the prevalent custom, and if the case could not be solved, then it was brought to the notice of a higher authority. These guilds generally followed the prevailing rules and regulations of a particular group or caste and would deviate only under special circumstances.

The society was divided into various castes based on profession. The prevailing castes had their own sets of rules, regulations, and customs, which they followed quite diligently. They also followed ancient orthodoxy. However, due to the Rashtrakuta rulers being tolerant towards all religions, society was generally accommodative of adherents of various faiths.

Trade, Commerce, & Economy

The South Indian and the Deccan region was not as fertile as the Ganges valley, but the Malabar coast and other areas still yielded enough agricultural produce to take care of the food supplies. Further, due to the incursion and expansion of the empire to Kannauj and other central and North Indian plains, the food supplies augmented from time to time. As the Kannada states were rich in mineral resources and the coastal areas were controlled by the Rashtrakutas, the export of Indian silk and cotton to Arabia, Persia, and other countries was unlimited. Jewellery and ivory were other important products of the empire while import included Arabian horses. Rulers issued gold and silver coins.

Religion & Language

Kannada is one of the most important languages in current-day India, and it was the Rashtrakutas who made it popular and a tool of day-to-day communication, though the language had already been in use for a long time. They also patronised Sanskrit which was actually a language of the elite. Amoghavarsha I was instrumental in composing groundbreaking works in both languages, and his Kavirajamarga was an important milestone in Kannada poetry. His work in Sanskrit became widely acclaimed and was read in other Asian countries as well. Amoghavrasha I was said to have endorsed Jainism and so a lot of Jain scholars flourished in his court, including the. Jain mathematician Mahavirachariya. In Kannada, Adikabi Pampa and Sri Ponna flourished and are now considered to be iconic contributors to the language.

Art & Architecture

The Rashtrakutas were instrumental in establishing an aesthetic architectural form now known as the Karnata Dravida style. The stunning Kailasa Temple of Ellora (a rock-cut structure) is the epitome of Rashtrakuta architectural achievement, but many of the caves of Ellora and Elephanta (in present-day Maharashtra state) have also been created and renovated under the supervision of the Rashtrakutas. Another UNESCO World Heritage Site, the temples at Pattadakal also came under the sway of the Rashtrakutas after the defeat of the Chalukyas and were subsequently renovated and expanded by the Rashtrakutas. The Jain Narayana Temple is said to be solely created by the Rashtrakuta Dynasty.

Decline & Legacy

The decline of the Rashtrakutas began from the reign of Khottiga Amoghavarsha who was defeated and killed by a Paramara dynasty ruler in 972 CE, with the capital Manyakheta plundered and destroyed, thus putting a severe dent to the prestige of the dynasty. The last ruler of the kingdom, Indra IV took his own life in 982 CE by performing a Jaina ritual called Sallekhana, which is a practice of fasting to death.

The Rashtrakuta Dynasty came to an end, but their impact remained. The parts of their kingdom were annexed by the later Cholas and other dynasties, but their system of government and several other cultural practices were also followed by the subsequent empires. Culturally, the temples at Pattadakal or the Ellora structures, and numerous medieval literary works bear testimony to the fine tastes of the Rashtrakutas and their patronage.


Origin of Rashtrakuta dynasty

The origin of the Rashtrakuta dynasty has been a controversial topic and has been debated over the past decades by historians. The differing opinions mostly revolve around issues such as the home of the earliest ancestors of the medieval Rashtrakutas, a possible southern migration during the early part of the first millennium and the relationship between the several Rashtrakuta dynasties that ruled small kingdoms in northern and central India and the Deccan in the 6th century - 7th century. Further, the relationship of these medieval Rashtrakutas to the most important and famous dynasty, the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta of the 8th century - 10th century time period has also been debated. Also contested is whether the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta were related by ancestry to the early Kannada, Maratha, Reddi, Rajput or Punjabi communities of the Deccan and northern India.

While the history of the early Rashtrakutas has caused much debate, the history of the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta (in present day Gulbarga) of the 8th-10th centuries can be accurately constructed because numerous contemporaneous inscriptions and texts refer to them. The crux of the Manyakheta empire extended from the Kaveri river in the south to the Narmada in the north. At their peak they were the only south Indian empire that conquered regions in far northern India (Kannauj) as well as the extreme south (Tamilakam). The Lata branch of the empire (in present day Gujarat) was an important dynasty belonging to the Manyakheta family line which later merged with the Manyakheta kingdom during the 9th century.


Ancient Indian Literature – History Study Notes & Stuff Important details of Ancient Indian Literature writings Rig veda (collection of lyrics) is the oldest text in the world, a collection of 1028 hymns written in Vedic Sanskrit . Even though most of the literary works that have survived from ancient Indian literature are religious texts , it is not right to …

Harsha (Harshavardhana)’s Reign – History Study Notes & Stuff After the fall of the Gupta Empire, there was chaos on the political front in India. In the early 7th century BC, King Harshavardhana established a huge empire that extended from north & northwestern India till the Narmada in the South. Sources for Study of Harshavardhana’s Reign: Harshacharita wri…


Rashtrakuta (India)

KEY TOPICS
KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS India was ruled by 3 major Indian Dynasties the Pratihara, Pala and Rashtrakuta Dynasties in the 9th century. [1] The Rashtrakuta Dynasty was a prominent ancient power flourished in India between the sixth and the tenth century AD. During this timeframe, the Rashtrakuta Empire was spread across a large part of the Indian Subcontinent. [1] During their rule, Jain mathematicians and scholars contributed important works in Kannada and Sanskrit.The killing of a Brahmin in medieval Hindu India had been considered a heinous crime.The origin of the Rashtrakuta dynasty has been a controversial topic of Indian history. [1] The Rashtrakuta King Balhara of Vallabharaja was the greatest king of India and most of the Indian Ruleres accepted his sovereignty. [1] Under Rashtrakuta, who defeated a rival dynasty, the Chalukyas, the Deccan empire became the second greatest political unit in India, covering the area from Malwa in western India to Kanchi ( Kanchipuram ) in the southeast. [2] Several Rashtrakuta families ruled India during the 6th century - 7th century period. [3] These issues pertain to the origin of the earliest ancestors of the Rashtrakutas during the time of Emperor Ashoka in the 2nd century BCE, and the connection between the several Rashtrakuta dynasties that ruled small kingdoms in northern and central India and the Deccan between the 6th and 7th centuries. [4] The differing opinions mostly revolve around issues such as the home of the earliest ancestors of the medieval Rashtrakutas, a possible southern migration during the early part of the first millennium and the relationship between the several Rashtrakuta dynasties that ruled small kingdoms in northern and central India and the Deccan in the 6th century - 7th century. [3]

During their political expansion into central and northern India in the 8th to the 10th centuries, the Rashtrakutas or their relatives created several kingdoms that either ruled during the reign of the parent empire or continued to rule for centuries after its fall or came to power much later. [4]

The rise of Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta had a great impact on India, even on India's north. [4] This clan came to be known as the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta, rising to power in South India in 753. [4] Since the Rashtrakutas successfully captured Kannauj, levied tribute on its rulers and presented themselves as masters of North India, the era could also be called the "Age of Imperial Karnataka". [4] Rashtrakuta dynasty, Hindu dynasty that ruled the Deccan and neighbouring areas of India from about 755 to 975 ce. [2] The earliest known Rashtrakuta inscription is a 7th-century copper plate grant detailing their rule from Manapura, a city in Central or West India. [4] The Kailasanath Temple project was commissioned by King Krishna I after the Rashtrakuta rule had spread into South India from the Deccan. [4] These Rashtrakuta kings married princess from Northern and Southern India and several Rashtrakuta branches emerged in Northern India during their imperialistic expansion in the 9th century. [3]

KEY TOPICS Rashtrakuta literature ( Sanskrit :राष्ट्रकूट, Kannada : ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಕೂಟ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯ) is the body of work created during the rule of the Rastrakutas of Manyakheta, a dynasty that ruled the southern and central parts of the Deccan, India between the 8th and 10th centuries. [1] KEY TOPICS Under Rashtrakuta, who defeated a rival dynasty, the Chalukyas, the Deccan empire became the second greatest political unit in India, covering the area from Malwa in western India to Kanchi ( Kanchipuram ) in the southeast. [1] Palas ruled the eastern parts of India and Pratiharas dominated western India and Rashtrakutas controlled Deccan regions of India. [1] The three powers engaged in the conflict were the Palas of Bengal, the Pratiharas of western India and the Rashtrakutas of the Deccan. [1]

E, 1., V. p. 208. 172 CENTRAL GOVERNMENT : KING AND MINISTRY invariably in the Gahadwala copper plates and his omission in our records must be due to the fact that the Rashtrakuta secretariate was not following the practice of mentioning all the ministers and their different portfolios in the copper plate charters Even though princely states do not exist in independent India, the heirs of the Gajapati Dynasty of Khurda still perform the ritual duties of the temple. [1] The earliest inscriptions referring to the construction of the temple for Shiva, according to the Archaeological Survey of India, are from Nolamba dynasty ruler Nolambadiraja and the Rashtrakuta emperor Govinda III dated c.806, and copper plates of the Bana rulers Jayateja and Dattiya of about c.810. [1] He defeated the great Gurjara King Nagabhatta II. It is said that the Pala King Dharmapala and his protégé Charayudh sought the help of Govinda III. Govinda III made the Rashtrakutas dynasty one of the most powerful dynasties of contemporary India. [5] The last powerful and effectual king of the Rashtrakutas was Krishna III. The Badami cave temples are a complex of four cave temples located at Badami, a town in the Bagalkot district in the north part of Karnataka, India. [1] Most of the information of the Rashtrakutas of Malked is gathered through inscriptions, but it is believed that they ruled almost all of South and parts of West India from this tiny town. [1] North and north west part of India after Harsha Vardhana was mostly controlled by Pratihara Kings while Central India and part of South was mostly under Rashtrakutas dynasty (753-973 AD ). [1] The rule of his son Govinda III signaled a new era with Rashtrakuta victories against the Pala Dynasty of Bengal and Gurjara Pratihara of north western India resulting in the capture of Kannauj. [1] Pratiharas, Palas of Bengal, Rashtrakutas of Deccan. and Numismatic is the study of coins.He authored Yasastilaka champu, Nitivakyamrita and other writings.At the same time the Pala Dynasty of Bengal and the Prathihara dynasty of Gujarat gained force in eastern and northwestern India respectively. [1] At the same time the Pala dynasty of Bengal and the Prathihara dynasty of Malwa were gaining force in eastern and northwestern India respectively, an Arabic text, Silsilat al-Tawarikh, called the Rashtrakutas one of the four principal empires of the world. [1] Within a short period of time, the Rashtrakutas became powerful in the southern part of India. [1] The dominance of the Rashtrakutas in the Deccan is the remarkable period in the history of India. [6] The leather industry and tanning flourished in Gujarat and some regions of northern Maharashtra.Indian Temple Architecture: Form and Transformation--The Karnata Dravida Tradition 7th to 13th Centuries. (Vedams Books from India, Vedams eBooks (P) Ltd., 1995). accessdate 2006-12-19.The origin of the Rashtrakutas pertain to the origins of the ancestors of the. and evidences from relics such as coins. [1] Those issues pertain to the origins of the earliest ancestors of the Rashtrakutas during the time of Emperor Ashoka in the second century B.C.E., and the connection between the several Rashtrakuta dynasties that ruled small kingdoms in northern and central India and the Deccan between the sixth and seventh centuries. [7] The origin of the Rashtrakutas pertain to the origins of the most primitive ancestors of the dynasty under the reign of Emperor Ashoka in the second century BCE, and the alliance among several Rashtrakuta dynasties reigning diminutive territories in the Deccan and the northern and central India during the sixth and seventh centuries. [1]

Govinda III made the Rashtrakutas dynasty one of the most powerful dynasties of contemporary India. [1] Scholars debate over which of the many ethnic groups the early Rashtrakutas belonged, the north western ethnic groups of India, the Kannadiga, Reddi, the Maratha, or the ethnic tribes from the Punjab region. [7] At about the same timeframe in which the Rashtrakutas were gaining prominence, the Pratihara Dynasty of Malwa and the Pala Dynasty of Bengal were also gaining supremacy in the north-western and eastern regions of India respectively. [1] The Rashtrakutas ruled India south of the Vindhyas, even extending through Sri Lanka. [1] Towards the end of the century, and setting my sights over the rest of the subcontinent, I manage to wrangle an alliance with perhaps the second most powerful ruler in India, Maharaja of Rashtrakuta. [1] In India, they were having a conflict with the Rashtrakutas and Pala rulers. [1] Information regarding social life, the caste system, life style and recreational activities during the Rashtrakuta times comes from inscriptions and from the notes of Greek and Arab travellers to India at the time. [1] Abu Zaid, a contemporary of the Rashtrakutas, has observed that the kings of India were accustomed to wear earrings of precious stones, mounted in gold, and necklaces of great value formed of pearls and precious stones. [1] The rise of Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta had an ideal impression on India, even in India's north. [1] Towards the end, mount of the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta presented a great impact on India. [1] Though, Rashtrakutas built a couple of temples, their greatest contribution to India was their patronage to Kannada literature. [1] Scholars dispute over the ethnic groups the early Rashtrakutas belonged to, the northwestern tribal groups of India, the Maratha, the ethnic tribes from the Punjab region or the Kannadiga, Reddi. [1] During their political expansion into central and northern India in the eighth to the tenth centuries, the Rashtrakutas or their relatives created several kingdoms that either ruled during the reign of the parent empire or continued to rule for centuries after the its fall or came to power much later. [7] During their political extension into central and northern India in the eighth to the tenth centuries, the Rashtrakutas or their relatives shaped several kingdoms that either reigned during the supremacy of the parent empire or sustained to statute for centuries after the its fall or came to power much later. [1]

Throughout their political growth into central and northern India within the eighth to the 10th centuries, the Rashtrakutas or their kin created many kingdoms that both dominated through the reign of the dad or mum empire or continued to rule for hundreds of years after its fall or got here to energy a lot later. [1]

Historically, Bagalkote was the capital of the Chalukyan Empire of South India under Pulakesi I, who conquered the district in 550 CE. Bagalkot's Badami taluk remained the seat of the throne of the Chalukyas from 550 CE - 753 CE, when Chalukya king Kirtivarman II was overthrown by the Rashtrakutas. [1] The Pala kings ruled in the eastern India, the Pratiharas ruled in the north India, and Rashtrakutas ruled in the Deccan. [6] In this lesson we learn how many powerful Empires arose in north India and the Deccan between 750-1000 AD. The Palas, the Pratiharas and Rashtrakutas were the most powerful. [1]

The Rashtrakutas expand from the Deccan into South and Central India, and share control of the subcontinent with the other major powers of the period: the Gurjara-Pratiharas in the north, the Palas in the east, and the Pallavas in the far south. [1] Dharmapala, 770-781, made the Palas a dominant power of northern India, installing his own nominee on the once-prestigious throne at Kanauj. but the Palas soon were threatened by the Pratiharas of central India and gained respite from attacks only because the of a threat to the Pratiharas from another foreign power, Rashtrakutas of the Deccan. [1] From the 8th to the 10th century, three dynasties contested for control of northern India: the Gurjara Pratiharas of Malwa, the Palas of Bengal, and the Rashtrakutas of the Deccan. [1]

All the revenues that were collected in our period' remained in the country and no 25, Altelcar, Village Communities, p. 70, LAND TAXATION UNDER THE RASHTRAKUTAS 223 part was exported to any country outside India in the form of pensions or recruitment charges. [1] The Rathor Rajputs of Rajsthan/North India are descendants of ancient Rashtrakutas. [1] The reign of Rashtrakuta is also remembered because of their contribution to the Art and Architecture of India. [1]

The Arab rulers attempted to extend their realm southeast, which finished in the Caliphate crusades in India battled in 730 CE. Be that as it may, the Arab trespassers were crushed and repulsed from the territories east of the Indus waterway by a Hindu cooperation between the north Indian Gurjar Emperor Nagabhata I of the Pratihara Dynasty, the south Indian Emperor Vikramaditya II of the Chalukya tradition and numerous other neighborhood little Hindu kingdoms. [1] The Unconquerable Southern Power : History of India bears evidence that usually it was the North Indian power that made all efforts to expand at the cost of the South Indian powers. [1] This evidence fits with Reich et al.’s ( 9 ) proposed model that most extant populations of India are a result of admixture between two ancestral populations--Ancestral North Indian (ANI) and Ancestral South Indian (ASI) ( 9, 10 ). [1]

There is no evidence as to the social relations between the two communities in the ports on western India during our period as already pointed out, the Muslims in the Deccan during our period were using Indian dress and language. [1] In many ways, the period during and following the Gupta dynasty was the period of "Greater India," a period of cultural activity in India and surrounding countries building off of the base of Indian culture. [1]


The origin of the Rashtrakuta dynasty has been a controversial topic of Indian history. [4] Although the origins of the early Rashtrakuta ruling families in central India and the Deccan in the 6th and 7th centuries is controversial, during the eighth through the 10th centuries they emphasised the importance of the Kannada language in conjunction with Sanskrit in their administration. [1] North India and the Decan : In the post Harsha period, three great centres of powers emerged in North India and Deccan: Gurjara-Pratiharas, Palas and Rashtrakutas. [1] The emergence of Chola power from obscurity, its rise to an imperial position and its conflicts, first with the Rashtrakutas from beyond the Tungabhadra and later with their successors, the Chalukyas of Kalyani, form the dominant features of the history of South India in the period A.D. 850 - 1200. [1] Sastri, Nilakanta K. A. A history of South India from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar.Eastern Eurasian Peoples: Militarily Most Powerful. including almost all Pratihara coins,.Intro Chalukya Dynasties:. the rise of the Rashtrakutas in the middle of 8th century eclipsed the. [1] In the general population men wore two simple pieces of cloth, a loose garment on top and a garment worn like a dhoti for the lower part of the body.Note: Some restrictions may apply to use of individual images which are separately licensed.Sastri, Nilakanta K. A. A history of South India from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar.Prosperous kingdoms like the Cholas and Rashtrakutas flourished in the. [1] This clan came to be known as the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta, rising to power in South India in 753, at the same time the Pala dynasty of Bengal and the Prathihara dynasty of Malwa were gaining force in eastern and northwestern India respectively. [1] In 753, this clan was able to achieve prominence in the whole of South India and was famously known as the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta. [1]

Because the Rashtrakutas captured Kannauj, levied tribute on its rulers and offered themselves as masters of North India, the period is also known as the "Age of Imperial Karnataka". [1] Some historians have called these times an "Age of Imperial Kannauj", since the Rashtrakutas successfully captured Kannauj, levied tribute on its rulers and presented themselves as masters of North India, the era could also be called the "Age of Imperial Karnataka". [1]

According to the inscriptions of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty, there existed few other clans of the same thread that includes the rulers of the Achalpur which is, now, known as Elichpur situated in the state of Maharashtra and the rulers of Kannauj situated in the Northern Part of the India. [1] The Rashtrakuta Empire ruled Southern India from 753 AD to 982 AD. The earliest inscriptions of this dynasty were revealed in form of Copper Plate Grant and it determined the vastness of its lands that spread from the lands of Manpur in the Malwa region to the far Southern parts of India. [1] Rashtrakuta Dynasty ruled in the sixth and thirteen centuries in parts of the northern, central and southern India. [1]

Above image: The Jain temple (called Jain Narayana temple), at Pattadakal, a UNESCO world heritage site in Karnataka, India, was constructed by either Rashtrakuta Dynasty King Amoghavarsha I or his successor Krishna II in the 9th century. [1] Section I THE DECCAN RASHTRAKUTAS Canberra, 11 June 2014 The Rashtrakuta dynasty played an important role in the medieval history of India, from mid-6th century till their decline into irrelevance around the middle of the 13th century. [1]

Intro Chalukya Dynasties:. the rise of the Rashtrakutas in the middle of 8th century eclipsed the.Chopra, Ravindran, Subrahmanian, P.N., T.K., N. History of South India (Ancient, Medieval and Modern).This article abides by terms of the Creative Commons CC-by-sa 3.0 License (CC-by-sa), which may be used and disseminated with proper attribution. [1] Major dynasties that were established in South India include the Cheras, Cholas, Pandyas, Pallavas, Satavahanas, Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas, european countries entered India through Kerala and the region was colonised by Britain and other nations. [1] Several controversies exist regarding the origin of these early Rashtrakutas,. milestone in the history of South India and a. and copper coins,. [1] The emergence of the Rashtrakutas heralded a new era in the history of South India. [1] Though he cannot be compared to Dhruva, Govinda III or Indra III he too occupies an important place in the line of the Rashtrakutas as the lord of the large part of the Deccan and parts of South India. [1] One view is that the Rashtrakutas of the Deccan originally belonged to northern India. [1] With the autumn of the Rashtrakutas, their feudatories and associated clans within the Deccan and northern India declared independence. [1] As the Rashtrakutas effectively conquered Kannauj, presented themselves as masters of Northern India and paid homage to its monarchs, the epoch could also be termed as the "Age of Imperial Karnataka". [1] This clan got here to be often called the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta, rising to energy in South India in 753. [1] As far away as in Jura in Central India, there is a Kannada record issued by the Rashtrakutas. [1] He timed his rebellion to coincide with the confusion caused by the invading Paramara of Central India to the Rashtrakutas capital in 973. [1]

Southern Gujarat was led by the south Indian Rashtrakuta tradition until it was caught by the south Indian ruler Tailapa II of the Western Chalukya Empire. [1] Amid this period the northern piece of Gujarat was administered by the north Indian Gurjara-Pratihara administration and the southern piece of Gujarat was governed by the south Indian Rashtrakuta tradition. [1] "If there was any period of the Indian history when Karnataka affected the fortunes of all India, it was during the rule of Rashtrakutas, for not even the later Vijayanagara Empire, which was powerful for three centuries in the South, wielded any influence on North India" says eminent historian S. Srikantha Sastri. [1] The last powerful and effectual king of the Rashtrakutas was Krishna III. In this can be noticed the peculiar eyes and the pointed nose in the three-quarter view which later became a distinguishing feature of the western Indian paintings from Gujarat of the fourteenth-fifteenth centuries A.D. [1] He undertook campaigns to Kanchi in 785 and again against the Western Ganga Dynasty in 788, during his reign, Rashtrakutas emerged as a true pan-India power, controlling large regions across the Indian subcontinent. [1] Rashtrakuta (IAST: rāṣṭrakūṭa) was a royal dynasty that ruled major regions of the Indian Subcontinent between the 6th and 10th centuries. [1] Rashtrakuta (IAST: rāṣṭrakūṭa) was a royal dynasty ruling large parts of the Indian Subcontinent between the sixth and 10th centuries. [1]

The three noteworthy Indian administrations - the northwest Indian Gurjara-Pratihara Dynasty, the south Indian Rashtrakuta Dynasty and the east Indian Pala Empire - overwhelmed India from the eighth to tenth hundreds of years. [1] The following are the empires that dominated Ancient India: Achaemenid empire, Maurya empire, Satavahana empire, Sunga Dynasty, Saka Kingdom, Kushan empire, The Gupta empire, Rashtrakuta dynasty, Gurjara Pratiharas, Chola empire, Kakatiya dynasty, and Chauhan dynasty. [1] The evidence of more recent admixture among the Maratha (MRT) is in agreement with the known history of the post-Gupta Chalukya (543-753 CE) and the Rashtrakuta empires (753-982 CE) of western India, which established a clan of warriors (Kshatriyas) drawn from the local peasantry ( 15 ). [1] These were the Palas who dominated eastern India till the middle of the 9 th Century, the Pratiharas who dominated the western part of India and the upper gangetic valley till the middle of the 10 th century, and the Rashtrakuta empire, which dominated the Deccan and also controlled the territory in north and south India at various times. [1]

If India would have been united under one rule in 9th century it would have been hard for the Turks to conqure it in the 10 & 11th century. 9th century was actually the start of the decline of Indian civilization. [1] Observation of the Arab visitor Sulaiman (851 A.D.) : Referring to Amoghavarsha Sulaiman says that Balhara is the most eminent prince of India and Indians acknowledge his superiority and that he had the title of "King of Kings" which other contemporary Indian princes according to him did not have. [1] We can now well under- stand the apparently incredible statement of the contemporary Muslim writers. that the troops in India are not paid by Indian kings but, main tain themselves without receiving anything, from them.’ • The Muslim writers, who make this statement, also ad^ that the members of the fighting forces of the Rashtrakuias were paid regularly by their employers. [1] The more extended horizon of the Bhagvati and the omission of all countries from Uttarapatha clearly shows that the Bhagvati list is of later origin and therefore less reliable (Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 86 History & Culture of Indian People, Age of Imperial Unity, p 15-16). [1] India is having a glorious history of sculpture and Ellora caves are one of the best examples of Ancient Indian Sculpture. [1] Through out its history many invaders have come to India but Indian religions allowed it to adapt to and absorb all of them. [1] Regarding the commercial relation which Arab had with India during those times, Sulaiman says that extremely fine Indian cotton cloth which could pass through a small fine ring was imported by the Arabs and distributed throughout the then known world. [1] India has a coastline of over seven thousand kilometres, bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the west, and the Bay of Bengal on the east. [1] Thereafter, variants and derivatives of the Brahmi script came to be used, Sanskrit is today one of the 22 languages listed in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India, which mandates the Indian government to develop the language. [1] During the first millennium, the sea routes to India were controlled by the Indians and Ethiopians that became the maritime trading power of the Red Sea. [1] His uprising was one of the earlier rebellions against the British rule in India as it was 10 years before the famous Indian Rebellion of 1857. [1] Modern day India is an image of the Mauryana, that tied all the peoples and cultures of the erstwhile separate kingdoms under one banner, and predicted a common destiny for all Indians (then mainly Hindus and Buddhists). [1] Classical India refers to the period when much of the Indian subcontinent was united under the Gupta Empire (c. 320-550 CE). [1] According to Megasthenes, one of the renowned visitors and travelers to the country of India, Patuliputra, the capital city of the Mauryan Empire in Indian history, was walled up by wooden walls with as many as 570 towers and 64 gates. [1] The first significant event that characterized modern India was the Indian rebellion (1857). [1] Art of Legend India has the distinction of being one of the best in the Indian Handicraft Industry. [1] Some of them were driven out of India and others were assimilated in the Indian society. [1] We analyzed high-quality genotype data, generated using a DNA microarray ( Methods ) at 803,570 autosomal SNPs on 367 individuals drawn from 20 ethnic populations of India ( Table 1 and SI Appendix, Fig. S1 ), to provide evidence that the ancestry of the hunter-gatherers of A&N is distinct from mainland Indian populations, but is coancestral to contemporary Pacific Islanders (PI). [1] Of the various orders largely found outside India, only two, the chistis and the Suharvardis were the first to succeed in establishing themselves firmly on Indian soil. [1] Eventually weakened both by contention with the northwestern invaders and internal strife they broke up and gave rise to several nations around Deccan and central India regions even as the Gupta Empire arose in the Indo-Gangetic Plain and ushered in a "Golden Age" and rebirth of empire as decentralized local administrative model and the spread of Indian culture until collapse under the Huna invasions. [1] The geological region called the Greater India once included the Madagascar, Seychelles, Antartica, as a geological term, Indian subcontinent has meant that region formed from the collision of the Indian basin with Eurasia nearly 55 million years ago, towards the end of Paleocene. [1] The majority of Hindus reside in India, Nepal, Mauritius, the Caribbean, the word Hindu is derived from the Indo-Aryan/Sanskrit word Sindhu, the Indo-Aryan name for the Indus River in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. [1]

In the general population men wore two simple pieces of cloth, a loose garment on top and a garment worn like a dhoti for the lower part of the body.Preface Almost a year ago a request of the T.T.D to examine the thousands of bags of coins acquired through Srivari Hundi of Lord Sri Venkateswara reached us.Adikavi Pampa, widely regarded as one of the greatest Kannada writers, became famous for Adipurana (941).The Rashtrakuta Dynasty India. [1] The origin of the Rashtrakuta dynasty has been a controversial matter in the history of India. [1] Rashtrakuta dynasty ruled in large part of contemporary India in the 6th - 10th centuries. [1] Amoghavarsha I ( Amoghavarsha Nrupathunga I ) was a Rashtrakuta emperor, the greatest ruler of the Rashtrakuta dynasty, and one of the great emperors of India. [8] It was built in the 8th century by the Rashtrakuta king Krishna I. It is one of the 34 monasteries and temples known collectively as the Ellora Caves, extending over more than 2 km, that were dug side by side in the wall of a high basalt cliff in the complex located at Ellora, Maharashtra, India. [1] These branches emerged as a result of Rashtrakuta conquest of North India. [1] The last powerful and effectual king of the Rashtrakutas was Krishna III. Maharashtra is India's third largest state in terms of area. [1] The Rashtrakuta period marked the beginning of the golden age of southern Indian mathematics. [1] Ellora represents the renaissance of Hinduism under the Chalukya and Rashtrakuta dynasties, the subsequent decline of Indian Buddhism, and a brief resurgence of Jainism under official patronage. [1] Indian History Part 30 Section III: THE GAHADAVALAS OF. there is no doubt that the kingdom of Kanauj was ruled by the Rashtrakutas from. [1] In no other period of Ancient Indian History did the Deccan enjoy the same high political prestige, which it did under the Rashtrakutas. [1] Note: Some experts suggest that the Medieval period of Indian history began at 800 CE. In that scenario, the Rashtrakuta dynasty, Chola empire, Kakatiya empire, and Chauhan dynasty would be empires of Medieval India. [1] Southern Indian influences in the architecture of Shiva temple could be explained by presence of Southern Indian artists - the state governed by the Rashtrakuta dynasty included also part of Southern India. [1] The Rashtrakuta Empire (Sanskrit: रषटरकट rāṣṭrakūṭa, Kannada: ರಷಟರಕಟ ) was a royal Indian dynasty ruling large parts of southern, central and northern India between the sixth and the tenth centuries. [1] The dynasty is called Western Chalukyas to differentiate from the contemporaneous Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi, prior to the rise of these Chalukyas, the Rashtrakuta empire of Manyakheta controlled most of Deccan and Central India for over two centuries. [1]

The earliest recognised Rashtrakuta inscription is a Seventh-century copper plate grant detailing their rule from Manapura, a metropolis in Central or West India. [1] Arab traveler, Al-Masudi, calls the Rashtrakuta king as the greatest king of India. [6] Rashtrakuta Rulers were the most powerful rulers in the medieval India. [1] It is a period the period of struggle for the control resources and area of Gangetic Plains (centered around KANNAUJ ) among the three parties i.e The Rashtrakutas of south, The Palas of east and The Pratiharas of west India during the 8th century and the 10th century AD. Krishna I after the Rashtrakuta rule had spread into South India from the Deccan. [1] King Krishna I commissioned the Kailasanath Temple project after the Rashtrakuta rule had spread into South India from the Deccan, using the Dravidian architectural style. [7]

Covering the southern part of the peninsular Deccan Plateau, South India is bounded by the Bay of Bengal in the east, the Arabian Sea in the west, and the Indian Ocean in the south. [1] A history of South India from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar. (New Delhi: Indian Branch, Oxford University Press, 2002. [7] Pala control of North India was ultimately ephemeral, as they struggled with the Gurjara-Pratiharas, after a short lived decline, Emperor Mahipala I defended imperial bastions in Bengal and Bihar against South Indian Chola invasions. [1] It borders North India and the Indian Ocean and, as Chostea and Laburia, it is part of the Asian Union. [1]

The Yadava was an important Hindu dynasty of central India that flourished in Indian subcontinent from 12th to 14th century AD. Yadava dynasty is also known as Seuna dynasty. [1] Capitalising on the destabilization of northern India by the Persian and Greek incursions, the Mauryan empire under Chandragupta would not only conquer most of the Indian subcontinent, but also push its boundaries into Persia and Central Asia, conquering the Gandhara region. [1]

Several Branches of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty were created by the kings, commanders and relatives of the Rashtrakuta family during their expansion into central and northern India in the eighth to the tenth centuries. [1] The origin of the Rashtrakuta dynasty has been a controversial topic of Indian history, these issues pertain to the origin of the earliest ancestors of the Rashtrakutas during the time of Emperor Ashoka in the 2nd century BCE, and the connection between the several Rashtrakuta dynasties that ruled small kingdoms in northern and central India and the Deccan between the 6th and 7th centuries. [1] Amid this period the northern piece of Gujarat was administered by the north Indian Gurjara-Pratihara Dynasty and the southern piece of Gujarat was managed by the south Indian Rashtrakuta Dynasty. [1] The Paramaras was a medieval Indian kingdom who were at first feudal rulers of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty. [1]

Between the timeframe of the eighth and the tenth century AD, there existed a continuous struggle between the rulers of the Pratihara Dynasty, the Pala Dynasty and the Rashtrakuta Dynasty to gain prominence and exploit the rich resources in the Gagaetic plains of North India. [1] In 1963 A.D. another Rashtrakuta king Krishna III invaded north India and defeated the Pratihara ruler. [1] Another Rashtrakuta ruler Krishna III invaded north India in 963 AD and defeated the Pratihar ruler, thus leading to the rapid dissolution of the Pratihar empire. [1]

Rashtrakuta inscriptions determining the rule of other Rashtrakuta clans, at approximately the same time, in Achalpur, now known as Elichpur and situated in present days's Maharashtra, and Kannauj in the northern India have also been found. [1] The struggle for control of Kanauj and northern India between the Gurjara-Pratiharas and the Palas, as well the Rashtrakuta dynasty of the Deccan, swung this way and that throughout 9th and into the 10th centuries. [1] The number of powerful empires arose in Northern India and the Deccan between 750 to 1000 CE. In 757 CE, they overthrew the Chalukyan Kingdom and established Rashtrakuta Empire. [1] In the 769 and 867 start dates, the kingdom of Maharastra in South India is ruled by the Rashtrakuta dynasty. [1] Did the Rashtrakuta dynasty maintain their influence over the whole of south India as Eastern Chalukya, Western Ganga, Pallava, and Chola, etc. [1]

Trade centres continued to flourish in South India Western Indian coast. [1]

Rashtrakuta Empire continued its conquest Southwards and by 753 AD they occupied most of Indian Peninsular region called the Rashtrakuta of Manyakheta. [1] During the Reign of Rashtrakuta Dynasty, history witnesses developments in many fields of political expansion, architectural achievements and contribution to the Indian literature. [1] The Rashtrakuta dynasty ruled most of the Indian subcontinent, between 753 973 CE, with their capital at Manyakheta (Modern-day Malkhed). [1] Rashtrakuta dynasty - Rashtrakuta was a royal dynasty ruling large parts of the Indian Subcontinent between the sixth and 10th centuries. [1] Other important contributions are the Kashivishvanatha temple and the Jain Narayana temple at Pattadakal in modern Karnataka, both of which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites.The origin of the Rashtrakuta dynasty has been a controversial topic of Indian history. [1] Dictionary of Languages: The Definitive Reference to More Than 400 Languages.The origin of the Rashtrakuta dynasty has been a controversial topic of Indian history. [1] The Paramaras are known in the broader sweep of Indian history only for initiating the fall of the powerful Rashtrakuta dynasty. [1]

Ellora Caves - Ancient Indian Architecture Ellora is an archaeological site, 30 km from the city of Aurangabad in the Indian state of Maharashtra built by the Rashtrakuta rulers. [1] Dhruva was the first Rashtrakuta ruler from Deccan who had intervene in the tripartite struggle of supremacy in north India. [6] At first, I thought that this was just a coincidence that they shared the same name, but they also have the same coat of arms! Then I thought that somehow, the displaced Rashtrakuta dynasty must have migrated to North India and taken power. [1] Of the three, the Rashtrakuta Empire lasted the longest it was also the most powerful empire of the tie and acted as bridge between north and south India in economic as well as cultural matters. [1] The Rashtrakuta kings, Dhruva, Govinda III and Indra III invaded North India. [1] He was the first Rashtrakuta ruler to intervene in the tripartite struggle being wagged for the supremacy of north India. [1]

The expansion once again triggered the struggle for the control of the Indian Subcontinent, known as the Tripartite Struggle, with the Rashtrakuta Empire. [1]


A history of South India from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar, new Delhi, Indian Branch, Oxford University Press. [9] The Rashtrakuta Dynasty was a prominent ancient power flourished in India between the sixth and the tenth century AD. During this time. [10] The Kailashnath Temple at Ellora (c.757-83): Sponsored by Krishna I of the Rashtrakuta dynasty, the Kailashnath Temple is India's largest rock-cut temple--and a magnificent, astonishing achievement both technically and artistically. [11]

POSSIBLY USEFUL
At their peak the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta ruled a vast empire stretching from the Ganges River and Yamuna River doab in the north to Cape Comorin in the south, a fruitful time of political expansion, architectural achievements and famous literary contributions. [4] The sources for Rashtrakuta history include medieval inscriptions, ancient literature in the Pali language, contemporaneous literature in Sanskrit and Kannada and the notes of the Arab travellers. [4] It is clear from inscriptions, coinage and prolific contemporaneous literature that the court of these Rashtrakutas was multi-lingual, and used Sanskrit and Kannada as their administrative languages and encouraged literature in Sanskrit and Kannada. [3] It is argued that if the Rashtrakutas were originally a Marathi speaking family, then the Gujarat Rashtrakutas would not have signed their inscriptions in Kannada language and that too in far away Gujarat. [3]

Other ruling Rashtrakuta clans from the same period mentioned in inscriptions were the kings of Achalapur (modern Elichpur in Maharashtra ) and the rulers of Kannauj. [4] In 972 A.D., during the rule of Khottiga Amoghavarsha, the Paramara King Siyaka Harsha attacked the empire and plundered Manyakheta, the capital of the Rashtrakutas. [4] The Western Chalukyas annexed Manyakheta and made it their capital until 1015 and built an impressive empire in the Rashtrakuta heartland during the 11th century. [4]

The relationship of these medieval Rashtrakutas to the most famous later dynasty, the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta (present day Malkhed in the Gulbarga district, Karnataka state), who ruled between the 8th and 10th centuries has also been debated. [4] In linking possible connections between the medieval Rashtrakuta families to the imperial family of Manyakheta it has been pointed out that only the family members ruling from Elichpur ( Berar or modern Amravati district, modern Maharashtra) had names that were very similar to the names of Kings of the Manyakheta dynasty. [3] The relationship of these medieval Rashtrakutas to the most important and famous dynasty, the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta of the 8th century - 10th century time period has also been debated. [3] Matrimonial relations with the powerful Rashtrakuta family of the Deccan remained uninterrupted for some time, and the Kalachuris were at times involved in Rashtrakuta politics, as in the period of Yuvaraja I (reigned c. 915-945). [2] The Rashtrakutas And Their Times being a political, administrative, religious, social, economic and literary history of the Deccan during C. 750 A.D. to C. 1000 A.D. [4] The former feudatories of the Rashtrakutas in western Deccan were brought under control of the Chalukyas, and the hitherto-suppressed Cholas of Tanjore became their arch enemies in the south. [4] The Rashtrakutas built well-known Jain temples at locations such as Lokapura in Bagalkot district and their loyal feudatory, the Western Ganga Dynasty, built Jain monuments at Shravanabelagola and Kambadahalli. [4] Well-known among these were the Rashtrakutas of Gujarat (757-888), the Rattas of Saundatti (875-1230) in modern Karnataka, the Gahadavalas of Kannauj (1068-1223), the Rashtrakutas of Rajasthan (known as Rajputana) and ruling from Hastikundi or Hathundi (893-996), Dahal (near Jabalpur ), Mandore (near Jodhpur ), the Rathores of Dhanop, Rashtraudha dynasty of Mayuragiri in modern Maharashtra and Rashtrakutas of Kannauj. [4] Theories about the dynastic lineage ( Surya Vamsa --Solar line and Chandra Vamsa --Lunar line), the native region and the ancestral home have been proposed, based on information gleaned from inscriptions, royal emblems, the ancient clan names such as "Rashtrika", epithets ( Ratta, Rashtrakuta, Lattalura Puravaradhiswara ), the names of princes and princesses of the dynasty, and clues from relics such as coins. [4] While the history of the early Rashtrakutas has caused much debate, the history of the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta (in present-day Gulbarga ) of the 8th-10th centuries can be accurately constructed because numerous contemporaneous inscriptions and texts refer to them. [3] The only Rashtrakuta family whose royal emblem is similar to that of the rulers of Manyakheta, the golden eagle or Garuda lanchhana (emblem) is that of the family that ruled from Amravathi district of modern Maharashtra. [3] The importance of the Rashtrakutas during this era is indicated by the fact that a Muslim traveler wrote of the king as being one of the four great rulers of the world--the others being the caliph (ruler of the Muslims) and the emperors of Byzantium and China. [2] Called Pampa Bharata, it is a eulogy of the writer's patron, King Chalukya Arikeseri of Vemulawada (a Rashtrakuta feudatory), comparing the king's virtues favorably to those of Arjuna. [4] The most extensive and sumptuous of the Rashtrakuta works at Ellora is their creation of the monolithic Kailasanath Temple, a splendid achievement confirming the "Balhara" status as "one among the four principal Kings of the world". [4]

The Rashtrakutas empire now spread over the areas from Cape Comorin to Kannauj and from Banaras to Bharuch. [4] His grandson, Indra III, who came to the throne in 914, captured Kannauj and brought Rashtrakuta power to its peak. [2]

Though these Rashtrakutas were Kannadigas, they were conversant in a northern Deccan language as well. [4] Some examples of this are the Navsari and Baroda plates of Karka I and the Baroda plates of his son Dhruva II. It has been attested by a scholar that the Gujarat Rashtrakuta princes signed their inscriptions in the language of their native home and the race they belonged to. [3] The Rashtrakuta period did not produce any Marathi inscriptions or literature (with the exception of a 981 CE Shravanabelagola inscription which some historians argue was inscribed later). [3]

During his rule there was a three way conflict between the Rashtrakutas, the Palas and the Pratiharas for control over the Gangetic plains. [4] According to Altekar and Sen, the Rashtrakutas became a pan-India power during his rule. [4]

The emergence of Rajputs in Rajasthan and Gujarat coincides with the arrival of the Rashtrakutas and Chalukyas in the region. [3] There is uncertainty about the location of the early capital of the Rashtrakutas at this time. [4] Some claim the Rashtrakutas were inclined towards Jainism since many of the scholars who flourished in their courts and wrote in Sanskrit, Kannada and a few in Apabhramsha and Prakrit were Jains. [4] It has been argued the Rashtrakutas were of Kannada origin. [3] Several controversies exist regarding the origin of these early Rashtrakutas, their native home and their language. [4]

It is well known that the Gujarat line of Rashtrakutas were from the same family as the Manyakheta line. [3]

By the 9th century, kings from all the four castes had occupied the highest seat in the monarchical system in Hindu India. [4] With the ending of the Gupta Dynasty in northern India in the early 6th century, major changes began taking place in the Deccan south of the Vindyas and in the southern regions of India. [4] At their peak they were the only south Indian empire that conquered regions in far northern India ( Kannauj ) as well as the extreme south ( Tamilakam ). [3] He led successful expeditions to Kannauj, the seat of northern Indian power where he defeated the Gurjara Pratiharas and the Palas of Bengal, gaining him fame and vast booty but not more territory. [4]

The use of the word Rattagudlu (meaning an office) has been found in inscriptions from present day Andhra Pradesh dated prior to the 8th century indicating it was a South Indian word. [3]

India, country that occupies the greater part of South Asia. [2] Possibilities include the north western ethnic groups of India, the Kannadiga, Reddi, the Maratha, or the tribes from the Punjab region. [4] The royal courts of peninsular India (outside of Tamilakam ) interfaced between the increasing use of the local Kannada language and the expanding Sanskritic culture. [4] At the same time the Pala dynasty of Bengal and the Prathihara dynasty of Malwa were gaining force in eastern and northwestern India respectively. [4] A history of South India from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar. [4] Islamic contact with South India began as early as the 7th century, a result of trade between the Southern kingdoms and Arab lands. [4] During the rule of Dhruva Dharavarsha who took control in 780, the kingdom expanded into an empire that encompassed all of the territory between the Kaveri River and Central India. [4] Indra III recovered the dynasty's fortunes in central India by defeating the Paramara and then invaded the doab region of the Ganges and Jamuna rivers. [4]

One of the richest traditions in Indian architecture took shape in the Deccan during this time which Adam Hardy calls Karnata dravida style as opposed to traditional Dravida style. [4]

An inscription of King Govinda III (808) mentions "by the birth of this virtuous king, the Rashtrakuta dynasty became invincible just as the Yadava dynasty by the birth of Lord Krishna". [3] According to historian K. Pillay, one of them, King Madavarajah of the Jaffna kingdom, was an usurper from the Rashtrakuta Dynasty. [4]

The heart of the Rashtrakuta empire included nearly all of Karnataka, Maharashtra and parts of Andhra Pradesh, an area which the Rashtrakutas ruled for over two centuries. [4] Rashtrakuta inscriptions outside Karnataka are mostly in Sanskrit However this period was the very end of the classical era of literary Sanskrit and Prakrit. [3] Rashtrakuta inscriptions use both Kannada and Sanskrit (historians Sheldon Pollock and Jan Houben claim they are mostly in Kannada), and the rulers encouraged literature in both languages. [4]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(35 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)


Rashtrakuta Dynasty Notes | EduRev

≫ The Rashtrakuta Emperors
Rashtrakuta Emperors (753-982)

≫ Founder
Dantivarman or Dantidurga (735 - 756)

Dantivarman or Dantidurga (735 – 756) was the founder of the Rashtrakutas dynasty.
Dantidurga occupied all territories between the Godavari and Vima.
He is said to have conquered Kalinga, Kosala, Kanchi, Srisril, Malava, Lata etc. and occupied Maharashtra by defeating Chalukya King Kirtivarma.

≫ Rulers
(i) Krishna I (756 - 774)

  • Krishna I succeeded Dantidurga.
  • He conquered the territories that were still under the Chalukyas
  • He also occupied Konkan.
  • Krishna I also defeated Vishnuvardhana of Vengi and the Ganga king of Mysore.
  • He was a great patron of art and architecture.
  • The Kailash Temple at Ellora was built by the Rashtrakuta King Krishna I.

(ii) Govinda II (774 - 780)

(iii) Dhruva (780 - 793)

  • He defeated Gurjara-Pratihara King Vatsyaraja, the Pallavas of Kanchi and the Pala King Dharmapala of Bengal.

(iv) Govinda III (793 - 814)

  • Dhruva son of Govinda III succeeded the throne.
  • He defeated the great Gurjara King Nagabhatta II.
  • Pala King Dharmapala and his protégé Charayudh sought the help of Govinda III.
  • His kingdom spread up to the Vindhyas and Malava in the north and the river Tungabhadra to the south.

(v) Amoghavarsha I (814- 878 A.D.)

  • The greatest king of the Rashtrakuta dynasty was Amoghavarsha I son of Govinda III.
  • Amoghavarsha I set up a new capital at Manyakheta (now Malkhed in Karnataka State) and Broach became the best port of the kingdom during his reign
  • Amoghavarsha I was a great patron of education and literature.
  • Amoghavarsha was converted into Jainism by Jinasena, a Jaina monk.
  • Suleman, an Arab merchant, in his account called Amoghavarsha I as one of the four greatest kings of the world, the other three being the Caliph of Bagdad, the king of Constantinople and the emperor of China.
  • Amoghavarsha ruled for 63 years.

(vi) Krishna II (878 - 914)

(vii) Indra III (914 -929)

(viii) Krishna III (939 – 967)

  • The last powerful and efficient king of the Rashtrakutas.
  • He also succeeded in conquering Tanjore and Kanchi.
  • He succeeded in defeating the Tamil kings of Chola kingdom.

(ix) Karka (972 – 973)

  • The Rashtrakuta King Karka was defeated and deposed by Taila or Tailapa, the Chalukya king of Kalyani.

≫ Rasjtrakutas Administration

  • divided rashtras (provinces) -contolled by rashtrapatis
  • Rashtras divided into vishayas or districts governed by vishayapatis
  • subdivision was bhukti consisting of 50 to 70 villages under the controlof bhogapatis
    (i) Village headmen carried on village administration.
    (ii) Village assemblies played a significant role in the village administration.

≫ Literature under Rashtrakutas

  • Rashtrakutas widely patronized the Sanskrit literature.
  • Trivikrama wrote Halayudha and composed Kavirahasya during the reign of Krishna III.
  • Jinasena composed Parsvabhudaya, a biography of Parsva in verses.
  • Jinasena wrote the Adipurana, the life stories of various Jain saints.
  • Sakatayana wrote Amogavritti a grammar work.
  • Viracharya – a Great mathematician of this period wrote Ganitasaram.
  • During the period of the Rashtrakutas, the Kannada literature saw its beginning.
  • Kavirajamarga composed by Amogavarsha’s was the first poetic work in the Kannada language.
  • Pampa was the greatest of the Kannada poets and Vikramasenavijaya is his famous work.
  • Santipurana was another great work wrote by Ponna another famous Kannada poet.

Rashtrakutas Art and Architecture
(i) Art and Architecture


Rashtrakuta Dynasty

In south, Dantidurga was the founder of the dynasty called, Rashtrakuta dynasty (8th century AD). The capital of the Rastrakutas was Manyakheta or Malkhed near Sholapur.

It was under the king Dhruva that the Rashtrakutas turned towards north India in a bid to control Kannauj, then the imperial city. It led to the beginning of ‘Tripartite struggle’.

One of the important kings of the Rashtrakuta dynasty was Krishna I. He built the famous Kailasha temple at Ellora (near Aurangabad, Maharastra). It is dedicated to Lord Shiva and is monolithic i.e. made of one single piece of rock.

The Arab accounts inform us that the Rashtrakutas were quite friendly with the Arab traders who visited their empire. These traders were allowed to build mosques and follow their religion without any hindrance. It testifies to the liberal attitude of the Rashtrakuta kings and also to their desire to draw economic benefit from the growing sea trade conducted by the Arabs at that time.


Major dynasties of Madhya Pradesh

Ashok was kumarpal of Avanti mahajanpad and Maurya have ruled in this region, their capital was Ujjaiyani. Ashoka has Married to Lok Mahadevi of Vidisha he has a son and a daughter from her Mahendra and sanghamitra.

Shunga dynasty :-

Pushyamitra shunga send his son Agnimitra to rule Vidisha.

It is assume that Garuda pillar/ Heliodorus pillar of Vidisha is constructed by the successor of pushyamitra shunga , the pillar discusses about A Unani ambassador Heliodorus who visited the court of Bhagbhadra.

Naga dynasty :-

Founder — Vasu nag the dynasty ruled in Vidisha Gwalior region

Bodhi dynasty –

Ruled around tripuri Jabalpur region

Madh dynasty :-

Gupta dynasty :-

Successor of Chandragupta-1 samudragupta has great contribution in the history of Madhya Pradesh. Eran inscription of Sagar reveals about samudragupta and it clarifies Sagar as swabhog Nagar. It is assumed that samudragupta spent his later age/old age in Sagar.

*The coins of chandragupt second are found in in Seonii Harda and varmala (Khandwa).

*Two Kumargupta related inscription were found in Mandsaur.

*Prayag prashasti incription of prayagraj describes about aadivara which is probably between Vidisha Jhansi.(as per archaeologists)

Aoulikar (ओलिकर वंश)dynasty :-

*In later fourth century (During Gupta dynasty)

*It was a branch of Malwa which ruled around Mandsaur region important rulers were Narverman,Singhverman,

Parivrajak dynasty (परिव्राजक वंश) :-

When in North India Gupta dynasty was ruling at that time this dynasty ruled in Panna region of Madhya Pradesh.

Maitrak dynasty (मैत्रक वंश):-

When Gupta dynasty power was declining at that time this dynasty started ruling in western Malwa region which is also known as maitrak of Vallabhi.*Present Ratlam region of Madhya pradesh.

Maukharis dynasty :-

Maukharis were under the the Gupta rulers, however the declining power of Gupta dynasty the maukharis declared themselves as independent ruler.

The Maukharis have various branches, the most powerful branch was of Kannauj.

In Madhya Pradesh maukharis have ruled in eastern nimar region and asirgarh (Burhanpur) region.

Pandav dynasty ruled around Maikal mountain region near amarkantak.

Shail dynasty :-

Around 8th century the shail dynasty has ruled in mahakaushal region.

Rashtrakuta dynasty :-

*The rashtrakutas have ruled between 7th to 10th century.

*The two branches of rashtrakutas were associated with Madhya Pradesh

The first branch was in Betul Amravati region and the second branch was in manyakheta region (present Solapur Maharashtra) Manyakheta branch was the most powerful branch of rashtrakutas they have attacked in Ujjain and also defeated chalukyas of Badami.

Gurjar pratihar dynasty:-

First ruler -Nagbhatt First , capital – Ujjain.

Nagbhatt was defeated by Rashtrakuta ruler Dantidurga.

Miher Bhoj of pratihar dynasty has ruled in in Bundelkhand region of Madhya Pradesh his three incription were found.

Chandel dynasty:-

It is the most important dynasty of Madhya Pradesh.

After the decline of Gurjar pratihar power various independent States have emerged in western and Central India one of them was Chandel.

Important rulers of Chandel dynasty:-

Harsh Dev, yashodharman, Dhan Dev, Gend Dev, Vidyadhar and Vijaypal.

– Yashodharman was the greatest ruler of chandela dynasty , he constructed Vishnu temple in Khajuraho.

-Dhang Dev is considered as the real founder of chandela dynasty he constructed parshvanath and Vishwanath temple in Khajuraho.

– Vidyadhar defeated Parmar ruler Bhoj and constructed kandariya Mahadev temple in Khajuraho.

Parmar dynasty :-

Capital – Dhar. Madhya Pradesh

Important Rulers – Verisingh-1, seeyak-1,vakpati-1,varisingh-2,Seeyak-2 , Munj,sindhuraj,

-Last ruler of Parmar dynasty was Mehkal dev.

“Political and cultural contribution of Bhoj Parmar” :-

Bhoj first(Time- 1000-1055) (vimp.)

– He was the greatest ruler of Parmar dynasty.

– Bhoj has established Bhojpur City and he constructed a large pond name – Bhojsar(present upper Lake bhopal).

-He assumed the title of Kaviraj.

-Bhoj has written total 23 books some important books are as follows :- Ayurved Sarvaswa, saraswati kanthabharan,raj mrigank,vyavhar samuchchay.

-Bhoj has established a University in Dhar district of Madhya Pradesh for Sanskrit study , which is also known as Bhojshala in this he established statue of Devi Saraswati.

-During his time Dhar City was a center of art and education.

-Raja Bhoj constructed Shiv temple and a Jain temple in Bhojpur .

Political contribution of Bhoj Parmar :-

He was a great ruler.His 11 incription were found from Ujjain depalpur Dhar, Bhojpur and Mehandipur Balaji regions of Madhya Pradesh.

-As per Dhar prashasti incription Bhoj has defeated kalchuri ruler Gangey deva.

Bhoj was defeated by Vidhyadhar.

– In last phase of ruling Bhoj has phased an alliance of his enemies in which he losted.

In enemy alliance the rulers were Bheem first (gujrat) chalukya of Kalyani , ruler of of Tripuri and trilochan pal.

Kalachuri dynasty:-

The cultural dynasty have total four branches and have ruled for almost 1200 years .

four branches are as follows:-

  1. Kalchuri of mahishmati
  2. Kalchuri of tripuri Madhya Pradesh
  3. Kalchuri of ratanpur present Bilaspur Chhattisgarh
  4. Kalchuri of Raipur

– The main branch of Kalchuri was of tripuri one of its ruler Karan is known as Hindu Napoleon for his military achievements.

Kachchhapghat dynasty :-

This dynasty is ruled between 10 to 12 century in in Gwalior and narvar (Shivpuri) region.

Yajvapal dynasty :-

This dynasty ruled in Narvar region in later 13th century.

Tomar dynasty :-

Man Singh was the greatest ruler of Tomar dynasty , he is known for his political and cultural achievements. He constructed Gujari mahal, Maan mandir in Gwalior Moti lake of Gwalior was constructed by Raja Mansingh. He has initiated Gwalior Gharana for music ,which is one of the most prominent music Gharana of India.

– He has written Maan kotuhal (मानकौतुहल) book on music.

Farooqi dynasty:-

Founder Malik Raza farukhi capital Burhanpur.

This dynasty ruled in Southern Malwa region mainly nimad and khandesh.

Gondwana dynasty :-

After the decline of Khilji dynasty the gond ruler have emerged.

The most important ruler was Sangram Shah Gond.

His son dalpat Shah Gond was married to Chandel princes durgavati.

After the death of Sangram Shah his son Veer Narayan Singh ruled however the real ruler was Durgavati.

She has ruled for 16 years in Gondwana region.

Akbar invaded Gondwana region during this time, Asif Khan was the commander of Akbar’s army.

Holkar dynasty:-

Founder Malhar Rao Holkar

Maratha sardar Malhar Rao Holkar founded the Holkar dynasty in Malwa region after facing the defeat defeat in third battle of Panipat.

Samadhi of durgavati is in Barela village Jabalpur.

Ahilyabai Holkar (1725-1795) :-

Ahilyabai has ruled from this dynasty after the death of her husband Khanderao Holker. She has constructed various roads Wells river Ghat temples thus she is known for her welfare works.

Scindia dynasty:-

Until 1810 the capital of scindia dynasty was Ujjain letter Daulatrao sindhiya shifted his capital to Gwalior

Jivajirao scindia merged Gwalior princely state in Indian union in 1947.

Topic Covered in the article :-

History of Madhya Pradesh pdf

Independence movement in Madhya Pradesh

Dynasties of Madhya Pradesh

Major events and major dynasties in the history of Madhya Pradesh.


Rashtrakuta Dynasty - History

These branches emerged as a result of Rashtrakuta conquest of North India.

Rashtrakuta literature (Kannada: ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಕೂಟ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯ Rāṣṭrakūṭa Sāhitya) is the body of work created during the rule of the Rastrakutas of Manyakheta, a dynasty that ruled the southern and central parts of the Deccan, India between the 8th and 10th centuries. The period of their rule was an important time in the history of South Indian literature in general and Kannada literature in particular. This era was practically the end of classical Prakrit and Sanskrit writings when a whole wealth of topics were available to be written in Kannada. Some of Kannada's most famous poets graced the courts of the Rashtrakuta kings. Court poets and royalty created eminent works in Kannada and Sanskrit, that spanned such literary forms as prose, poetry, rhetoric, epics and grammar. Famous scholars even wrote on secular subjects such as mathematics. Rashtrakuta inscriptions were also written in expressive and poetic Kannada and Sanskrit, rather than plain documentary prose.

In short, the Rashtrakuta rule was tolerant to multiple popular religions, Jainism, Vaishnavaism and Shaivism. Buddhism too found support and was popular in places such as Dambal and Balligavi, although it had declined significantly by this time. The decline of Buddhism in South India began in the 8th century with the spread of Adi Shankara's Advaita philosophy. Islamic contact with South India began as early as the 7th century, a result of trade between the Southern kingdoms and Arab lands. Jumma Masjids existed in the Rashtrakuta empire by the 10th century and many Muslims lived and mosques flourished on the coasts, specifically in towns such as Kayalpattanam and Nagore. Muslim settlers married local women their children were known as Mappilas (Moplahs) and were actively involved in horse trading and manning shipping fleets.

The Kailasanath Temple project was commissioned by King Krishna I after the Rashtrakuta rule had spread into South India from the Deccan. The architectural style used is Karnata Dravida according to Adam Hardy. It does not contain any of the Shikharas common to the Nagara style and was built on the same lines as the Virupaksha temple at Pattadakal in Karnataka. According to art historian Vincent Smith, the achievement at the Kailasanath temple is considered an architectural consummation of the monolithic rock-cut temple and deserves to be considered one of the wonders of the world. According to art historian Percy Brown, as an accomplishment of art, the Kailasanath temple is considered an unrivalled work of rock architecture, a monument that has always excited and astonished travellers. While some scholars have claimed the architecture at Elephanta is attributable to the Kalachuri, others claim that it was built during the Rashtrakuta period. Some of the sculptures such as Nataraja and Sadashiva excel in beauty and craftsmanship even that of the Ellora sculptures. Famous sculptures at Elephanta include Ardhanarishvara and Maheshamurthy. The latter, a three faced bust of Lord Shiva, is 25 ft tall and considered one of the finest pieces of sculpture in India. It is said that, in the world of sculpture, few works of art depicting a divinity are as balanced. Other famous rock-cut temples in the Maharashtra region are the Dhumer Lena and Dashvatara cave temples in Ellora (famous for its sculptures of Vishnu and Shivaleela) and the Jogeshvari temple near Mumbai. In Karnataka their most famous temples are the Kashivishvanatha temple and the Jain Narayana temple at Pattadakal, a UNESCO World Heritage site. Other well-known temples are the Parameshwara temple at Konnur, Brahmadeva temple at Savadi, the Settavva, Kontigudi II, Jadaragudi and Ambigeragudi temples at Aihole, Mallikarjuna temple at Ron, Andhakeshwara temple at Huli (Hooli), Someshwara temple at Sogal, Jain temples at Lokapura, Navalinga temple at Kuknur, Kumaraswamy temple at Sandur, numerous temples at Shirival in Gulbarga, and the Trikuteshwara temple at Gadag which was later expanded by Kalyani Chalukyas. Archeological study of these temples show some have the stellar (multigonal) plan later to be used profusely by the Hoysalas at Belur and Halebidu. One of the richest traditions in Indian architecture took shape in the Deccan during this time which Adam Hardy calls Karnata dravida style as opposed to traditional Dravida style.

The Rashtrakuta kings supported the popular religions of the day in the traditional spirit of religious tolerance. Scholars have offered various arguments regarding which specific religion the Rashtrakutas favoured, basing their evidence on inscriptions, coins and contemporary literature. Some claim the Rashtrakutas were inclined towards Jainism since many of the scholars who flourished in their courts and wrote in Sanskrit, Kannada and a few in Apabhramsha and Prakrit were Jains. The Rashtrakutas built well-known Jain temples at locations such as Lokapura in Bagalkot district and their loyal feudatory, the Western Ganga Dynasty, built Jain monuments at Shravanabelagola and Kambadahalli. Scholars have suggested that Jainism was a principal religion at the very heart of the empire, modern Karnataka, accounting for more than 30% of the population and dominating the culture of the region. King Amoghavarsha I was a disciple of the Jain acharya Jinasena and wrote in his religious writing, Prashnottara Ratnamalika, "having bowed to Varaddhamana (Mahavira), I write Prashnottara Ratnamalika". The mathematician Mahaviracharya wrote in his Ganita Sarasangraha, "The subjects under Amoghavarsha are happy and the land yields plenty of grain. May the kingdom of King Nripatunga Amoghavarsha, follower of Jainism ever increase far and wide." Amoghavarsha may have taken up Jainism in his old age.

The Rashtrakuta empire controlled most of the western sea board of the subcontinent which facilitated its maritime trade. The Gujarat branch of the empire earned a significant income from the port of Bharoch, one of the most prominent ports in the world at that time. The empire's chief exports were cotton yarn, cotton cloth, muslins, hides, mats, indigo, incense, perfumes, betel nuts, coconuts, sandal, teak, timber, sesame oil and ivory. Its major imports were pearls, gold, dates from Arabia, slaves, Italian wines, tin, lead, topaz, storax, sweet clover, flint glass, antimony, gold and silver coins, singing boys and girls (for the entertainment of the royalty) from other lands. Trading in horses was an important and profitable business, monopolised by the Arabs and some local merchants. The Rashtrakuta government levied a shipping tax of one golden Gadyanaka on all foreign vessels embarking to any other ports and a fee of one silver Ctharna ( a coin) on vessels travelling locally.

The successor of Govinda III, Amoghavarsha I made Manyakheta his capital and ruled a large empire. Manyakheta remained the Rashtrakutas' regal capital until the end of the empire. He came to the throne in 814 but it was not until 821 that he had suppressed revolts from feudatories and ministers. Amoghavarsha I made peace with the Western Ganga dynasty by giving them his two daughters in marriage, and then defeated the invading Eastern Chalukyas at Vingavalli and assumed the title Viranarayana. His rule was not as militant as that of Govinda III as he preferred to maintain friendly relations with his neighbours, the Gangas, the Eastern Chalukyas and the Pallavas with whom he also cultivated marital ties. His era was an enriching one for the arts, literature and religion. Widely seen as the most famous of the Rashtrakuta Emperors, Amoghavarsha I was an accomplished scholar in Kannada and Sanskrit. His Kavirajamarga is considered an important landmark in Kannada poetics and Prashnottara Ratnamalika in Sanskrit is a writing of high merit and was later translated into the Tibetan language. Because of his religious temperament, his interest in the arts and literature and his peace-loving nature, he has been compared to the emperor Ashoka and called "Ashoka of the South".

In conclusion, the rise of Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta had a great impact on India, even on India's north. Sulaiman (851), Al Masudi (944) and Ibn Khurdadba (912) wrote that their empire was the largest in contemporary India and Sulaiman further called it one among the four great contemporary empires of the world. According to the travelogues of the Arabs Al Masudi and Ibn Khordidbih of the 10th century, "most of the kings of Hindustan turned their faces towards the Rashtrakuta king while they were praying, and they prostrated themselves before his ambassadors. The Rashtrakuta king was known as the "King of kings" (Rajadhiraja) who possessed the mightiest of armies and whose domains extended from Konkan to Sind." Some historians have called these times an "Age of Imperial Kannauj". Since the Rashtrakutas successfully captured Kannauj, levied tribute on its rulers and presented themselves as masters of North India, the era could also be called the "Age of Imperial Karnataka". During their political expansion into central and northern India in the 8th to the 10th centuries, the Rashtrakutas or their relatives created several kingdoms that either ruled during the reign of the parent empire or continued to rule for centuries after its fall or came to power much later. Well known among these were the Rashtrakutas of Gujarat (757–888), the Rattas of Saundatti (875–1230) in modern Karnataka, the Gahadavalas of Kannauj (1068–1223), the Rashtrakutas of Rajasthan (known as Rajputana) and ruling from Hastikundi or Hathundi (893–996), Dahal (near Jabalpur), Rathores of Mandore (near Jodhpur), the Rathores of Dhanop, Rashtraudha dynasty of Mayuragiri in modern Maharashtra and Rashtrakutas of Kannauj. Rajadhiraja Chola's conquest of the island of Ceylon in the early 11th century CE led to the fall of four kings there. According to historian K. Pillay, one of them, King Madavarajah of the Jaffna kingdom, was an usurper from the Rashtrakuta Dynasty.

The sources for Rashtrakuta history include medieval inscriptions, ancient literature in the Pali language, contemporaneous literature in Sanskrit and Kannada and the notes of the Arab travellers. Theories about the dynastic lineage (Surya Vamsa—Solar line and Chandra Vamsa—Lunar line), the native region and the ancestral home have been proposed, based on information gleaned from inscriptions, royal emblems, the ancient clan names such as "Rashtrika", epithets (Ratta, Rashtrakuta, Lattalura Puravaradhiswara), the names of princes and princesses of the dynasty, and clues from relics such as coins. Scholars debate over which ethnic/linguistic groups can claim the early Rashtrakutas. Possibilities include the north western ethnic groups of India, the Kannadiga, Reddi, the Maratha, or the tribes from the Punjab region.

The Rashtrakuta army consisted of large contingents of infantry, horsemen, and elephants. A standing army was always ready for war in a cantonment (Sthirabhuta Kataka) in the regal capital of Manyakheta. Large armies were also maintained by the feudatory kings who were expected to contribute to the defense of the empire in case of war. Chieftains and all the officials also served as commanders whose postings were transferable if the need arose.

The Jain writer Adikavi Pampa, widely regarded as one of the most influential Kannada writers, became famous for Adipurana (941). Written in champu (mixed prose-verse style) style, it is the life history of the first Jain tirthankara Rishabhadeva. Pampa's other notable work was Vikramarjuna Vijaya (941), the author's version of the Hindu epic, Mahabharata, with Arjuna as the hero. Also called Pampa Bharata, it is a eulogy of the writer's patron, King Chalukya Arikeseri of Vemulawada (a Rashtrakuta feudatory), comparing the king's virtues favorably to those of Arjuna. Pampa demonstrates such a command of classical Kannada that scholars over the centuries have written many interpretations of his work.

The heart of the Rashtrakuta empire included nearly all of Karnataka, Maharashtra and parts of Andhra Pradesh, an area which the Rashtrakutas ruled for over two centuries. The Samangadh copper plate grant (753) confirms that the feudatory King Dantidurga, who probably ruled from Achalapura in Berar (modern Elichpur in Maharashtra), defeated the great Karnatic army (referring to the army of the Badami Chalukyas) of Kirtivarman II of Badami in 753 and took control of the northern regions of the Chalukya empire. He then helped his father-in-law, Pallava King Nandivarman regain Kanchi from the Chalukyas and defeated the Gurjaras of Malwa, and the rulers of Kalinga, Kosala and Srisailam.

Prose works in Sanskrit was prolific during this era as well. Important mathematical theories and axioms were postulated by Mahaviracharya, a native of Gulbarga, who belonged to the Karnataka mathematical tradition and was patronised by King Amoghavarsha I. His greatest contribution was Ganitasarasangraha, a writing in 9 chapters. Somadevasuri of 950 wrote in the court of Arikesari II, a feudatory of Rashtrakuta Krishna III in Vemulavada. He was the author of Yasastilaka champu, Nitivakyamrita and other writings. The main aim of the champu writing was to propagate Jain tenets and ethics. The second writing reviews the subject matter of Arthashastra from the standpoint of Jain morals in a clear and pithy manner. Ugraditya, a Jain ascetic from Hanasoge in the modern Mysore district wrote a medical treatise called Kalyanakaraka. He delivered a discourse in the court of Amoghavarsha I encouraging abstinence from animal products and alcohol in medicine.

The Rashtrakuta economy was sustained by its natural and agricultural produce, its manufacturing revenues and moneys gained from its conquests. Cotton was the chief crop of the regions of southern Gujarat, Khandesh and Berar. Minnagar, Gujarat, Ujjain, Paithan and Tagara were important centres of textile industry. Muslin cloth were manufactured in Paithan and Warangal. The cotton yarn and cloth was exported from Bharoch. White calicos were manufactured in Burhanpur and Berar and exported to Persia, Turkey, Poland, Arabia and Egypt. The Konkan region, ruled by the feudatory Silharas, produced large quantities of betel leaves, coconut and rice while the lush forests of Mysore, ruled by the feudatory Gangas, produced such woods as sandal, timber, teak and ebony. Incense and perfumes were exported from the ports of Thana and Saimur.

Kannada became more prominent as a literary language during the Rashtrakuta rule with its script and literature showing remarkable growth, dignity and productivity. This period effectively marked the end of the classical Prakrit and Sanskrit era. Court poets and royalty created eminent works in Kannada and Sanskrit that spanned such literary forms as prose, poetry, rhetoric, the Hindu epics and the life history of Jain tirthankars. Bilingual writers such as Asaga gained fame, and noted scholars such as the Mahaviracharya wrote on pure mathematics in the court of King Amoghavarsha I.

The origin of the Rashtrakuta dynasty has been a controversial topic of Indian history. These issues pertain to the origin of the earliest ancestors of the Rashtrakutas during the time of Emperor Ashoka in the 2nd century BCE, and the connection between the several Rashtrakuta dynasties that ruled small kingdoms in northern and central India and the Deccan between the 6th and 7th centuries. The relationship of these medieval Rashtrakutas to the most famous later dynasty, the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta (present day Malkhed in the Gulbarga district, Karnataka state), who ruled between the 8th and 10th centuries has also been debated.

Rashtrakuta (IAST: ) was a royal dynasty ruling large parts of the Indian subcontinent between the sixth and 10th centuries. The earliest known Rashtrakuta inscription is a 7th-century copper plate grant detailing their rule from Manapura, a city in Central or West India. Other ruling Rashtrakuta clans from the same period mentioned in inscriptions were the kings of Achalapur (modern Elichpur in Maharashtra) and the rulers of Kannauj. Several controversies exist regarding the origin of these early Rashtrakutas, their native homeland and their language.

The Arab traveller Suleiman described the Rashtrakuta Empire as one of the four great Empires of the world. The Rashtrakuta period marked the beginning of the golden age of southern Indian mathematics. The great south Indian mathematician Mahāvīra lived in the Rashtrakuta Empire and his text had a huge impact on the medieval south Indian mathematicians who lived after him. The Rashtrakuta rulers also patronised men of letters, who wrote in a variety of languages from Sanskrit to the Apabhraṃśas.

*Govinda IV, King of Rashtrakuta 930–935, deposed 935.

Nagabhata appears to have been defeated by the Rashtrakuta ruler Dantidurga. According to the Rashtrakuta records, the ruler of Malava was among the kings defeated by Dantidurga. The Sanjan inscription of Dantidurga's descendant Amoghavarsha states that Dantidurga performed a religious ceremony at Ujjayini (Ujjain, the capital of Nagabhata). During this ceremony, the Lord of Gurjara (Gurjaresha) acted as a pratihara (door-keeper) of Dantidurga. The usage of the word pratihara seems to be a word play, suggesting that the Rashtrakuta king subdued the Gurjara-Pratihara king who was ruling Avanti at that time.


Telangana History Rashtrakutas Bits for Competitive Exams

1) Rashtrakutas are more prominent in the history of South India. Many districts of Telangana are used to be under the rule of the Rashtrakutas.

2) Rashtrakutas ruled with Manyakheta in the Karnataka region remained as their capital.

3) According to some historians, Rashtrakuta’s political life started in Maharashtra. Others argue, Karnataka as Original homeland of Rashtrakutas

4) Dr.Fleet opined Rastrakutas belonged to the Rathor descendants of Northern India.

5) R.G.Bhandarkar opined, Rajjakas of the Mauryan days became Rashtrakutas

6) According to Dr.Barnal, Rashtrakutas were Telugu People and after some time they were called Reddis.

7) Mallampalli SomesekharaSarma opined, remaining as Rattadi or Chariot drivers, Rashtrakutas who later became Reddis of Telugu land.

8) Historian felt that Rashrtakutas is not a name of the race but its employer name because in ancient days, Gramakuta means a village official and in the same way Rashtrakutas might indicate employer name

9) During the Mauryan period, ‘Rashtriya’ used to be the viceroy of bigger regions like Gujarat and Kathiawar.

10) In the 1st C.E A.D., Rathikas and Maharathikas were governed small regions in Maharashtra and Berar and they established independent Kingdoms as central government became weak

11) Historian opined Rashtrakutas mother tongue might be Kannada because important of Rashtrakutas became chiefs of Lattaluru and Latur in Bidar district is only this Lattaluru in Kannada-Speaking Latur in Bidar district and hence their mother tongue must have been Kannada

12) Rashtrakutas themselves claimed as they originated from satyaki, the brother of Sri Krishna

13) During the time of Badami Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas remained as their Feudatories and might belong to the Rathika family in Maharastra areas or to the Reddi family in Andhra and Karnataka regions.

14) When the Badami Chalukya Kingdom got disintegrated Rashtrakutas established independent Kingdom and within a short time Rashtrakutas became the emperors of Dakshiapatha of South India

15) Rashtrakutas ruled nearly 200 years. Brother of Nannaraju who ruled Ellichpur in 631 A.D is considered as the ancestor of the Rashtrakutas dynasty.

16) Indra Raja-I (696-710 A.D.)was the founder of the Rashtrakutas dynasty and they ruled Manyakheta and Western Telangana areas as the feudatories of the Badami Chalukyas.
Note: After Indra Raja I, Govindaraja or Varma-I (710-725 A.D.), Kanakaraja-I(725-735 A.D.) and Indraraja-III (735-748 A.D.) are the feudatories of Badami Chalukyas.

17) The Independent Rashtrakutas Kingdom was established by Dantidurga, he was the son of Indraraja-II. He defeated Kirtivarma-II (735 A.D.), Badami Chalukyan king and established independent Rashtrakutas kingdom.

18) Feudatory of western Chalukyan ruler, Vikramaditya-II, participated in several expeditions and conquered Pallava, Malawa and Gujarat areas

19) Vikramaditya-II gave the titles of ‘ Prithvivallabha ‘ and ‘Khadgavaloka ‘ to Dantidurga

20) Dantidurga got titles of ‘Maharajadhiraja ‘, ‘ParamaMaheswara ‘ and ‘ParamaBhattaraka ‘

21)In 757 AD., Dantidurga conquered Kanchi, Kalinga, Srisalam, Malwa, Lata and Sindhu areas.

22) Inscription of Vayamgadh and inscriptions at Dasavatara temple in Ellora describes Dantidurga great War victories, and

23) Dantidurga invaded Malwa and conquered. He made ‘Hiranyagarbha ‘ donation and declared his victory in Ujjaini

24) Ddantidurga daughter married to Pallava king Nandivarma-II. Within a short period of rule, he established an extensive Rashtrakuta empire and died in 758 A.D.

25) After Dantidurga, Krishna-I has ruled the Rashtrakutas Kingdom.
Note: He carried conquests that were started by Dantidurga, occupied Southern Konkan and sent crown – Prince Govinda-II to Vengi and they defeated Vengi Chalukyan ruller Vishnuvardhana-IV and occupied some territories

26) During the time of Krishna-I, the rivalry started between the Vengi Chalukyas and the Rashtrakutas

27) Krishna had the titles of ‘Subhattunga ‘ and ‘Akalavarshudu’

28) Krishna builds the Kailasanadha temple(Rock Cut) at Ellora and it got recognition as a world heritage site.

29) After Krishna-I, Govinda-II ruled between 772-780 A.D. He won victory in the battle of Gangavadi.

30) Govinda-II called ‘ Suvarna Govindaraja ‘ and ‘Prabhuta Varsha’.

31) Dhruva(Dhruva Raja) got the throne by killing his brother Govinda-II. He defeated the kings of Kanchi, Gangadevi, Malwa, Vengi.

32) Dhruva defeated the Eastern Chalukyan ruler Vishnuvardhana-IV and married his daughter Seelamanhadevi

33) Dhruva was the first Rashtrakutas ruler who entered into Tripartite wars which took place between Pala, Pratihara, and Rashtrakutas dynasties

34) Dhruva defeated Pratihara Kanauj ruler Vatsaraja and as a mark to his victory, he adopted ‘ Ganga-Yamuna Torana ‘ as his kingdom’s emblem.

35) Dhruva had the titles of ‘Srivallabha’ ‘Nirupakelivallabha’ and ‘Daranava’

36) Dhruva expanded the Rashtrakutas KIngdom into a vast empire and for these his sons Karka, stambha, Govinda and Indra helped a lot

37) After Dhruva his son Govinda-III assumed power and he was the greatest among the Rashtrakutas,

38) Govinda-III had titles of ‘Rajadhiraja’, ‘Prabhutavarsha’, ‘Rajaparameshwara’, ‘Tribhuvanadhavali’, ‘Sri vallabha’ ‘Janavallabha’ and ‘Kirthinarayana’

39) Govinda-III has fought wars with Pallava, Western Ganga, Ghuraja Pratihara and Pala Kings and achieved success and has defeated Pratihara king, Nagabhata-II and he was ruled for 22years.

40) In Sanjan Inscription, Govindha III greatness are mentioned

41) After Govinda-III, his son Amonghavarsha has ruled a kingdom and his original name was Saru.

42) Amoghavarsha defeated the Vengi king, Gunaga Vijayadhitya.

43) In the south, Gangavadi king, Nitidurga declared his independence and amoghavarsha defeated him

44) Amoghavarsha’s daughter Chandrabbalachhen married the Ganga king’s son Buttuga and another daughter Renuka Nirmadi(Revaka Sankha) married the Pallava king, Nandi Varma.

45) Amoghavarsha was a great poet, written ‘kavirajamarga’ the first ‘alankara’ work and also wrote ‘Prasonttora Ratnamalika’

46)Amoghavarsha had title ‘Kaviraja’
Note: Jain poets of his period, Mahavira Acharya wrote ‘Ganitasara Sangraha’ and Saktyana wrote ‘Amoghavritti’.

47) Amoghavarsha built Manyakheta(Malkhed) city and made it as capital Note: Arab traveler, Suleman described activities of Amoghavarsha and praised him as one of the four great emperors in the world.

48) Amoghavarsha adopted Janism and has observed ‘Sallekhanavrata’ and died.

49) After Amoghavarsha his son KrishnaII, became the king, from his time on wards decline of the Rashtrakutas started

50) Eastern Chalukya Kings Gunaga Vijadhitya has invaded Rashtrakutas kingdom and destroyed Kiranapur, Archalapur and Chakrakuta cities

51) Krishna II gave his daughter in marriage to Chola King, Adhitya-I.

52) After Krishna-II, Indra III(914-928 A.D) ruled the kingdom and in his time Arab traveler Al-Masudi visited the Rashtrakutas Kingdom

53) Rashtrakutas got back to glory in the time of Krishna III, He Invaded Chola Kingdom and killed Crown- prince Rajaditya and assumed the title of Tanjavoor Konda

54) In Takkolam Battle, Krishna III defeated Prantaka Chola I and erected victory pillar at Rameswaram

55) After Krishna III his brother Khotiga became the ruler and he ruled between 967-972 A.D

56) Khotiga died with an insult as Malwa king Harshaseyaka has defeated Khottiga and destroyed Manyakheta

57) Karkaraja II (972-973 A.D.) was the last ruler of Rastrakutas was KarkarajaII. During his period feudatories became independent

58) Chalukyan Tailapa(feudatory), ruler of Tondavadi defeated Karkaraja II and killed him and occupied Manyakheta which ended the rule of Rashrakutas permanently
Note: Thilapa II established the Kalyani Chalukyan dynasty.

59) In the beginning Ellichpur, Ellora and Paithan cities remained capitals of Rashrakutas and later during Amoghavarsha’s region Manyakheta used to be the capital.

60) Rashtrakutas kings assumed the titles of ‘Maharajadhiraja’, ‘Dharavarsha’ and ‘Vikramavaloka’.

61) Inscriptions had details about posts of Mahamatya, Mahasandhivigrahaka. Kings, officials were appointed at different places in a kingdom called Rajasthaneeya

62) The kings divided the kingdom into Rashtra, vaishya, and villages. The ‘Mahasamantha’ or ‘Mahamandaleswara’ is the governing head of Rashtra.

63) District officials called as ‘Vishayapati’ and ‘Bhogapati’

64) Governing head of a town called as ‘Nagarapati’ and for village ‘Gramapati’ used to be head

65) The village assembly known as ‘Mahajanam’ belonged to Agrahara. Combined village assemblies generally had farmer assembly.

66) Members of Janism, such as Bankaya and Sri Vijaya used to be the commander-in-chief. For Soldiers who died in the wars, the government used to give relief or pensions.

67)Police personnel consisted of ‘Chorodharinukulu’ and ‘Dandaposikulu’.

68) Land tax was the main source of income of Rastrakutas. ‘Padenela tax’ levied for army maintenance and ‘Sandhi Vigraha’ tax was imposed for the defense of the kingdom.

69) In Rastrakutas, professional taxes are imposed for craftsmen, such as potter, washer-man, barber and blacksmith have to professional taxes.
Note: Taxes like property tax, land tax, house tax, oil-mill tax, cattle tax, sheep herd tax, shop tax etc are present in Rastrakutas

70) Out of the income that was received,3 parts to army maintenance,1 part as a reserve fund and 1/12th share for charities, palace, and maintenance

71) King remained as the main judicial head and judicial administration was carried through the ‘Dharmasana’ that belonged to the Grama sabha.

72) In South India, agriculture land was specially referred to as ‘Yeripatti’ or ‘Cheruvukuttu’ land and tax paid as one-sixth to one-tenth of the crop from the land.

73) Textile industries became famous among all the industries. Gujarat, Berar, and Telangana remained as important centers where clothes were exported to foreign countries.

74) Cosmos indico plusters mentioned about the trade between the eastern and western coastal areas in south India and Western and southwest Asian countries.
Note: Pepper, Cardamom and Pearls were main articles for export

75) ‘Manigaram’ was the local trade guild. ‘Nagaram ‘ meant an organized sales center in South India.

76) Mahabalipuram, Nagapattinam, Kaveripattanam, Motupalli, and Krishnapatnam on the eastern coast and Chaul, Sopara and Calicut on the western coast are the famous port towns.

77) Rashtrakutas considered as ‘Sat-Kshatriyas’ a special subset among the Kshatriyas. Oridinary Kshatriyas used to follow the rites and rituals of ‘Dvijas’.

78) Vaisyas belonged to trading and agriculture classes were called as ‘Komaties’ and ‘Seths’.

79) Sudhras mainly took up the occupations of agriculture, agricultural labor and military services

80) Rattadi or Reddi, Vellala and Kapu are major sudra classes

81) ‘ VettiChakiri’ was condemned in ‘Yasastilaka’, literacy work of 10th century A.D.

82) ‘Gurava’ community persons are able to obtain the position of Purohit in Siva temples.

83) New Religious movements such as Virasaivism, Aaradhyasaiavam, and Sri Vaishnavam were patronized by craft classes and landlord farmers.

84) Rastrakutas showed a lot of interest in the development of education and literature and temples. Temple areas are also developed as education institutions like Trayipurusha temple at Selorgi in Karnataka region that was a big college with 27 hostels

85) Vedas, Puranas, Grammer, Astrology, Literature, Philosophy, Dharmashatra, Jurisprudence and Sanskrit education used to be subjects of higher educations.
Note: Rashtrakuta Kings patronized Sanskrit and Kannada literature

86) In the Dhulia inscription that was issued by Dhruva

87) In 975 AD, 200 acres(50 Mattaras) were donated to Mutt which is loacted in Bhujabheswara temple in Dharward Mandal.

88) Sanskrit was the official language in Rashtrakutas kingdom and Jain literature flourished in the Rashtrakutas kingdom

89) Sanskrit was the official language in Rashtrakutas kingdom and Jain literature flourished in the Rashtrakutas kingdom
Note: King Krishna III and Halayudha wrote ‘Kavairahasyam’, explains the use of Sankrit Dhatuvulu and Prassati or praise of emperor Krishna

90) Jinasena was the teacher of Amoghavarsha

91) Jinasena wrote Adipurana, a biography of Jain Trithakaras was completed by his disciples

92) Jinasena in his ‘Parsvabhuyudayam ‘ every sloka line of ‘ Meghasandesam’ has been wounderfully applied to the life of jain parsva and therby made meaning coordination.

93) In Amoghavarsha period, work on grammar, titled amoghavritti and another work titled ‘GanitaSarasangraha’ were written respectively by Sakatayana and Ganitayana Vircharya

94) ‘Kavirajamarga’, the first work on poetics in kannada language wasauthored by Amoghavarsha and he also wrote ‘Ratnamalika’ and ‘Neetikavuyam’.

95) Ponna, who was 2nd in the triumvirate of Kannada writers, happened to be the court poet of Krishna III, wrote ‘Shanti Puranam’

96) Pampa, who was 1st in kannada triumvirate was a court poet of Vemulavada Chalukyas wrote Adipura and Vikramarjuna Vijayam.

97) In Rashtrakutas, cave temples were carved at ellora. 1st cave, Dantidurga build the Dasavatara temple. Nandi mandapam in this temple stands as an ancient monument of rashtrakutas art.

98)Other famous structures consist of ‘ChhotoKailasa’ temple among the cave temples at ellora, the mandapam infront of 15th cave and jain temple at Pattadakal.

99) Kailasanatha temple(rock-cut temple) at Ellora has been the artistic creation of Krishna I, it has been a wonderful masterpiece of sculptures that explained episodes in Puranas of Hinduism
Note: Other famous structures consist of ‘ChhotoKailasa’ temple, the mandapam infront of 15th cave and jain temple at Pattadakal.

100) The Dasavatara temple was built with wounderful Sculpture, decorated with the images of saiva and vaishnava gods and goddesses.

101) In Rastrakutas times, ‘kalamukha’ and ‘Kopalika’ sects were prevailing. By Inscriptions sources of 9th C.E A.D. proving that a new non-Brahmin devotee group known as ‘Gurava’ has come into existence.

102) Srisailam recognized as a great ‘kalipaka’ centers.

103) Rashtrakutas kings had the title of sreePrathiviVallabha’, declared themselves as the avatara or the incarnation of vishnu.

104) Sriparvatam is the important center for the worship of ‘Vajrapani Dharani’

105) The teachers and Professors in this movement are called ‘siddhus ‘ and Kalipanika Vedukas like ‘Mantra’,’Mudra’ and ‘Mandala’ are implied in Vijraya form of Worship. and by 12th and 13th-century A.d. Amaravati, Guntupalli, Sriparvatam or Nagarjuna Konda and Salihundam in Andhra.

106) During the time of the Rashtrakutas, Jainsm had greater prominence than Buddhism

107) Famous Jain sects- Muasangha, Yavaneeya, and Dravidasangha predominate in Andhra. Perur, Danuvalapadu, Vemulapadu, Ramathirtam, Hanumakonda, Patancheruvu, Kollipaaka were been famous Jain centers in Andhra region

108) Rashtrakutas king Amoghavarasha I and Chamundraya were famous patrons of janism. Among several Jain temples centers, Sravanabelagola in Karnataka was most famous.

109) Dasavatara temple at Ellora, Kailasanadha temple and the statue of Maheswara in elephanta island stand as great specimens for their rock-cut architecture.

Rashtrakutas MCQ Questions Bit Bank

1. Who felt that Rashtrakutas belonged to the Rathor descendent of north India?

2. Under the rule of Rashtrakutas the capital of Karnataka region is ___________?

3. Rashtrakutas were Reddis of Telugu people according to ______________?

4.Who was the founder of the Rashtrakuta dynasty ___________?

5. Who established the independent Rashtrakutas kingdom?

6. Dantidurga has defeated Kirtivarma-I in the period____________?

7) Who gave the titles of ‘ Prathvivallabha ‘ and ‘ Khadgavaloka ‘ to Dantidurga?

8) Dantidurga has established a Rashtrakutas empire and died in the period?

9) Wo was the Pallava king married the daughter of Dantidurga?

10) Who ruled the Rashtrakutas Kingdom after Dantidurga ?

11. Who had the titles of ‘ Subhattunga ‘ and ‘ Akalavarshudu ‘?

12. Krishna-I had built the Kailasanandha temple(Rock-cut) at the place________?

13. Govinda-II ruled the Rashtrakutas Kingdom between the period of___________?

14. Tripartite wars took place between the _____________ dynasty’s ?

15. Dhruva Raja has adopted _____________ as his kingdom’s emblem after the victory defeating the ‘vastraja’ ?

16. ‘Kavirajamarga ‘ the first alankara work was written by __________?

17) After Amoghavarsha the kingdom was ruled by his son_________?

18. Who visited the Rashtrakutas Kingdom during the Indira-III ruled?

19. Who ruled the Rashtrakutas Kingdom after Amoghavarsha-II ruler?

20. Amoghavarsha II ruled the Rashtrakutas Kingdom in the period________?

21. After Krishna III, his brother Khottiga became the ruler of the Rashtrakutas kingdom in the period?

22) Who was the last ruler for the Rashtrakutas kingdom?
a) Thilapa-II

23. Who had established the rule of the Kalyani Chalukyas dynasty?

24. Rashtrakuta kings assumed the titles of ________________?

25. The Ministers were used to be called as in kingdoms _____________?

26. _______ were appointed at different places in the kingdom for adminstration__?

27. Governor head of rashtra ___________?

28. D istrict officials called as_________?

29. The police staff of those days consisted of _________?

30. The main source of income to the kingdom is____?

31. __________ tax was imposed for the defence of the kingdom?

32. Judicial administration was carried through ________ _, that belonged to the ‘Grama Sabha’?

33. Agriculture land was specially referred to as _____________land?

34. Rashtrakutas considered as ___________ a special sub-sect among the kshatriyas?

35. Vaisyas belonged to trading and agriculture classes and were known as _________?

36. __________ Community persons are able to obtain the position of purohit in the Shiva temples?

37. The Rashtrakutas emperors showed lot of interest in the development of __________________?

c) education and literature

c) education and literature

38. what was the official language in the Rashtrakutas kingdom?

39. Who wrote ‘ Kavirahasyam ‘ during the time of king Krishna-III?

40. ______________ happened to be biography of Jain Tirthankaras ?

41. During the time of the Rashtrakutas, cave temples were carved at _______ place?

42. Kailasanatha temple at Ellora has been the artistic creation of __________ king.

43. Srisailam has come to be recognised as a great ______________ center ?

45. The teachers or Professors in Buddhism were called as_____________?

46. Govinda-III ruled between the period of______?

47. Govinda III ruled for __________ no of years?

48) In Karnataka region ________ were the chief patrons of jainism ?

49. ______________ was the famous jain centers

50. Dasavatara temple located at_____________place?

51. The kingdoms of Rashtrakutas were divided into ______________?

Complete Telangana History Book Download

TS History Book ( No of Pages: 621) Download from Google Play Books

Unable to Buy/Download, No Worries . Learn Complete Telangana History Online Free at fdaytalk 24/7

Related search
Rashtrakutas dynasty bit bank for exams, rashtrakutas bits for competitive exams, rashtrakutas dynasty for telangana exams group 1 group 2 and group 4, rashtrakutas founder history for exams, bit bank of telangana history about rashtrakutas dynasty, all about rashtrakutas dynasty, complete information about rashtrakutas dynasty, objective questions about rashtrakutas dynasty, multiple choice questions on rashtrakutas dynasty, group 1 rashtrakutas dynasty, group II rashtrakutas dynasty bits, TSPSC rashtrakutas dynasty bits, TSPSC exams bits on telangana History. about rashtrakutas, bit bank MCQ questions on rashtrakutas dynasty 2018, rashtrakutas dynasty info in exams, brief history about rashtrakutas dynasty, brief notes on rashtrakutas dynasty for tspsc exams, most imp bits on rashtrakutas dynasty in exams, rashtrakutas dynasty for competitive exams MCQ bit bank, rashtrakutas dynasty, Rashtrakutas dynasty short notes, Rashtrakutas dynasty in english, Rashtrakutas dynasty brief notes, Rashtrakutas dynasty important points for exams, Rashtrakutas dynasty bits for exams and short notes, rashtrakutas dynasty for competitive exams MCQ bit bank


Administration

Rashtrakuta Kings (753-982)
Dantidurga (735 - 756)
Krishna I (756 - 774)
Govinda II (774 - 780)
Dhruva Dharavarsha (780 - 793)
Govinda III (793 - 814)
Amoghavarsha I (814 - 878)
Krishna II (878 - 914)
Indra III (914 -929)
Amoghavarsha II (929 - 930)
Govinda IV (930 – 936)
Amoghavarsha III (936 – 939)
Krishna III (939 – 967)
Khottiga Amoghavarsha (967 – 972)
Karka II (972 – 973)
Indra IV (973 – 982)
Tailapa II
(Western Chalukyas)
(973-997)

Inscriptions and other literary records show the Rashtrakutas selected the crown prince based on heredity. The crown sometimes passed the eldest son, abilities considered more important than age and chronology of birth, as exemplified by the crowning of Govinda III, the third son of king Dhruva Dharavarsha. The Chief Minister (Mahasandhivigrahi) whose position came with five insignia commensurate with his position namely, a flag, a conch, a fan, a white umbrella, a large drum, and five musical instruments called Panchamahashabdas held the most important position under the king. The commander (Dandanayaka), the foreign minister (Mahakshapataladhikrita) and a prime minister (Mahamatya or Purnamathya), all usually associated with one of the feudatory kings and must have held a position in government equivalent to a premier ⏝] , served under the Chief Minister. A Mahasamantha signified a feudatory or higher ranking regal officer. All cabinet ministers had been well versed in political science (Rajneeti) and possessed military training. In some cases, women supervised significant areas as when Revakanimaddi, daughter of Amoghavarsha I, administered Edathore Vishaya.

The kingdom divided into Mandala or Rashtras (provinces). A Rashtrapathi ruled a Rashtra who, on occasion, had been the emperor himself. Amoghavarsha I's empire had 16 Rashtras. Under a Rashtra sat a Vishaya (district) overseen by a Vishayapathi. Trusted ministers sometimes ruled more than a Rashtra. For example, Bankesha, a commander of Amoghavarsha I headed Banavasi-12000, Belvola-300, Puligere-300, Kunduru-500 and Kundarge-70, the suffix designating the number of villages in that territory. Below the Vishaya, the Nadu looked after by the Nadugowda or Nadugavunda sometimes two such officials administered, with one assuming the position through heredity and another appointed centrally. A Grama or village administered by a Gramapathi or Prabhu Gavunda occupied the lowest division. ⏞]

The Rashtrakuta army consisted of a large infantry, numerous horsemen, and many elephants. A standing army always stood ready for war in a cantonment (Sthirabhuta Kataka) in the regal capital of Manyakheta. The feudatory kings, expected to contribute to the defense of the empire in case of war, maintained large armies. Chieftains, and all the officials, served as commanders whose postings could transfer if the need arose. ⏟]

The Rashtrakutas issued coins (minted in an Akkashale) such as Suvarna, Drammas in silver and gold weighing 65 grains, Kalanju weighing 48 grains, Gadyanaka weighing 96 grains, Kasu weighing 15 grains, Manjati with 2.5 grains and Akkam of 1.25 grain. ⏠]


Prominent dynasties of the region 

a. Ashmakas & Vidarbhas - Ashmaka and Vidarbha were the name of a Mahajanapada in present Maharashtra.

b. Mauryas They ruled almost the whole of India. A rock inscription of Ashoka has been found at Nala Sopara (Near Mumbai) in Maharashtra confirms the Mauryan regime. The Maurya Empire ruled Maharashtra in the 4th and 3rd century BCE. 

 

c. Satavahanas After the death of Ashoka, the Mauryan empire soon disintegrated. Around 230 BCE, the Satavahanas broke free from Mauryan control and ruled the region for 400 years.

  • Gautamiputra Satakarni (a notable ruler of the Satavahana Dynasty) defeated Scythian invaders. 
  • Note: Much of the present Karnataka and Andhra was also extended by them (undivided region). 
  • Many inscriptions of Satavahanas and also Buddhist caves excavated during their times confirms their territorial expanse. 
  • Old Satavahana coins have been found both in Maharashtra and Andhra.
  • Gautamiputra Satakarni was the most famous and the best King of this dynasty. 
  • Their early capital was in Pratishthanapura (i.e., today’s Paithan in Maharashtra), the regime lasted till about 200 AD.
  • The Satvahana dynasty mainly used the Prakrit language. 

਍. Vakatakas- Satavahana empire was followed by the Vakatakas. The dynasty ruled from approximately 250 to 470 CE.

  • During their regime, much of Ajanta caves were excavated. 
  • They had cordial relations with the Gupta empire in the northern part of India. A Gupta princess named Prabhavatigupta married a Vakataka King.
  • Their empire lasted till about 600 AD. 
  • Mansar (nearly 50 km from Nagpur) was their capital.
  • The Vakataka dynasty used both Prakrit and Sanskrit languages.

e.Chalukyas – Chalukyas ruled Maharashtra from the 6th century C.E. to the 8th century. This dynasty ruled both Karnataka and Maharashtra. 

  • The capital was in Badami (in the present Karnataka region). 
  • Two prominent rulers were Pulkeshin II (who defeated the north Indian Emperor Harsha) and Vikramaditya II (who defeated Arab invaders in the 8th century).
  • They built some of the earliest temples in Maharashtra- the famous Kolhapur Mahalaxmi temple known as Karnadeva in about 624 AD.
  • Pulikeshin II was the prominent ruler of this dynasty. In 618 AD, he defeated the mighty Harshavardhana in a battle fought around the banks of Narmada and secured the southern realm for himself. 
  • This empire endured till about 753 AD when Dantidurga, the new Rashtrakuta dynasty, overthrew the last Chalukya King.

d. Rashtrakutas- This dynasty ruled Maharashtra from the 8th to the 10th century. The Arab traveller Sulaiman called the ruler of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty (Amoghvarsha) one of the four great kings of the worldਊnd regraded the dynasty as the powerful one in India at that time. 

  • It was under King Dantidurga that the famous Ellora caves and the Kailas temple were built. 
  • This dynasty was kind of like the Marathas- they made extensive conquests both in the north and the south and were renowned for their martial prowess. 
  • They fought a lot with the Northern and Eastern empires like the Gurjar-Pratiharas and the Palas to control the imperial city of Kannauj. 
  • This tri-partite war weakened all the parties and kind of paved the way for Muslim invasions. 
  • Their early capital was Latur (Maharashtra) and later Malkhed (Karnataka).
  • Note: The Chalukya dynasty and Rashtrakuta Dynasty had their capitals in modern-day Karnataka and used Kannada and Sanskrit as court languages.

From the early 11th century to the 12th century, the Deccan Plateau, including a large part of Maharashtra, was dominated by the Chalukya and Chola dynasty. The records found several battles over the Deccan Plateau were fought between these Chalukyas and Chola empires. The war was fought during Raja Raja Chola I, Rajendra Chola I, Jayasimha II, Someshvara I, and Vikramaditya VI. 

e. Shilaharas After the fall of Rashtrakutas, many new local dynasties cropped up, the most prominent of which were Shilaharas, controlling almost the whole coastal strip of Maharashtra and some possessions in the lands east to the Sahyadris. 

  • Between 800 and 1200 CE, parts of Western Maharashtra, including the Konkan region of Maharashtra, were ruled by different Shilahara houses based in North Konkan, South Konkan, and Kolhapur.
  • They built some stunning temples, e.g. the Khidrapur temple and forts, e.g. Panhala. 
  • They also engaged in naval conflicts. Kolhapur and Thane were the capitals of their independent branches. 
  • They were finished off by the Yadavas in about 1216.

Note:ਊt different periods in their history, the Shilaharas served as the Vassals of the Rashtrakutas of the Chalukyas. 

f. Yadava Dynasty Yadavas were also regarded as powerful rulers and ruled parts of Karnataka and Andhra (undivided). 

  • Note: How Rashtrakutas fought with Gurjara Pratiharas and Palas, the Yadavas fought with the Hoyasalas, the Kakatiyas and the Gajapatis. 
  • The Yadavas dynasty was at its peak ruled its kingdom from Tungabhadra to Narmada rivers (the present Maharashtra, north Karnataka and parts of Madhya Pradesh).
  • The capital of the Yadava dynasty was Devnagari (present-day Daulatabad in modern Maharashtra). 
  • The Yadavas initially ruled as feudatories of the Western Chalukyas.
  • Their rule reached its peak under Singhania II. The Yadavas of Devagiri used Marathi as their court language.
  • The Yadava capital Devagiri became a magnet for learned scholars in Marathi to showcase and find patronage for their skills. 
  • The origin and growth of Marathi literature are directly associated with the rise of the Yadava dynasty. 
  • Yadava dynasty is believed to be the first true Maratha empire.
  • During their rule, a particular style of architecture called Hemadpanti (after Hemadri or Hemadpant, a minister of Mahadeva and Ramchandra) came into vogue. 

The long wars destabilized the south when the Khiljis invaded Maharashtra and defeated the Yadavas, they found the whole south under their control. Ala-ud-din Khilji invaded the kingdom of Ramchandra and suddenly appeared before the gates of Devagiri in 1294 AD. Ramchandra was taken unawares and could not hold out long and had to pay a heavy ransom to the Muslim conqueror. 

However, he continued to rule till A.D. 1310 and his regime was succeeded by his son Shankaragana. On discontinuing the stipulated tribute to Delhi, he was then defeated and slained by Malik Kafur. This is how the Yadava dynasty to an end in A.D. 1318.

More from us 

Daily, Monthly, Yearly Current Affairs Digest, Daily Editorial Analysis, Free PDF&aposs & more, Join our Telegram Group Join Now

Watch the video: The Rashtrakuta Dynasty. That Time a South Indian Empire Conquered the Heart of North India