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Articles 1 - 30 and Annex
The Covenant of the League of Nations

THE COVENANT OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS.

THE HIGH CONTRACTING PARTIES, In order to promote international co- operation and to
achieve international peace and security by the acceptance of obligations not to resort to war by the
prescription of open, just and honourable relations between nations by the firm establishment of the
understandings of international law as the actual rule of conduct among Governments, and by the
maintenance of justice and a scrupulous respect for all treaty obligations in the dealings of organised
peoples with one another Agree to this Covenant of the League of Nations.

ARTICLE 1.

The original Members of the League of Nations shall be those of the Signatories which are named in the Annex to this Covenant and also such of those other States named in the Annex as shall accede without reservation to this Covenant. Such accession shall be effected by a Declaration deposited
with the Secretariat within two months of the coming into force of the Covenant Notice thereof shall
be sent to all other Members of the League. Any fully self- governing State, Dominion, or Colony
not named in the Annex may become a Member of the League if its admission is agreed to by two-
thirds of the Assembly provided that it shall give effective guarantees of its sincere intention to
observe its international obligations, and shall accept such regulations as may be prescribed by the
League in regard to its military, naval, and air forces and armaments. Any Member of the League
may, after two years' notice of its intention so to do, withdraw from the League, provided that all
its international obligations and all its obligations under this Covenant shall have been fulfilled at the
time of its withdrawal.

ARTICLE 2.

The action of the League under this Covenant shall be effected through the instrumentality of an
Assembly and of a Council, with a permanent Secretariat.

ARTICLE 3.

The Assembly shall consist of Representatives of the Members of the League. The Assembly shall
meet at stated intervals and from time to time as occasion may require at the Seat of the League or at
such other place as may be decided upon. The Assembly may deal at its meetings with any matter
within the sphere of action of the League or affecting the peace of the world. At meetings of the
Assembly each Member of the League shall have one vote, and may not have more than three
Representatives.

ARTICLE 4.

The Council shall consist of Representatives of the Principal Allied and Associated Powers,
together with Representatives of four other Members of the League. These four Members of the
League shall be selected by the Assembly from time to time in its discretion. Until the appointment
of the Representatives of the four Members of the League first selected by the Assembly,
Representatives of Belgium, Brazil, Spain, and Greece shall be members of the Council. With the
approval of the majority of the Assembly, the Council may name additional Members of the League
whose Representatives shall always be members of the Council; the Council with like approval may
increase the number of Members of the League to be selected by the Assembly for representation on
the Council. The Council shall meet from time to time as occasion may require, and at least once a
year, at the Seat of the League, or at such other place as may be decided upon. The Council may
deal at its meetings with any matter within the sphere of action of the League or affecting the peace
of the world. Any Member of the League not represented on the Council shall be invited to send a
Representative to sit as a member at any meeting of the Council during the consideration of matters
specially affecting the interests of that Member of the League. At meetings of the Council, each
Member of the League represented on the Council shall have one vote, and may have not more than
one Representative.

ARTICLE 5.

Except where otherwise expressly provided in this Covenant or by the terms of the present Treaty,
decisions at any meeting of the Assembly or of the Council shall require the agreement of all the
Members of the League represented at the meeting. All matters of procedure at meetings of the
Assembly or of the Council, including the appointment of Committees to investigate particular
matters, shall be regulated by the Assembly or by the Council and may be decided by a majority of
the Members of the League represented at the meeting. The first meeting of the Assembly and the
first meeting of the Council shall be summoned by the President of the United States of America.

ARTICLE 6.

The permanent Secretariat shall be established at the Seat of the League. The Secretariat shall
comprise a Secretary General and such secretaries and staff as may be required. The first Secretary
General shall be the person named in the Annex; thereafter the Secretary General shall be appointed
by the Council with the approval of the majority of the Assembly. The secretaries and staff of the
Secretariat shall be appointed by the Secretary General with the approval of the Council. The
Secretary General shall act in that capacity at all meetings of the Assembly and of the Council. The
expenses of the Secretariat shall be borne by the Members of the League in accordance with the
apportionment of the expenses of the International Bureau of the Universal Postal Union.

ARTICLE 7.

The Seat of the League is established at Geneva. The Council may at any time decide that the Seat of
the League shall be established elsewhere. All positions under or in connection with the League,
including he Secretariat, shall be open equally to men and women. Representatives of the Members
of the League and officials of he League when engaged on the business of the League shall enjoy
diplomatic privileges and immunities. The buildings and other property occupied by the League or
its officials or by Representatives attending its meetings shall be inviolable.

ARTICLE 8.

The Members of the League recognise that the maintenance of peace requires the reduction of
national armaments to the lowest point consistent with national safety and the enforcement by
common action of international obligations. The Council, taking account of the geographical
situation and circumstances of each State, shall formulate plans for such reduction for the
consideration and action of the several Governments. Such plans shall be subject to reconsideration
and revision at least every ten years. After these plans shall have been adopted by the several
Governments, the limits of armaments therein fixed shall not be exceeded without the concurrence
of the Council. The Members of the League agree that the manufacture by private enterprise of
munitions and implements of war is open to grave objections. The Council shall advise how the evil
effects attendant upon such manufacture can be prevented, due regard being had to the necessities of
those Members of the League which are not able to manufacture the munitions and implements of
war necessary for their safety. The Members of the League undertake to interchange full and frank
information as to the scale of their armaments, their military, naval, and air programmes and the
condition of such of their industries as are adaptable to war-like purposes.

ARTICLE 9.

A permanent Commission shall be constituted to advise the Council on the execution of the
provisions of Articles 1 and 8 and on military, naval, and air questions generally.

ARTICLE 10.

The Members of the League undertake to respect and preserve as against external aggression the
territorial integrity and existing political independence of all Members of the League. In case of any
such aggression or in case of any threat or danger of such aggression the Council shall advise upon
the means by which this obligation shall be fulfilled.

ARTICLE 11.

Any war or threat of war, whether immediately affecting any of the Members of the League or not,
is hereby declared a matter of concern to the whole League, and the League shall take any action that
may be deemed wise and effectual to safeguard the peace of nations. In case any such emergency
should arise the Secretary General shall on the request of any Member of the League forthwith
summon a meeting of the Council. It is also declared to be the friendly right of each Member of the
League to bring to the attention of the Assembly or of the Council any circumstance whatever
affecting international relations which threatens to disturb international peace or the good
understanding between nations upon which peace depends.

ARTICLE 12.

The Members of the League agree that if there should arise between them any dispute likely to lead
to a rupture, they will submit the matter either to arbitration or to inquiry by the Council, and they
agree in no case to resort to war until three months after the award by the arbitrators or the report by
the Council. In any case under this Article the award of the arbitrators shall be made within a
reasonable time, and the report of the Council shall be made within six months after the submission
of the dispute.

ARTICLE 13.

The Members of the League agree that whenever any dispute shall arise between them which they
recognise to be suitable for submission to arbitration and which cannot be satisfactorily settled by
diplomacy, they will submit the whole subject-matter to arbitration. Disputes as to the interpretation
of a treaty, as to any question of international law, as to the existence of any fact which if
established would constitute a breach of any international obligation, or as to the extent and nature
of the reparation to be made or any such breach, are declared to be among those which are generally
suitable for submission to arbitration. For the consideration of any such dispute the court of
arbitration to which the case is referred shall be the Court agreed on by the parties to the dispute or
stipulated in any convention existing between them. The Members of the League agree that they will
carry out in full good faith any award that may be rendered, and that they will not resort to war
against a Member of the League which complies therewith. In the event of any failure to carry out
such an award, the Council shall propose what steps should be taken to give effect thereto.

ARTICLE 14.

The Council shall formulate and submit to the Members of the League for adoption plans for the
establishment of a Permanent Court of International Justice. The Court shall be competent to hear
and determine any dispute of an international character which the parties thereto submit to it. The
Court may also give an advisory opinion upon any dispute or question referred to it by the Council
or by the Assembly.

ARTICLE 15.

If there should arise between Members of the League any dispute likely to lead to a rupture, which
is not submitted to arbitration in accordance with Article 13, the Members of the League agree that
they will submit the matter to the Council. Any party to the dispute may effect such submission by
giving notice of the existence of the dispute to the Secretary General, who will make all necessary
arrangements for a full investigation and consideration thereof. For this purpose the parties to the
dispute will communicate to the Secretary General, as promptly as possible, statements of their case
with all the relevant facts and papers, and the Council may forthwith direct the publication thereof.
The Council shall endeavour to effect a settlement of the dispute, and if such efforts are successful,
a statement shall be made public giving such facts and explanations regarding the dispute and the
terms of settlement thereof as the Council may deem appropriate. If the dispute is not thus settled,
the Council either unanimously or by a majority vote shall make and publish a report containing a
statement of the facts of the dispute and the recommendations which are deemed just and proper in
regard thereto Any Member of the League represented on the Council may make public a statement
of the facts of the dispute and of its conclusions regarding the same. If a report by the Council is
unanimously agreed to by the members thereof other than the Representatives of one or more of the
parties to the dispute, the Members of the League agree that they will not go to war with any party
to the dispute which complies with the recommendations of the report. If the Council fails to reach a
report which is unanimously agreed to by the members thereof, other than the Representatives of
one or more of the parties to the dispute, the Members of the League reserve to themselves the right
to take such action as they shall consider necessary for the maintenance of right and justice. If the
dispute between the parties is claimed by one of them, and is found by the Council, to arise out of a
matter which by international law is solely within the domestic jurisdiction of that party, the Council
shall so report, and shall make no recommendation as to its settlement. The Council may in any case
under this Article refer the dispute to the Assembly. The dispute shall be so referred at the request of
either party to the dispute, provided that such request be made within fourteen days after the
submission of the dispute to the Council. In any case referred to the Assembly, all the provisions of
this Article and of Article 12 relating to the action and powers of the Council shall apply to the
action and powers of the Assembly, provided that a report made by the Assembly, if concurred in
by the Representatives of those Members of the League represented on the Council and of a
majority of the other Members of the League, exclusive in each case of the Representatives of the
parties to the dispute shall have the same force as a report by the Council concurred in by all the
members thereof other than the Representatives of one or more of the parties to the dispute.

ARTICLE 16.

Should any Member of the League resort to war in disregard of its covenants under Articles 12, 13,
or 15, it shall ipso facto be deemed to have committed an act of war against all other Members of the
League, which hereby undertake immediately to subject it to the severance of all trade or financial
relations, the prohibition of all intercourse between their nations and the nationals of the
covenant-breaking State, and the prevention of all financial, commercial, or personal intercourse
between the nationals of the covenant-breaking State and the nationals of any other State, whether a
Member of the League or not. It shall be the duty of the Council in such case to recommend to the
several Governments concerned what effective military, naval, or air force the Members of the
League shall severally contribute to the armed forces to be used to protect the covenants of the
League. The Members of the League agree, further, that they will mutually support one another in
the financial and economic measures which are taken under this Article, in order to minimise the
loss and inconvenience resulting from the above measures, and that they will mutually support one
another in resisting any special measures aimed at one of their number by the covenant breaking
State, and that they will take the necessary steps to afford passage through their territory to the
forces of any of the Members of the League which are co-operating to protect the covenants of the
League. Any Member of the League which has violated any covenant of the League may be declared
to be no longer a Member of the League by a vote of the Council concurred in by the
Representatives of all the other Members of the League represented thereon.

ARTICLE 17.

In the event of a dispute between a Member of the League and a State which is not a Member of the
League, or between States not Members of the League, the State or States, not Members of the
League shall be invited to accept the obligations of membership in the League for the purposes of
such dispute, upon such conditions as the Council may deem just. If such invitation is accepted, the
provisions of Articles 12 to 16 inclusive shall be applied with such modifications as may be deemed
necessary by the Council. Upon such invitation being given the Council shall immediately institute
an inquiry into the circumstances of the dispute and recommend such action as may seem best and
most effectual in the circumstances. If a State so invited shall refuse to accept the obligations of
membership in the League for the purposes of such dispute, and shall resort to war against a
Member of the League, the provisions of Article 16 shall be applicable as against the State taking
such action. If both parties to the dispute when so invited refuse to accept the obligations of
membership in the League for the purpose of such dispute, the Council may take such measures and
make such recommendations as will prevent hostilities and will result in the settlement of the
dispute.

ARTICLE 18.

Every treaty or international engagement entered into hereafter by any Member of the League shall
be forthwith registered with the Secretariat and shall as soon as possible be published by it. No
such treaty or international engagement shall be binding until so registered.

ARTICLE 19.

The Assembly may from time to time advise the reconsideration by Members of the League of
treaties which have become inapplicable and the consideration of international conditions whose
continuance might endanger the peace of the world.

ARTICLE 20.

The Members of the League severally agree that this Covenant is accepted as abrogating all
obligations or understandings inter se which are inconsistent with the terms thereof, and solemnly
undertake that they will not hereafter enter into any engagements inconsistent with the terms thereof.
In case any Member of the League shall, before becoming a Member of the League, have
undertaken any obligations inconsistent with the terms of this Covenant, it shall be the duty of such
Member to take immediate steps to procure its release from such obligations.

ARTICLE 21.

Nothing in this Covenant shall be deemed to affect the validity of international engagements, such
as treaties of arbitration or regional understandings like the Monroe doctrine, for securing the
maintenance of peace.

ARTICLE 22.

To those colonies and territories which as a consequence of the late war have ceased to be under the sovereignty of the States which formerly governed them and which are inhabited by peoples not yet able to stand by themselves under the strenuous conditions of the modern world, there should be applied the principle that the well-being and development of such peoples form a sacred trust of civilisation and that securities for the performance of this trust should be embodied in this
Covenant. The best method of giving practical effect to this principle is that the tutelage of such
peoples should be entrusted to advanced nations who by reason of their resources, their experience
or their geographical position can best undertake this responsibility, and who are willing to accept
it, and that this tutelage should be exercised by them as Mandatories on behalf of the League. The
character of the mandate must differ according to the stage of the development of the people, the
geographical situation of the territory, its economic conditions, and other similar circumstances.
Certain communities formerly belonging to the Turkish Empire have reached a stage of development
where their existence as independent nations can be provisionally recognised subject to the
rendering of administrative advice and assistance by a Mandatory until such time as they are able to
stand alone. The wishes of these communities must be a principal consideration in the selection of
the Mandatory. Other peoples, especially those of Central Africa, are at such a stage that the
Mandatory must be responsible for the administration of the territory under conditions which will
guarantee freedom of conscience and religion, subject only to the maintenance of public order and
morals, the prohibition of abuses such as the slave trade, the arms traffic, and the liquor traffic, and
the prevention of the establishment of fortifications or military and naval bases and of military
training of the natives for other than police purposes and the defence of territory, and will also
secure equal opportunities for the trade and commerce of other Members of the League. There are
territories, such as South-West Africa and certain of the South Pacific Islands, which, owing to the
sparseness of their population, or their small size, or their remoteness from the centres of
civilisation, or their geographical contiguity to the territory of the Mandatory, and other
circumstances, can be best administered under the laws of the Mandatory as integral portions of its
territory, subject to the safeguards above mentioned in the interests of the indigenous population. In
every case of mandate, the Mandatory shall render to the Council an annual report in reference to the
territory committed to its charge. The degree of authority, control, or administration to be exercised
by the Mandatory shall, if not previously agreed upon by the Members of the League, be explicitly
defined in each case by the Council. A permanent Commission shall be constituted to receive and
examine the annual reports of the Mandatories and to advise the Council on all matters relating to the
observance of the mandates.

ARTICLE 23.

Subject to and in accordance with the provisions of international conventions existing or hereafter to
be agreed upon, the Members of the League: (a) will endeavour to secure and maintain fair and
humane conditions of labour for men, women, and children, both in their own countries and in all
countries to which their commercial and industrial relations extend, and for that purpose will
establish and maintain the necessary international organisations; (b) undertake to secure just
treatment of the native inhabitants of territories under their control; © will entrust the League with
the general supervision over the execution of agreements with regard to the traffic in women and
children, and the traffic in opium and other dangerous drugs; (d) will entrust the League with the
general supervision of the trade in arms and ammunition with the countries in which the control of
this traffic is necessary in the common interest; (e) will make provision to secure and maintain
freedom of communications and of transit and equitable treatment for the commerce of all Members
of the League. In this connection, the special necessities of the regions devastated during the war of
1914-1918 shall be borne in mind; (f) will endeavour to take steps in matters of international
concern for the prevention and control of disease.

ARTICLE 24.

There shall be placed under the direction of the League all international bureaux already established
by general treaties if the parties to such treaties consent. All such international bureaux and all
commissions for the regulation of matters of international interest hereafter constituted shall be
placed under the direction of the League. In all matters of international interest which are regulated
by general conventions but which are not placed under the control of international bureaux or
commissions, the Secretariat of the League shall, subject to the consent of the Council and if desired
by the parties, collect and distribute all relevant information and shall render any other assistance
which may be necessary or desirable. The Council may include as part of the expenses of the
Secretariat the expenses of any bureau or commission which is placed under the direction of the
League.

ARTICLE 25.

The Members of the League agree to encourage and promote the establishment and co-operation of
duly authorised voluntary national Red Cross organisations having as purposes the improvement of
health, the prevention of disease, and the mitigation of suffering throughout the world.

ARTICLE 26.

Amendments to this Covenant will take effect when ratified by the Members of the League whose
representatives compose the Council and by a majority of the Members of the League whose
Representatives compose the Assembly. No such amendment shall bind any Member of the League
which signifies its dissent therefrom, but in that case it shall cease to be a Member of the League.

ANNEX.

I. ORIGINAL MEMBERS OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS SIGNATORIES OF THE TREATY
OF PEACE.

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, BELGIUM, BOLIVIA, BRAZIL, BRITISH EMPIRE,
CANADA, AUSTRALIA, SOUTH AFRICA, NEW ZEALAND, INDIA, CHINA, CUBA,
ECUADOR, FRANCE, GREECE, GUATEMALA, HAITI, HEDJAZ, HONDURAS, ITALY,
JAPAN, LIBERIA, NICARAGUA, PANAMA, PERU, POLAND, PORTUGAL, ROUMANIA,
SERB-CROAT-SLOVENE STATE, SIAM, CZECHO-SLOVAKIA, URUGUAY

STATES INVITED TO ACCEDE TO THE COVENANT.

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC, CHILE, COLOMBIA, DENMARK, NETHERLANDS, NORWAY,
PARAGUAY, PERSIA, SALVADOR, SPAIN, SWEDEN, SWITZERLAND, VENEZUELA.

II. FIRST SECRETARY GENERAL OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS.

The Honourable Sir James Eric Drummond, K.C.M.G., C.B.

Articles 27-30 Boundaries of Germany PART II.

BOUNDARIES OF GERMANY.

ARTICLE 27.

The boundaries of Germany will be determined as follows:

1. With Belgium:

From the point common to the three frontiers of Belgium, Holland, and Germany and in a southerly
direction: the north-eastern boundary of the former territory of neutral Moresnet' then the eastern
boundary of the Kreis of Eupen, then the frontier between Belgium and the Kreis of Montjoie, then
the northeastern and eastern boundary of the Kreis of Malmedy to its junction with the frontier of
Luxemburg.

2. With Luxemburg:

The frontier of August 3, 1914, to its junction with the frontier of France of the 18th July, 1870.

3. With France:

The frontier of July 18, 1870, from Luxemburg to Switzerland with the reservations made in Article
48 of Section IV (Saar Basin) of Part III.

4. With Switzerland:

The present frontier.

5. With Austria.

The frontier of August 3, 1914, from Switzerland to CzechoSlovakia as hereinafter defined.

6. With Czecho-Slovakia:

The frontier of August 3, 1914, between Germany and Austria from its junction with the old
administrative boundary separating Bohemia and the province of Upper Austria to the point north of
the salient of the old province of Austrian Silesia situated at about 8 kilometres east of Neustadt.

7. With Poland:

From the point defined above to a point to be fixed on the ground about 2 kilometres east of
Lorzendorf: the fronticr as it will be fixed in accordance with Article 88 of the present Treaty; thence
in a northerly direction to the point where the administrative boundary of Posnania crosses the river
Bartsch: a line to be fixed on the ground leaving the following placcs in Poland: Skorischau,
Reichthal, Trembatschau, Kunzendorf, Schleise, Gross Koscl, Schreibersdorf, Rippin,
Furstlich-Niefken, Pawelau, Tscheschen, Konradau, Johallnisdorf, Modzenowe, Bogdaj, and in
Gerrmany: Lorzendorf, Kaulwitz, Glausche, Dalbersdorf, Reesewitz, Stradam, Gross Wartenberg,
Kraschen, Neu Mittelwalde, Domaslawitz, Wedelsdorf, Tscheschen Hammer; thence the
administrative boundary of Posnania northwestwards to the point where it cuts the Rawitsch-
Herrnstadt railway; thence to the point where the administrative boundary of Posnania cuts the
Reisen-Tschirnau road: a line to be fixed on the ground passing west of Triebusch and Gabel and
east of Saborwitz; thence the administrative boundary of Posnania to its junction with the eastern
administrative boundary of the Kreis of Fraustadt; thence in a north-westerly direction to a point to
be chosen on the road between the villages of Unruhstadt and Kopnitz: a line to be fixed on the
ground passing west of Geyersdorf, Brenno, Fehlen, Altkloster, Klebel, and east of Ulbersdorf,
Buchwald, Ilgen,Weine, Lupitze, Schwenten: thence in a northerly direction to the northernmost
point of Lake Chlop: a line to be fixed on the ground following the median line of the lakes; the
town and the station of Bentschen however (including the junction of the lines
Schwiebus-Bentschen and Zullichau-Bentschen) remaining in Polish territory; thence in a
north-easterly direction to the point of junction of the boundaries of the Kreise of Schwerin,
Birnbaum, and Meseritz: a line to be fixed on the ground passing east of Betsche; thence in a
northerly direction the boundary separating the Kreise of Schwerin and Birnbaum, then in an
easterly direction the northern boundary of Posnania to the point where it cuts the river Netze;
thence upstream to its confluence with the Kaddow: the course of the Netze; thence upstream to a
point to be chosen about 6 kilometres southeast of Schneidemuhl: the course of the Kuddow; thence
north-eastwards to the most southern point of the reentant of the northern boundary of Posnania
about 5 kilometres west of Stahren: a line to be fixed on the ground leaving the
SchneidemuhlKonitz railway in this area entirely in German territory; thence the boundary of
Posnania north-eastwards to the point of the salient it makes about 15 kilometres east of Flatow;
thence north-eastwards to the point where the river Kamionka meets the southern boundary of the
Kreis of Konitz about 3 kilometres north-east of Grunau: a line to be fixed on the ground leaving
the following places to Poland: Jasdrowo, Gr. Lutau, Kl. Lutau, Wittkau, and to Germany: Gr.
Butzig, Cziskowo, Battrow, Bock, Grunau; thence in a northerly direction the boundary between
the Kreise of Konitz and Schlochau to the point where this boundary cuts the river Brahe; thence to
a point on the boundary of Pomerania 15 kilometres east of Rummelsburg: a line to be fixed on the
ground leaving the following places in Poland: Konarzin, Kelpin, Adl. Briesen, and in Germany:
Sampohl, Neuguth, Steinfort, Gr. Peterkau; then the boundary of Pomerania in an easterly direction
to its junction with the boundary between the Kreise of Konitz and Schlochau; thence northwards
the boundary between Pomerania and West Prussia to the point on the river Rheda about 3
kilometres northwest of Gohra where that river is joined by a tributary from the north-west; thence
to a point to be selected in the bend of the Piasnitz river about 1 1/2 kilometres north-west of
Warschkau: a line to be fixed on the ground; thence this river downstream, then the median line of
Lake Zarnowitz, then the old boundary of West Prussia to the Baltic Sea. 8. With Denmark:

The frontier as it will be fixed in accordance with Articles 109 to III of Part III, Section XII
(Schleswig).

ARTICLE 28.

The boundaries of East Prussia, with the reservations made in Section IX (East Prussia) of Part III,
will be determined as follows: from a point on the coast of the Baltic Sea about 1 1/2 kilometres
north of Probbernau church in a direction of about 159° East from true North: a line to be fixed on
the ground for about 2 kilometres; thence in a straight line to the light at the bend of the Elbing
Channel in approximately latitude 54° 19 1/2' North, longitude 19° 26' East of Greenwich; thence to
the easternmost mouth of the Nogat River at a bearing of approximately 209° East from true North;
thence up the course of the Nogat River to the point where the latter leaves the Vistula
(Weichsel);thence up the principal channel of navigation of the Vistula, then the southern boundary
of the Kreis of Marienwerder, then that of the Kreis of Rosenberg eastwards to the point where it
meets the old boundary of East Prussia, thence the old boundary between East and West Prussia,
then the boundary between the Kreise of Osterode and Neidenburg, then the course of the river
Skottau downstream, then the course of the Neide upstream to a point situated about 5 kilometres
west of Bialutten being the nearest point to the old frontier of Russia; thence in an easterly direction
to a point immediately south of the intersection of the road Neidenburg-Mlava with the old frontier
of Russia: a line to be fixed on the ground passing north of Bialutten; thence the old frontier of
Russia to a point east of Schmalleningken, then the principal channel of navigation of the Niemen
(Memel) downstream, then the Skierwieth arm of the delta to the Kurisches Haff; thence a straight
line to the point where the eastern shore of the Kurische Nehrung meets the administrative boundary
about 4 kilometres south-west of Nidden; thence this administrative boundary to the western shore
of the Kurische Nehrung.

ARTICLE 29.

The boundaries as described above are drawn in red on a one-in-a- million map which is annexed to
the present Treaty (Map No. 1). [See Introduction.] In the case of any discrepancies between the
text of the Treaty and this map or any other map which may be annexed, the text will be final.

ARTICLE 30.

In the case of boundaries which are defined by a waterway, the terms "course" and "channel" used
in the present Treaty signify: in the case of non-navigable rivers, the median line of the waterway or
of its principal arm, and, in the case of navigable rivers, the median line of the principal channel of
navigation It will rest with the Boundary Commissions provided by the present Treaty to specify in
each case whether the frontier line shall follow any changes of the course or channel which may
take place or whether it shall be definitely fixed by the position of the course or channel at the time
when the present Treaty comes into force.


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Go to File > Info > Version History.

Select a version to open it.

If you want to restore a previous version you've opened, select Restore.

Note: If you sign in with a personal Microsoft account, you can retrieve the last 25 versions. If you sign in with a work or school account, the number of versions will depend on your library configuration.

SharePoint in Microsoft 365 versioning

If you work in a SharePoint in Microsoft 365 environment you have some powerful versioning tools at your fingertips. SharePoint in Microsoft 365 libraries offer version tracking, sharing, and recycle bin storage when you delete something. For more info on versioning in SharePoint in Microsoft 365, see:


How to turn on printed documents history on your Windows 10 computer

1. In the search bar at the bottom-left of your screen, type "Event Viewer." Click on the Event Viewer icon when it appears.

2. Click the arrow next to "Applications and Services Logs" in the left sidebar.

3. In the expanded menu, click to expand "Microsoft."

4. Click to expand "Windows."

5. The list that appears is ordered alphabetically. Scroll down to "P" and click "PrintService."

6. Right-click on "Operational" and select "Properties."

8. When finished, click "Apply," then click "OK" when the changes are finished applying.


Document history for Amazon EKS

The following table describes the major updates and new features for the Amazon EKS User Guide. We also update the documentation frequently to address the feedback that you send us.

A list of all Amazon EKS IAM managed policies and changes that have been made to them since June 17, 2021.

You can now use security groups for pods with Fargate, in addition to using them with Amazon EC2 nodes.

Amazon EKS can now help you manage the CoreDNS and kubeproxy Amazon EKS add-ons for your cluster.

Added Kubernetes version 1.20 support for new clusters and version upgrades.

You can now use the AWS Load Balancer Controller to create Elastic Load Balancers using instance or IP targets.

Amazon EKS now supports adding note taints to managed node groups.

Amazon EKS now supports adding envelope encryption to existing clusters.

Added Kubernetes version 1.19 support for new clusters and version upgrades.

OIDC identity providers can be used with, or as an alternative to AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM).

You can now view details about your managed, self-managed, and Fargate nodes and your deployed Kubernetes workloads in the AWS Management Console.

You can now deploy multiple Spot or On-Demand Instance types to a managed node group.

You can manage add-ons yourself, or let Amazon EKS control the launch and version of an add-on through the Amazon EKS API for clusters running Kubernetes version 1.18 with platform version eks.3 or later.

You can now share an AWS Application Load Balancer across multiple Kubernetes Ingresses. In the past, you had to deploy a separate Application Load Balancer for each Ingress.

You can now deploy a network load balancer (NLB) with IP targets. This enables you to use an NLB to load balance network traffic to Fargate pods and directly to pods running on Amazon EC2 nodes.

Added Kubernetes version 1.18 support for new clusters and version upgrades.

You can now specify a custom CIDR block that Kubernetes will assign service IP addresses from.

You can now associate different security groups to some of the individual pods running on many Amazon EC2 instance types.

You can now deploy nodes running Bottlerocket .

You can now launch Arm nodes in managed and self-managed node groups.

You can now deploy a managed node group using an Amazon EC2 launch template. The launch template can specify a custom AMI, if you choose.

You can now use Amazon EFS with AWS Fargate.

New platform version with security fixes and enhancements, including UDP support for services of type LoadBalancer when using NLB with Kubernetes 1.15 or later. For more information, see the Allow UDP for AWS NLB issue on GitHub.

Amazon EKS Region expansion

Amazon EKS is now available in the Africa (Cape Town) ( af-south-1 ) and Europe (Milan) ( eu-south-1 ) Regions.

AWS Fargate provides CloudWatch usage metrics which provide visibility into your accounts usage of Fargate On-Demand resources.

Added Kubernetes version 1.17 support for new clusters and version upgrades.

You can create and manage App Mesh resources from within Kubernetes. The controller also automatically injects the Envoy proxy and init containers into pods that you deploy.

You can add Amazon EC2 Inf1 nodes to your cluster.

Amazon EKS Region expansion

Amazon EKS is now available in the AWS GovCloud (US-East) ( us-gov-east-1 ) and AWS GovCloud (US-West) ( us-gov-west-1 ) Regions.

Kubernetes version 1.12 is no longer supported on Amazon EKS. Please update any 1.12 clusters to version 1.13 or higher in order to avoid service interruption.

Added Kubernetes version 1.16 support for new clusters and version upgrades.

Added the AWSServiceRoleForAmazonEKS service-linked role.

Added Kubernetes version 1.15 support for new clusters and version upgrades.

Amazon EKS Region expansion

Amazon EKS is now available in the Beijing ( cn-north-1 ) and Ningxia ( cn-northwest-1 ) Regions.

Added topic for installing the Amazon FSx for Lustre CSI Driver on Kubernetes 1.14 Amazon EKS clusters.

Amazon EKS now enables you to restrict the CIDR ranges that can communicate to the public access endpoint of the Kubernetes API server.

Amazon EKS now enables you to resolve the private access endpoint of the Kubernetes API server from outside of a VPC.

Amazon EKS now supports creating clusters on AWS Outposts.

Amazon EKS Kubernetes clusters now support running pods on Fargate.

Amazon EKS Region expansion

Amazon EKS is now available in the Canada (Central) ( ca-central-1 ) Region.

Amazon EKS managed node groups automate the provisioning and lifecycle management of nodes (Amazon EC2 instances) for Amazon EKS Kubernetes clusters.

New platform versions to address CVE-2019-11253 .

Kubernetes version 1.11 is no longer supported on Amazon EKS. Please update any 1.11 clusters to version 1.12 or higher in order to avoid service interruption.

Amazon EKS Region expansion

Amazon EKS is now available in the South America (São Paulo) ( sa-east-1 ) Region.

Amazon EKS clusters running Kubernetes version 1.14 now support Windows workloads.

Added a chapter to cover some of the different types of Kubernetes autoscaling that are supported on Amazon EKS clusters.

Updated topic for installing the Kubernetes Dashboard on Amazon EKS clusters to use the beta 2.0 version.

Added topic for installing the Amazon EFS CSI Driver on Kubernetes 1.14 Amazon EKS clusters.

Added topic for retrieving the Amazon EKS optimized AMI ID using an Amazon EC2 Systems Manager parameter. The parameter eliminates the need for you to look up AMI IDs.

Manage tagging of your Amazon EKS clusters.

Added topic for installing the Amazon EBS CSI driver on Kubernetes 1.14 Amazon EKS clusters.

Amazon EKS has updated the Amazon EKS optimized AMI to address CVE-2019-9512 and CVE-2019-9514 .

Amazon EKS discontinued support for Kubernetes version 1.11 on November 4, 2019.

Added Kubernetes version 1.14 support for new clusters and version upgrades.

With IAM roles for service accounts on Amazon EKS clusters, you can associate an IAM role with a Kubernetes service account. With this feature, you no longer need to provide extended permissions to the node IAM role so that pods on that node can call AWS APIs.

Amazon EKS Region expansion

Amazon EKS is now available in the Middle East (Bahrain) ( me-south-1 ) Region.

Amazon EKS Region expansion

Amazon EKS is now available in the Asia Pacific (Hong Kong) ( ap-east-1 ) Region.

Kubernetes version 1.10 is no longer supported on Amazon EKS. Please update any 1.10 clusters to version 1.11 or higher in order to avoid service interruption.

The AWS ALB Ingress Controller for Kubernetes is a controller that triggers the creation of an Application Load Balancer when ingress resources are created.

Removing unnecessary kubectl binary from AMIs.

Added Kubernetes version 1.13 support for new clusters and version upgrades.

Amazon EKS has updated the Amazon EKS optimized AMI to address the vulnerabilities described in AWS-2019-005 .

Amazon EKS stopped supporting Kubernetes version 1.10 on July 22, 2019.

New platform version for Kubernetes 1.11 and 1.10 clusters to support custom DNS names in the Kubelet certificate and improve etcd performance.

This getting started guide helps you to install all of the required resources to get started with Amazon EKS using eksctl , a simple command line utility for creating and managing Kubernetes clusters on Amazon EKS.

The aws eks get-token command was added to the AWS CLI so that you no longer need to install the AWS IAM Authenticator for Kubernetes to create client security tokens for cluster API server communication. Upgrade your AWS CLI installation to the latest version to take advantage of this new functionality. For more information, see Installing the AWS Command Line Interface in the AWS Command Line Interface User Guide.

New platform version for Kubernetes 1.12 clusters to support custom DNS names in the Kubelet certificate and improve etcd performance. This fixes a bug that caused node Kubelet daemons to request a new certificate every few seconds.

Added topic for deploying Prometheus to your Amazon EKS cluster.

Amazon EKS control plane logging makes it easy for you to secure and run your clusters by providing audit and diagnostic logs directly from the Amazon EKS control plane to CloudWatch Logs in your account.

Added Kubernetes version 1.12 support for new clusters and version upgrades.

Added documentation for getting started with App Mesh and Kubernetes.

Added documentation for disabling public access for your Amazon EKS cluster's Kubernetes API server endpoint.

The Kubernetes Metrics Server is an aggregator of resource usage data in your cluster.

These open source projects extend the functionality of Kubernetes clusters running on AWS, including clusters managed by Amazon EKS.

The helm package manager for Kubernetes helps you install and manage applications on your Kubernetes cluster. This topic helps you install and run the helm and tiller binaries locally so that you can install and manage charts using the helm CLI on your local system.

New platform version updating Amazon EKS Kubernetes 1.11 clusters to patch level 1.11.8 to address CVE-2019-1002100 .

Amazon EKS has increased the number of clusters that you can create in a Region from 3 to 50.

Amazon EKS Region expansion

Amazon EKS is now available in the Europe (London) ( eu-west-2 ), Europe (Paris) ( eu-west-3 ), and Asia Pacific (Mumbai) ( ap-south-1 ) Regions.

Amazon EKS has updated the Amazon EKS optimized AMI to address the vulnerability described in ALAS-2019-1156 .

Amazon EKS has updated the Amazon EKS optimized AMI to address the CVEs referenced in ALAS2-2019-1141 .

Amazon EKS Region expansion

Amazon EKS is now available in the Asia Pacific (Seoul) ( ap-northeast-2 ) Region.

Amazon EKS region expansion

Amazon EKS is now available in the following additional regions: Europe (Frankfurt) ( eu-central-1 ), Asia Pacific (Tokyo) ( ap-northeast-1 ), Asia Pacific (Singapore) ( ap-southeast-1 ), and Asia Pacific (Sydney) ( ap-southeast-2 ).

Amazon EKS Region expansion

Amazon EKS is now available in the Europe (Stockholm) ( eu-north-1 ) Region.

New platform version updating Kubernetes to patch level 1.10.11 to address CVE-2018-1002105 .

The Application Load Balancer ingress controller releases version 1.0.0 with formal support from AWS.

The Amazon VPC CNI plugin for Kubernetes version 1.2.1 now supports custom network configuration for secondary pod network interfaces.

Amazon EKS platform version 1.10-eks.2 now supports MutatingAdmissionWebhook and ValidatingAdmissionWebhook admission controllers.

Canonical has partnered with Amazon EKS to create node AMIs that you can use in your clusters.

Amazon EKS has added the update-kubeconfig to the AWS CLI to simplify the process of creating a kubeconfig file for accessing your cluster.

Amazon EKS has updated the Amazon EKS optimized AMIs (with and without GPU support) to provide various security fixes and AMI optimizations.

Amazon EKS Region expansion

Amazon EKS is now available in the Europe (Ireland) ( eu-west-1 ) region.

Amazon EKS has updated the Amazon EKS optimized AMI to use a new AWS CloudFormation node template and bootstrap script . In addition, a new Amazon EKS optimized AMI with GPU support is available.

Amazon EKS has updated the Amazon EKS optimized AMI to address the CVEs referenced in ALAS2-2018-1058 .

Amazon EKS has open-sourced the build scripts that are used to build the Amazon EKS optimized AMI. These build scripts are now available on GitHub.


Documents - History

Figure 15.70. Document History dialog

The History Dialog displays the list of the documents you have opened in previous sessions. It is more complete than the list you get with the “ Open Recent ” command.

4.3.1. Activating the Dialog

The “ History ” dialog is a dockable dialog see the section Section 2.3, “Dialogs and Docking” for help on manipulating it.

From an image menu: Windows → Dockable Dialogs → Document History .

From the Tab menu in any dockable dialog by clicking on and selecting Add Tab → Document History .

From the image Menu bar through: File → Open Recent → Document History .

4.3.2. Using the Document History dialog

The scroll bar allows you to browse all images you have opened before.

In the Tab menu for the “ Document History ” dialog, you can choose between View as Grid and View as List . In Grid mode, the documents are laid out in a rectangular array. In List mode, they are lined up vertically, with each row showing a thumbnail of the contents of the image, its name, and its pixel dimensions.

Ctrl + F opens a search field. See View as List View as Grid

Use the Open the selected entry button or Open Image command of the dialog's context menu, to open the image you have selected. With the Shift key pressed, it raises an image hidden behind others. With the Ctrl key pressed, it opens the Open Image dialog.

Use the Remove the selected entry button or Remove Entry command of the dialog's context menu, to remove an image from the History dialog. The image is removed from the recently open images list also. But the image itself is not deleted.

Use the Clear the entire file history button or Clear History command of the dialog's context menu, to remove all the files from the history.

Use the Recreate Preview button or Recreate Preview command of the dialog's context menu, to update preview in case of change. With Shift key pressed, it acts on all previews. With Ctrl key pressed, previews that correspond to files that can't be found out, are deleted.


How To Check Your Printed Documents History On Windows 10

There will be many instances when it is useful to know what has been printed from a certain computer. You can find out everything that you’re about to print and you will also know how to view what you’ve already printed — whether it was recent or a long time ago.

You can also check to see if anyone else has been printing from your computer without your permission.

How To Access Your Print Queue

Viewing your print queue allows you to see the document that you’re about to print. This comes in handy if you think you’ve accidentally sent the wrong file to your print queue.

If you did send the wrong file to your printing list, you will end up wasting time, ink, and paper. The solution? Check your print queue to be 100% certain.

  • First, press the Windows button and search for Printers & scanners. Once it shows up, launch this.

  • Then select the name of your printer. Click on it to open a menu just under it. Then choose Open queue.

  • Once you click Open queue, a window will pop up. There, you will see a list of what’s about to go through your printer. You will also get to view a recent print job.

The print queue provides you with all the information that you need regarding the documents that are and were on your queue. This includes the Document Name, Status, and Size.

How To View Your Recent Print History

Even though your printer’s queue lets you view print jobs, it’s limited to recent documents. If you want a complete log of all recently printed documents, you’re out of luck. You can’t count on your printer’s queue for this.

But luckily, there’s a workaround. Instead of going to your printer’s queue, you can turn to the Event Manager.

  • Type in eventvwr.msc. Then click OK. Doing this will confirm the action and run the task.

This grants access to the Event Viewer. This program allows you (and all the administrators and users of your computer) to access event logs on a remote machine.

While using Run is easy, there is an alternative. That is to launch Event Viewer directly from the start menu.

  • Once you expand Windows, you will reveal lots of items. Fortunately, this list is alphabetical and therefore makes the hunt easy. So scroll down to ‘P’ and find PrintService. Then select this option.

  • Choose Operational. Right-click on it and from the selection, go with Properties.

  • There, go to the General tab. Look for Enable logging. Beside it is a box for that allows relevant information to be recorded.

  • Once you’re done, click Apply. Then hit OK to save the changes and close the window.

From this point on, you will have a record of future print jobs. Anytime you want, you can view this record.

  • To see it in action, simply launch the PrintService folder. Right-click on it and select Open Saved Log.

  • Once you open this, you will see a list of logs from the moment you enabled logging. Or you can just launch Event Viewer and select Open Saved Log.

How To Check Your Printing History

Enabling your system to record future printing jobs is one useful function. But what if you want to look back on what you have already printed since the beginning of time?

If you’re on Windows 10, it’s not going to be a problem. Just follow these simple steps.

  • There, scroll down to the Related settings section. Next, you need to fire up Print server properties.

  • On this tab, you can check your spool folder. You should also check the boxes that say the following: Show informational notifications for local printers and Show informational notifications for network printers.
  • To save the changes, click Apply. Now, select OK.

Christopher Jan Benitez is a freelance writer for hire who provides actionable and useful web content to small businesses and startups. In his spare time, he religiously watches professional wrestling and finds solace in listening to '80s speed metal. Read Christopher's Full Bio


1 Correct Answer

Please sure you have kept "Attach audit report to completed documents" to "Always".

Thank you, Aadesh. I have selected "Always" in this section but the Document History is sent as a separate document and not included in the signed document. Is there another selection I need to make to have Document History be included as the last page(s) of the signed document?

When I select Account Settings, I only see Signature Preferences and External Archive. I don't see the rest of the list items here.

Please be informed this feature is only available in Adobe Sign Business & Enterprise accont. And I suppose you are logged into an Individual account.

Please click on the (?) Symbol at the top right corner of your account & open a support ticket or chat, our technical support team will help you to make the required changes throught the backend tool.

This used to work for professional adobe sign accounts. I remember having documents with the audit trail attached. When was this ability removed from the Adobe Acrobat Pro subscribers?

Ok, I did a little more digging. Thankfully the audit trail page at the end of the document IS available still to Adobe Acrobat Professional subscribers when they use Adobe Sign (send for Signature)!

After all parties sign a document using Adobe Sign, an email is sent to the appropriate parties containing the completed document as an online link AND as an attachment in the email . The audit trail page is only included in the document itself when viewing the file that is attached in the email . If the user attempts to view the file using the online link, then the audit trail page will not be available.

This is a screenshot of a document being previewed using the online web link. It will only show the audit trail in a separate scrollable window pane , or in the downloadable " audit report " but not in the actual document .

However, when the file is downloaded FROM THE EMAIL that is sent the audit trail will be at the end of the document (the last page).


1944&mdashServiceman&rsquos Readjustment Act

Millions of servicemen returning from World War II faced financial and employment challenges: there were too many men looking for work for the number of jobs available. FDR signed the Serviceman&rsquos Readjustment Act, more commonly known as the GI Bill, as a way to alleviate some of the problems.

The Serviceman&rsquos Readjustment Act is largely responsible for the economic boom of the 1950s. Veterans were able to attend college and enter the middle class at rates far faster than any generation before or since. Housing allowances caused a sharp increase in home ownership, and a rosy economic future led to the baby boom.


This collection includes more than 1,300 documents consisting of national estimates, intelligence memo, daily updates, and summaries of foreign media concerning developments on the Korean Peninsula during 1947 - 1954. The release of this collection, which coincides with the 60th anniversary of the start of the war, makes available to the public the largest collection of Agency documents released on this issue. The release of these documents is in conjunction with the conference, "New Documents and New Histories: Twenty-First Century Perspectives on the Korean War," co-hosted by the Harry S. Truman Presidential Library and the CIA in Independence, Missouri.

The Czechoslovak crisis began in January 1968. The Czech communist leadership embarked on a program of dramatic liberalization of the political, economic, and social orders. These reforms triggered increasing Soviet concerns culminating in the invasion of 21 August 1969. This collection of documents pertains to these issues, the responses and analysis of this event in history.


Watch the video: Όρος Υμηττός. Η ιστορία και η αρχαιολογία του τρελλού βουνού.