18 January 1943
Soviet troops push Germans off south shore of Lake Ladoga, opening a new supply line into the city.
Tiger tanks used in Tunisia
January 18, 1943 The Greatest Thing since Sliced Bread
The first automatic bread slicer was invented by Otto Frederick Rohwedder of Davenport, Iowa, in 1912. The idea was not at all popular among bakers, who feared that pre-sliced bread would go stale faster, leading to spoiled inventory and dissatisfied customers.
The project almost ended in a fire in 1917, when the prototype was destroyed along with the blueprints. Rohwedder soldiered on, by 1927 he had scraped up enough financing to rebuild his bread slicer.
Frank Bench, a personal friend of the inventor, was the first to install the machine. The first pre-sliced loaf was sold in July of the following year. Customers loved the convenience and Bench’s bread sales shot through the roof.
Sliced bread became a national hit when the Continental Baking Company, then owner of the “Wonder Bread” brand, began using a modified version of Rowhedder’s machine in 1930. Sliced bread was here to stay. Sort of.
The United States had been in WWII for two years in 1943, when Claude Wickard, head of the War Foods Administration as well as Secretary of Agriculture, had the hare brained idea of banning sliced bread.
Mr. Wickard was no stranger to hare brained ideas it is he who lends his name to the landmark Supreme Court case Wickard v. Filburne. Speaking of hare brained ideas. The Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938 limited the area that farmers could devote to wheat production, in an effort to stabilize the price of wheat on the national market. An Ohio farmer named Roscoe Filburne was producing more than his allotment. The federal government ordered him to destroy the surplus and pay a fine, even though his “surplus” was being consumed on the farm by the Filburne family and their chickens.
Article 1, Section 8 of the Constitution includes the “Commerce Clause”, permitting the Congress “To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes”. That’s it. The Federal District Court sided with the farmer, but the Federal government appealed to the US Supreme Court, arguing that, by withholding his surplus from the interstate wheat market, Filburne was effecting that market, and therefore fell under federal government jurisdiction under the commerce clause.
The United States Supreme Court, apparently afraid of President Roosevelt and his aggressive and illegal “court packing” scheme, ruled against the farmer. Ever since, what you don’t do can be argued in a court of law to affect interstate commerce, putting what you didn’t do under the jurisdiction of the federal government. Get it? Neither do I, but I digress.
Back to Mr. Wickard, who enacted his ban against sliced bread and put it into effect on January 18, 1943. The push-back, as you might guess, was immediate and vehement. One woman wrote to the New York Times: “I should like to let you know how important sliced bread is to the morale and saneness of a household. My husband and four children are all in a rush during and after breakfast. Without ready-sliced bread I must do the slicing for toast—two pieces for each one—that’s ten. For their lunches I must cut by hand at least twenty slices, for two sandwiches apiece. Afterward I make my own toast. Twenty-two slices of bread to be cut in a hurry!”
The stated reasons for the ban never did make sense. At various times, Wickard claimed that it was to conserve wax paper, wheat and steel, but one reason was goofier than the one before. According to the War Production Board, most bakeries had plenty of wax paper supplies on hand, even if they didn’t buy any. Furthermore, the federal government had a billion bushels of wheat stockpiled at the time, about two years’ supply, and the amount of steel saved by not making bread slicers has got to be marginal, at best.
The ban was rescinded on March 8, 1943, and pre-sliced bread was once again available to the federal government and its subjects. There’s no telling who first used the expression “the greatest thing since sliced bread”, but a reasonable guess may be made as to why.
White Rose History: January 1933 – October 1943
II A/So. [Special Commission] – Munich, March 18, 1943
Led forth from prison, Alexander Schmorell (personal data known) made the following statements:
When I am asked this day which backers [Note 1] induced Hans Scholl and me to commence our treasonous operation or financed our undertaking, I can give no additional leads. I know absolutely nothing about Ernst Reden, Georg von Schweinitz, a [Hitler Youth] district leader named Rieke, Günther Eten, or someone named Tusk. I have never even heard Hans Scholl speak their names.
He also never mentioned having formed a “League of the Few” in Ulm, or having belonged to such a league. Scholl only told me that back then he had belonged to a “bündische organization”. I was not informed regarding the goals of this “bündische organization”. I also have no knowledge of Scholl’s having received money or instructions regarding a treasonous leaflet operation from abroad. I am therefore convinced that Scholl acted as he did for the same reasons I have given for my actions, without any foreign influence.
I have never heard about Lieutenant Scheringer. (In question is former Lieutenant and current gentleman farmer named Richard Scheringer, born September 13, 1904 in Aachen, residing in Dürnhof, borough of Kösching, near Ingolstadt.) Scholl never told me anything about this man. Therefore I must state that this Scheringer has nothing to do with our leaflet operation. A family in Ulm named Heisch is completely unknown to me.
Question : Do you know a director of Trumpf Chocolate Factory in the Rhineland and what connection you and Hans Scholl maintained with him?
Answer : This director is my uncle in Aachen named Franz Monheim. He is the owner of Trumpf Chocolate Factory there. Monheim’s wife is a sister of my stepmother Elisabeth Hoffmann. I myself have never been to Aachen to visit this family. In contrast, the Monheim family visited us repeatedly in Munich.
I know this family only from their visits. They are certainly not Jewish.
If the Monheim family (residing at Nizzaallee 46, Aachen) received a copy of the “White Rose” leaflet in the summer of 1942, then I was the person who sent it. I told Hans Scholl about this.
The last time Mrs. Ella Monheim came to visit us in Munich was over Christmas 1942. While she was here, she told us that she had received a treasonous leaflet in the summer of 1942 and that she herself had handed it over to the State Police, because she was not at all in agreement with its contents. Under the circumstances it is therefore understandable that I strictly avoided telling her that I had anything to do with the publication and distribution of this leaflet. In this manner, the existence of this leaflet did not instigate any additional conversations at our house.
Additionally, I do not know and do not believe that Hans Scholl would have visited my relatives in Aachen. I myself had nothing to do with such a visit. It is incomprehensible to me how Scholl could have come up with the idea of jabbering about my relatives in Aachen. The additional statement that a maid or some other person passed the “White Rose” leaflet along to a coat-check girl so she could stick it in the pockets of theater-goers: I believe that is incorrect. I know nothing about that and expressly declare that back then, I sent only one copy of the “White Rose” leaflet to Aachen.
I know nothing about the book or rather about the writer named Gerhard Ritter in Freiburg. I have no knowledge of the fact that Hans Scholl wished to recruit this man for our cause or that he visited him in Freiburg. Back then, I traveled with Hans Scholl from Ulm to Stuttgart to look up Grimminger, whom I have already mentioned. We did not try to recruit any other persons for our cause.
I also do not believe that Hans Scholl went on any trips behind my back. My uncle Franz Monheim is a wealthy man. But he was not initiated into our plans and therefore it is out of the question that he could potentially be seen as a financier.
I am certain that I did not tell Hans Scholl anything about my uncle’s political leanings. I could not have done so, because I do not know what they are, because I have never had the opportunity to question my uncle along these lines. Therefore I know nothing [of the fact] that my relatives (Monheim) in Aachen exhibit [signs of] political opposition.
When these people visited us in Munich, we almost never talked about politics. At home, I personally have guarded against speaking about my derogatory opinion of the State or my activities. That is why my parents had no idea about my criminal actions. If the informant repeatedly mentioned the city Bonn/Rhine, he probably meant to say Aachen. It was a simple mix-up.
I cannot name any persons or agencies who funded or financed the criminal activities of Scholl and me.
World War II Today: January 18
British begin seizure and censorship of air mail passing through Bermuda.
The Battle of Kunlun Pass ended with the Chinese holding the pass.
The Greeks complete the Capture of Klisura Pass.
The British complete Operation Excess with all convoyed freighters reaching their destinations. However, the light cruiser HMS Southampton was bombed and sunk off Malta by the Luftwaffe.
Hitler issueds Directive No. 22, German Support for Battles in the Mediterranean Area.
The Red Army cuts the main supply route for the German 2nd and 10th Corps at Demyansk near Lake Ilmen, forcing the Luftwaffe to begin flying in supplies. Field Marshal von Bock takes over command of Army Group South from Field Marshal von Reichenau who died of a heart attack. The Soviet South West Front launches an offensive across the river Donets, to the South of Kharkov in an attempt to cut of all German forces north of the Sea of Azov. German troops of 11th Army recapture Feodosiya and seal off the Soviet bridgehead at Kerch in the Crimea.
As Japanese advance, RAF withdraws bombers from Singapore to Sumatra.
Field Marshal Fedor von Bock assumes command of German Army Group South.
Dutch begin to destroy oil facilities at Balikpapan, Borneo so they won’t fall into Japanese hands.
The Russians break through the German stranglehold on Leningrad to relieve the city from the East. In the Caucasus, the Russian advance continues. Cherkessk is captured by the Red Army, who are now less than 250 miles south east of Rostov.
First resistance by Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto.
The Germans counter attack in Tunisia. They gain ground against the Free French, but are repulsed by British forces.
Australian troops capture Cape Killerton and Wye Point in Papua, New Guinea.
German forces of Army Group Centre repel repeated Red Army attacks in the area of Vitebsk.
The Japanese cruiser Kuma is torpedoed and sunk off Penang, Malaya by the British submarine Tally-Ho.
U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt makes the annual State of the Union Address to Congress, proposing the Second Bill of Rights guaranteeing such things as housing, medical care and education.
The Soviet Union responds to the Polish declaration of January 5 with a statement through TASS. The Soviet government disputes Polish territorial claims and insists that the Soviet-Polish border had been determined through “the plebiscite carried out in 1939 on a broad democratic basis”. The statement also accuses the Polish government-in-exile of being “incapable of establishing friendly relations with the USSR, and shows itself incapable of organizing active resistance against German invaders inside Poland. Moreover, by its erroneous policy it has often plays into the hands of German invaders.”
The P-51 Mustang joins the P-38 Lightning and P-47 Thunderbolt in U.S. long-range escort missions over German.
German troops evacuate Kracow. A German offensive begins from Lake Balaton, with the aim of lifting the Red Army’s siege of Budapest.
British Empire casualties to November 1944 are announced as 282,162 killed, 80,580 missing, 386,374 wounded and 294,438 captured.
Nazis evacuate 66,000 inmates from Auschwitz back into Germany.
On Luzon in the Philippines, the US Sixth Army drives south from Lingayen Gulf toward Manila.
Hans Scholl probably did not tell the other participants that I knew about their activities. I assume this because Hans Scholl later told me expressly that in case I should ever be interrogated by the police, I should not deter from my statements that I knew nothing about the matter and that I knew nothing about it at all. I should not say anything under any circumstance. Continue reading &rarr
State Criminal Police – Munich, February 18, 1943
City Police Headquarters Munich
1. Preliminary Expert Opinion. Continue reading &rarr
18 January 1943 - History
History: WWII Inductions & Transfers (18 Jan 1943)
The following is a list of men who were accepted at the Induction Station at Milwaukee on January 18, 1943 and have been sent to Fort Sheridan, Ill.
Edwin Doege, Rt. 1, Thorp Edward E. Miller, Colby Arthur F. Seidel, Dorchester Harold R. Stowe, Rt. 1, Withee Ernest Schwellenbach, Rt. 3, Neillsville Andrew W. Page, Thorp Theodore, E. Kunce, Neillsville Walter W. Beyer, Neillsville Robert L. Siseho, Rt. 4, Neillsville Kenneth A. Olson, Neillsville Steve W. Rosandich, Rt. 3, Granton Wesley J. Schwarze, Greenwood Dwight D. Shelley, Rt. 1, Unity Carl I. Larson, Owen Henry C. Haas, Rt. 3, Thorp Stanley F. Djubenski, Rt. 1, Willard Clayton A. Boon, Rt. 1, Greenwood Gordon W. Campbell, Neillsville Laurin A. Mallory, Granton Earl P Fink, Loyal Erling E. Jensen, Rt. 2, Withee Ralph A. Jacobson, Thorp Frank F. Markowski, Rt. 2, Stanley Delmore E. Peterson, Rt. 1, Chili Louis J. Gruszynski, Thorp Eldon A. Zasoba, Withee Ervin Kollmansberger, Rt. 3, Greenwood Robert Englebretson, Rt. 1, Granton Max R. Harms, Owen Harry B. Wallis, Greenwood Roger E. Colby, Colby Arthur F. Murphy, Rt. 5, Greenwood Clarence Anderegg, Rt. 1, Greenwood George Sternitzky, Rt. 2, Granton Aaron F. Anderson, Withee Lester H. Honsen, Rt. 2, Withee Willard J. Willner, Spencer Rodney D. Fuller, Unity Wesley D. Stigen, Rt. 2, Neillsville Paul E. Rossow Jr., Withee Ervin Benzschawel, Rt. 3, Thorp Robert W. Greene, Rt. 1, Chili Joseph A Beaver, Loyal George Rizner, Rt. 1, Neillsville Howard A. Rannow, Colby Stanley F. Kowaledyk, Rt. 1, Withee William L. Kaczor, Thorp Lanson R. Durbin, Curtiss Harold L Francis, Neillsville Martin E. Peterson, Rt. 2, Owen Roy W. Wilde, Colby William Englebretsen, Rt. 1, Granton Robert A. Luchterhand, Rt. 2, Spencer Bertram D. Baker, Owen Charles L. Kauffman, Neillsville Edward W. Reinwand, Rt. 1, Chili Kristian P. Frost, Withee Micheal Peters, Rt. 1, Abbotsford Fred L. Hammond, Granton Dean G. Zeller, Thorp John D. Speich, Rt. 4, Greenwood Alvin C. Kubera, Thorp Floyd C. Sossaman, Colby Milton G. Kronschnabl, Dorchester Arnold J. Meissner, Rt. 5, Greenwood Glenn W. Marden, Neillsville Gordon J. Pueschner, Dorchester John A. Sheets, Rt. 2, Owen Willis R. Rasmussen, Rt. 1, Owen Eldon D. Fisher, Rt. 2, Spencer Warren O. Anding, Rt. 2, Granton Donald L Pickett, Dorchester Wesley A. Rittenhouse, Rt. 1, Withee Alphonse L. Weix, Colby Orville D. Schuette, Rt. 1, Unity Calvin E. Krause, Rt. 1, Curtiss Mathew H. Riehle, Dorchester Donald A. Cress, Rt. 3, Neillsville Robert L Free, Neillsville Richard V. Malin, Greenwood Thomas J. Sonnentag, Neillsville Leland H. Raab, Loyal Hans C. Peterson, Rt. 1, Withee Keith W. Bennett, Neillsville Robert L. Carl, Greenwood Jerry H. Firnstahl, Colby Wright VanderWegen, Thorp Robert W. Telford, Thorp Herbert Malchew, Dorchester Donald Weyhmiller, Loyal Leo F. Heintz, Rt. 2, Greenwood Myron J. Anderson, Withee Emil H. Rasmussen, Rt. 1, Withee Leland D. Garbisch, Granton John H. Kuester, Rt. 3, Neillsville Kayo A Maki, Rt. 1, Owen Lee E. Elstrom, Rt. 2, Colby Verlen H. Rossow, Rt. 4 Neillsville Harold W. Goetsch, Colby Norbert Bruchert, Withee Ralph L. Reinwand, Chili George J. Polnaszek, Thorp Gordon W. Frantz, Neillsville Raymond A. Ackerman, Greenwood Albert Badzinski, Rt. 1, Thorp Donald L Myhre, Stanley Douglas D. Sorenson, Owen Jerome J. Michlig, Rt. 1, Curtiss August Schwellenbach, Neillsville Eldred Gumz, Dorchester Milton Schoenfeld, Rt. 4, Neillsville Walter Johnson, Rt. 1, Owen Roger L. Warner, Thorp Leonard Doescher, Chili James E. Hauge, Neillsville John F. Christie, Neillsville Marvin L. Bjornstad, Owen Warren J. Phaneuf, Abbotsford Theodore Przybyiski, Thorp Myron W. Greaser, Abbotsford Elmer W. Miller, Rt. 1, Withee Edward D. Sherwood, Greenwood Harley A. Worchel, Rt. 3, Neillsville Thorvald H. Frost, Withee Bernard E.Johnson, Rt. 5, Greenwood Darrell F. Sossaman, Colby Robert C. Braatz, Rt. 3, Granton Percy H. Lake, Rt. 2, Colby Dewayne Schweinler, Neillsville Albert Degenhardt, Loyal Lawrence H. Schultz, Rt. 1, Spencer
Bertel T. Miller, Withee James H. Hansen, Rt. 2, Withee William C. Schmidt, Thorp
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In July 1942, Heinrich Himmler, the head of the Nazi paramilitary corps known as the Shutzstaffel (SS), ordered that Jews be “resettled” to extermination camps. The Jews were told they were being transported to work camps however, word soon reached the ghetto that deportation to the camps meant death.
Two months later, some 265,000 Jews had been deported from the Warsaw ghetto to the Treblinka extermination camp, while more than 20,000 others were sent to a forced-labor camp or killed during the deportation process.
An estimated 55,000 to 60,000 Jews remained in the Warsaw ghetto, and small groups of these survivors formed underground self-defense units such as the Jewish Combat Organization, or ZOB, which managed to smuggle in a limited supply of weapons from anti-Nazi Poles.
On January 18, 1943, when the Nazis entered the ghetto to prepare a group for transfer to a camp, a ZOB unit ambushed them. Fighting lasted for several days before the Germans withdrew. Afterward, the Nazis suspended deportations from the Warsaw ghetto for the next few months.
Did you know? On August 2, 1943, some 1,000 Jewish prisoners at Treblinka seized weapons from the camp&aposs armory and staged a revolt. Several hundred inmates escaped however, many were recaptured and executed.
How Warsaw Jews fought back: My hero cousin sacrificed himself to stop the NazisLink copied
Jews are rounded up to the Warsaw ghetto (Image: Getty)
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The troops rounded up a thousand Jewish inhabitants before marching them to the Umschlagplatz, the notorious station in the north of the ghetto from where they would be transported to the Treblinka death camp. No one was in any doubt this march would end with their deaths. Over seven weeks in the summer of 1942 no fewer than 265,000 Jews had been deported this way. Virtually every prisoner was murdered within a couple of hours of arriving at Treblinka. The 60,000 Jews remaining in the ghetto knew it was only a matter of time before the deportations resumed.
But something was different that Monday morning in Warsaw. As the group approached the station, members of the newly formed Jewish Fighting Organisation ambushed the Germans. A number of resistance fighters were killed but most of the deportees escaped.
The group's leader Mordechai Anielewicz was nearly captured before he was rescued by a young fighter known by his nom de guerre - Koza.
In an extraordinary act of courage, Koza rescued his leader, killing two Germans with homemade grenades and two more in subsequent fighting.
This action marked the start of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.
It is likely Koza was the first fighter to kill German troops in the 1943 resistance. But this early engagement was just a precursor to the full uprising, which is generally held to have been on April 19, 1943.
As an author of best-selling espionage novels set in the Second World War, I aim to remain detached from the factual settings of my books, but I recently discovered this dramatic story turned out to have a deeply moving personal connection.
Research revealed Koza's grandmother and my great-grandfather were brother and sister. He is my second cousin, once removed.
German soldiers search Jews' belongings (Image: Getty)
The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising did not alter the course of the Second World War and tends to be overshadowed by - and even confused with - the Warsaw Uprising a year later.
The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest of the 800 the Nazis established across Europe. By November 1940 half a million Jews were crammed into it. By the time deportations began in 1942, some 90,000 of the ghetto's inhabitants had already died: some from starvation, some from illness (typhus was rampant), others killed by the Nazis.
All told, 850,000 Jews perished in the Nazi ghettos, each one as much a victim of the Holocaust as the 3.5 million murdered in the camps or the 1.5 million killed by death squads.
The Jewish Fighting Organisation - the ZOB - never had more than 1,000 fighters and was poorly armed.
A few weapons were purchased from the Polish resistance, some stolen from the Germans, others made in workshops in the ghetto.
Koza's story would be typical of ZOB ghetto fighters: young, Left-wing, not religious, but determined to resist the Germans, even if that meant dying.
Yitzhak Suknik - Koza's real name - was born in Warsaw in 1920. He studied metal work before joining the Polish army for his national service. He excelled as a marksman and reached the rank of sergeant. The personal impact of the Nazi occupation was devastating for young Yitzhak: by late 1941 his parents and two brothers were dead.
Seven thousand Jews were shot in the ghetto (Image: Getty)
In May 1942, his 16-year-old cousin Chana died of typhus.
It is no surprise Koza joined the ZOB. His military experience meant he was one of a few fighters with experience of weapons and he helped train others. His metal work skills were also put to good use' in the clandestine workshops where the ZOB made their own grenades and small arms.
Remarkably, this ambush in January led to a three-month delay in deportations, allowing The Jewish Fighting Organisation - (along with the far smaller ZZW) to regroup.
The date for clearing the ghetto - chosen by Himmler, head of the SS - was April 19, the day before Hitler's birthday. But if it was meant to be a surprise for the Fuhrer, the outcome was a deep shock.
Some 2,000 SS and German troops moved into the ghetto before dawn along with tanks and artillery. The few hundred Jewish fighters put up such strong resistance that the Germans withdrew after sustaining casualties, including the loss of tanks.
The next day saw the same pattern. By the third day, the Germans were forced to change tactics. The strategy was now to burn the ghetto down, hoping to kill the fighters where they hid or force them out into the open.
In the event, an ever-diminishing band of fighters held against a fully equipped army. What had been envisaged as an apparently straightforward operation to clear the ghetto in a day or two lasted a month.
But what of Koza? The Jewish Fighting Organisation - was made up of different socialist groups and on May 1 an action was planned to mark May Day. Wearing stolen German uniforms, they ambushed a group of German soldiers. An eyewitness to the attack later wrote: "Koza sent a burst of fire at the Germans, felling three."
However, the Uprising was always doomed and, by now, most of the remaining fighters had been forced into bunkers deep under the ruins.
It was from one of these that Koza started out on his final journey.
We have an account of that journey thanks to a book published in 1990 by Hela Schupper, the one person in his group to survive. She and Koza were part of a party of 11 that set out from the command bunker of The Jewish Fighting Organisation - t18 Mila Street on the night of May 7.
Their instructions were to escape through the sewers and beyond the ghetto. It was a lengthy, hazardous journey, crawling among the ruins and through the complex sewer network, while trying to evade the Germans.
They eventually reached what they hoped was the exit into Bialinska Street, their destination. Instead, they emerged into Miodowa Street - and into the arms of a Polish police patrol.
According to Schupper, "a German who noticed the commotion, unusual for such an early hour, started shouting, 'Halt! Halt!' I heard gunshots. Koza, one of our best shooters, ran towards the German. As he was shooting the others dispersed. I ran as well."
Thanks to Koza she alone survived.
Koza had made the ultimate sacrifice to help save others. The few hundred fighters remaining in the ghetto held out until May 16, 1943. Incredibly, 40,000 people were still alive, the vast majority of whom were either killed or sent to their deaths.
Germans advance in USSR
One week after launching a massive invasion of the USSR, German divisions make staggering advances on Leningrad, Moscow and Kiev.
Despite his signing of the Nazi-Soviet Pact of 1939, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin knew that war with Nazi Germany–the USSR’s natural ideological enemy–was inevitable. In 1941, he received reports that German forces were massing along the USSR’s western border. He ordered a partial mobilization, unwisely believing that Nazi leader Adolf Hitler would never open another front until Britain was subdued. Stalin was thus surprised by the invasion that came on June 22, 1941. On that day, 150 German divisions poured across the Soviet Union’s 1,800-mile-long western frontier in one of the largest and most powerful military operations in history.
Aided by its far superior air force, the Luftwaffe, the Germans raced across the USSR in three great army groups, inflicting terrible casualties on the Red Army and Soviet civilians. On June 29, the cities of Riga and Ventspils in Latvia fell, 200 Soviet aircraft were shot down, and the encirclement of three Russian armies was nearly complete at Minsk in Belarus. Assisted by their Romanian and Finnish allies, the Germans conquered vast territory in the opening months of the invasion, and by mid-October the great Russian cities of Leningrad and Moscow were under siege.
However, like Napoleon Bonaparte in 1812, Hitler failed to take into account the Russian people’s historic determination in resisting invaders. Although millions of Soviet soldiers and citizens perished in 1941, and to the rest of the world it seemed certain that the USSR would fall, the defiant Red Army and bitter Russian populace were steadily crushing Hitler’s hopes for a quick victory. Stalin had far greater reserves of Red Army divisions than German intelligence had anticipated, and the Soviet government did not collapse from lack of popular support as expected. Confronted with the harsh reality of Nazi occupation, Soviets chose Stalin’s regime as the lesser of two evils and willingly sacrificed themselves in what became known as the “Great Patriotic War.”
The German offensive against Moscow stalled only 20 miles from the Kremlin, Leningrad’s spirit of resistance remained strong, and the Soviet armament industry–transported by train to the safety of the eastrried on, safe from the fighting. Finally, what the Russians call “General Winter” rallied again to their cause, crippling the Germans’ ability to maneuver and thinning the ranks of the divisions ordered to hold their positions until the next summer offensive. The winter of 1941 came early and was the worst in decades, and German troops without winter coats were decimated by the major Soviet counteroffensives that began in December.
In May 1942, the Germans, who had held their line at great cost, launched their summer offensive. They captured the Caucasus and pushed to the city of Stalingrad, where one of the greatest battles of World War II began. In November 1942, a massive Soviet counteroffensive was launched out of the rubble of Stalingrad, and at the end of January 1943 German Field Marshal Friedrich Paulus surrendered his encircled army. It was the turning point in the war, and the Soviets subsequently recaptured all the territory taken by the Germans in their 1942 offensive.
In July 1943, the Germans launched their last major attack, at Kursk after two months of fierce battle involving thousands of tanks it ended in failure. From thereon, the Red Army steadily pushed the Germans back in a series of Soviet offensives. In January 1944, Leningrad was relieved, and a giant offensive to sweep the USSR clean of its invaders began in May. In January 1945, the Red Army launched its final offensive, driving into Czechoslovakia and Austria and, in late April, Berlin. The German capital was captured on May 2, and five days later Germany surrendered in World War II.
More than 18 million Soviet soldiers and civilians lost their lives in the Great Patriotic War. Germany lost more than three million men as a result of its disastrous invasion of the USSR.
The Archer County Times (Archer City, Tex.), Vol. 18, No. 30, Ed. 1 Thursday, January 28, 1943
Weekly newspaper from Archer City, Texas that includes local, state and national news along with advertising.
eight pages : ill. page 23 x 15 in. Digitized from 35 mm. microfilm.
Creator: Unknown. January 28, 1943.
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