Third battle of Trichinopoly, or battle of Sugar Loaf Rock, 2 October 1753
The third battle of Trichinopoly or battle of Sugar Loaf Rock, 2 October 1753 was a major British success during the siege of Trichinopoly of 1753-54 that still failed to raise the siege.
The last two years of the Second Carnatic War were dominated by the fighting around Trichinopoly. The British and their ally and one claimant for the post of Nabob of the Carnatic Mohammad Ali held the town, which at one point was the only significant place still held by him. A first siege of Trichinopoly (1751-52) had failed, but the French had regrouped, and the city was blockaded from the start of 1753 until the end of the war.
During 1753 three major battles were fought outside the city. The first battle of Trichinopoly (or battle of the Golden Rock) of 7 July had seen the French fail to capture the Golden Rock, a key feature to the south of the town. In the aftermath of this defeat the French commander, M. Astruc, resigned and was replaced by M. Brennier. The second battle of Trichinopoly (18 August) saw Brennier fail to prevent a British army under Major Stringer Lawrence fight its way into the city.
In the aftermath of this battle the French retreated to the south bank of the Sauvery River, but on 6 August Astruc returned at the head of 400 Europeans, 2,000 Sepoys and 3,000 Maratha cavalry. He resumed command of the French forces, and moved them back into the gap between the Golden Rock and the Sugar Loaf Rock, from where they could prevent supplies from reaching the city. Lawrence moved his camp to Fakir's Tope, just to the north-west of the Golden Rock, and the two sides spent the next month facing each other across a two-mile gap. The Golden Rock was defended by 100 Europeans, 600 Sepoys and two companies of Indian infantry, with two guns.
The stalemate was ended after Lawrence received reinforcements of his own - 300 Sepoys and 237 Europeans, accompanied by Captain Caillaud arrived on 30 September. The British were still badly outnumbered. Astruc now had 600 Europeans, 3,000 Sepoys and between 20,000 and 30,000 troops from his Mysorean and Maratha allies (a mix of infantry and cavalry). Lawrence also had 600 European troops, but only 2,000 Sepoys and 3,000 cavalry from Tanjore.
Lawrence wasn't daunted by the numerical odds - recent experience had suggested that the European troops and Sepoys were the key to any battle, and there the two sides were roughly equal. He was also running short of supplies, and so decided to force a battle. On 1 October he offered battle, but Astruc refused to be drawn out of his camp.
Lawrence decided to attack on 2 October. The French camp was rather badly strung out. The French were camped on the western slopes of the Sugar Loaf Hill. The Maratha camp was to the east of the hill, while the Mysorean camp was spread out between the French and the Golden Hill. The French and Maratha camps were protected by field works, but they hadn't been completed around the Mysorean camp. Lawrence's plan was to attack the Golden Rock under cover of darkness, then advance through the Mysorean camp in an attempt to catch the French by surprise.
Lawrence split his 500 British troops into three divisions, each supported by two field guns. The grenadiers made up the first division. The Sepoys came next, deployed in two lines, with the Tanjore horse to the rear.
The plan worked well. The British managed to get within pistol shot range of the Golden Rock before they were challenged, and stormed the rock with ease. The French fled back into their camp without even firing their two pre-loaded field guns.
Lawrence then ordered his cavalry to swing around to face the field works guarding the French camp. The Briitsh troops were ordered into line, with the Sepoys positioned in echelon on each flank and the guns on the flank of each division. The infantry and artillery were then ordered to advance through the Mysore camp. The Sepoys were ordered to play loud music as they advanced.
This part of the plan was a partial success. The surprise attack and unexpected noise caused a panic in the Mysorean camp, and they scattered into the dark. However the British formation was somewhat broken up as it advanced through the dark camp, and the three British divisions were soon separated by significant gaps, with the grenadiers some way in front. In the French camp Astruc was roused by the noise and soon realised where the attack was coming from.
As dawn broke the main part of the battle was about to begin. The French infantry were deployed in line, facing west, with a division of 2,000 Sepoys on their left. The division intended for their right had mistakenly taken up a position on the Sugar Loaf Rock instead. The British were advancing with their three divisions somewhat out of position.
As the two rear-most British divisions struggled to catch up with the grenadiers, the British Sepoys on the right opened fire on their French opposites. The French Sepoys broke and fled after receiving a single volley, leaving the French infantry isolated. The French Sepoys on the Sugar Loaf Rock were also driven off by their British opposites, although not until the battle in the centre had been joined.
The British infantry managed to form into a single line just in time. In the exchange of close-range volleys that followed Captain Kilpatrick, leading the grenadiers, was badly wounded, and was replaced by Caillaud. He led an attack on the exposed left French, firing another volley before leading a bayonet charge. The French left was forced back onto its centre, disrupting that part of the line. Astruc was unable to restore order, and the French infantry began a costly retreat back towards Srirangam.
The French lost half of their European troops. Around 100 were killed or wounded, while 200 unwounded troops, amongst them Astruc, were taken prisoner. The British also captured their entire camp, and eleven guns. Despite the close-quarters fighting the British only lost 40 European troops killed and wounded.
The French still had one fortified position south of Trichinopoly, Waikonda, to the north-west of Fakir's Tope. Lawrence moved to attack it later on 2 October and it was unexpectedly stormed on 3 October.
Although Lawrence had won a major victory, it didn't end the siege of Trichinopoly. The French still held the island of Srirangam, and Dupleix was able to partially restore the situation. The city actually came closest to falling on 9 December, when a surprise attack actually captured part of the walls, but was eventually repulsed. The siege dragged on into 1754, and only ended after Dupleix was restored to France and a preliminary peace agreed between his replacement and Governor Saunders at Madras.
Tiruchirappalli [b] ( pronunciation ( help · info ) ) (formerly Trichinopoly in English), also called Tiruchi or Trichy, is a major tier II city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and the administrative headquarters of Tiruchirappalli district. The city is credited with being the best livable city  and the cleanest city of Tamil Nadu, as well as the fifth safest city for women in India.  It is the fourth largest city as well as the fourth largest urban agglomeration in the state. Located 322 kilometres (200 mi) south of Chennai and 374 kilometres (232 mi) north of Kanyakumari, Tiruchirappalli sits almost at the geographic centre of the state. The Cauvery Delta begins 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) west of the city where the Kaveri river splits into two, forming the island of Srirangam which is now incorporated into the Tiruchirappalli City Municipal Corporation. The city occupies an area of 167.23 square kilometres (64.57 sq mi) and had a population of 916,857 in 2011. [a]
Tiruchirappalli is one of the oldest inhabited cities in India. Its recorded history begins in the 3rd century BC, when it was under the rule of the Cholas. The city has also been ruled by the Pallavas, Pandyas, Vijayanagar Empire, Nayak Dynasty, the Carnatic state and the British. The most prominent historical monuments in Tiruchirappalli include the Rockfort, the Ranganathaswamy temple at Srirangam, the Erumbeeswarar Temple at Tiruverumbur and the Jambukeswarar temple at Thiruvanaikaval. The archaeologically important town of Uraiyur, capital of the Early Cholas, is now a neighbourhood in Tiruchirappalli. The city played a critical role in the Carnatic Wars (1746–1763) between the British and the French East India companies.
The city is an important educational centre in the state of Tamil Nadu, and houses nationally recognised institutions such as National Institutes of Technology (NIT), Indian Institutes of Management (IIM) Tamil Nadu National Law School Srirangam, and Indian Institutes of Information Technology (IIIT) Srirangam. Industrial units such as Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL), Golden Rock Railway Workshop, Ordnance Factory Tiruchirappalli (OFT) and High Energy Projectile Factory (HEPF) have their factories in the city. The presence of a large number of energy equipment manufacturing units in and around the city has earned it the title of "Energy Equipment and Fabrication Capital of India". Tiruchirappalli is internationally known for a brand of cheroot known as the Trichinopoly cigar, which was exported in large quantities to the United Kingdom during the 19th century.
A major road and railway hub in the state, the city is served by the Tiruchirappalli International Airport (TRZ) which operates flights to the Middle East and Southeast Asia.
The Making of Mount Rushmore
The mountain was originally known by the local Lakota Sioux Indians as ‘The Six Grandfathers’. Additionally, it was also referred to as Cougar Mountain, Sugarloaf Mountain, and Slaughterhouse Mountain. Charles Rushmore, a very successful attorney from New York and a member of Kane Lodge #454, F&AM, frequently traveled to South Dakota for business and to the Black Hills of SD to hunt big game. On one of these trips, he asked his guide, a man by the name of Ted Brockett, what the name of the mountain was. At the time it was being referred to as Slaughterhouse Mountain. In a jest, Charles commented that it should be named after him since he visited it so often. The locals started referring to the Mountain as ‘Rushmore Hill’. Little did he know his quip would become reality and in June of 1930, the U.S. Board of Geographic Names officially changed the name to Mount Rushmore.
The monument is nestled in the Black Hills of South Dakota, located 25 miles outside of Rapid City. The construction of the monument began on October 4, 1927. The monument was constructed using dynamite, jackhammers, and hand chisels, and a total of 450,000 tons of rock were removed from the mountainside. The four presidents’ heads are 60 feet in height, and the first two to be completed were Washington and Jefferson.
The project was not without its obstacles. Jefferson had to be redone because the granite where he was to be carved was too unstable. He was initially to be positioned on the right side of Washington. Additionally, Washington was designed to be craved from his head to his waist. However, they ran into problems with a lack of funding and Borglum was forced to make a design change.
It is documented that 400 men worked on the monument during the 14 years it took to complete the project and no lives were lost. The dedication ceremony took place on October 31, 1941.
Population and language
According to the census of 1901 the total population of the Indian Empire amounted to 294,361,056, of which 62,461,549 belong to the Native States, and 231,899,507 to strictly British territory. The whole of this population is divided racially as follows: (1) The Aryans, mostly in Northern India and the Deccan, about 221 millions or nearly three-fourths of the total (2) The Dravidian races of Southern India, about sixty millions (3) The Kolarian aborigines of the Central Provinces, from four to five millions (4) The Tibeto-Burmese, above eleven millions (5) Europeans, a fluctuating figure something over 170,000 (6) Parsees, about 94,000 (7) Jews, 18,000 smaller classifications being omitted. The prevailing languages are correspondingly the Aryan (Hindi, Bengali, Marathi, Punjabi, Gujerathi, Uriya, Sindi, etc.) the Dravidian (Telugu, Tamil, Malayalam, and Canarese) the Kolarian (Santali) and the Tibetan and Burmese. There are also very many minor languages confined to small districts or single tribes. The lingua franca of the country is Hindustani, or Urdu, a mixture of Hindi with Persian and Arabic words, and written in the Arabic or in the Devanagiri character its prevalence being due to the Mogul domination.
Meeting between Robinson and Borglum
Doane Robinson was able to convince John Borglum to meet with him in 1924, to share his vision with him. An agreement was reached following just two meetings. However, during their second meeting in 1925, Borglum insisted on moving the site to Mt. Rushmore because of the strong granite rock face, and because it faced southeast which meant it would receive maximum exposure to the sun. Borglum was quoted as saying, “America will march along that skyline.” Initially, Doane had wanted Lewis and Clark, Buffalo Bill, and Red Cloud to be Borglum’s subjects. But, the final decision came down to John Borglum who chose the four Presidents he felt had the most impact on American history for the first 130 years.
Dost Mohammad Khan (c. 1657&ndash1728) was the founder of the Bhopal State in central India.
The Durrani dynasty (د درانيانو کورنۍ) was founded in 1747 by Ahmad Shah Durrani at Kandahar, Afghanistan. He united the different Pashtun tribes and created the Durrani Empire with his Baloch allies, which at its peak included the modern-day Afghanistan, Pakistan, as well as some parts of northeastern Iran, eastern Turkmenistan, and northwestern India including the Kashmir region. The Durranis were replaced by the Barakzai dynasty during the early half of the 19th century. Ahmad Shah and his descendants were from the Sadozai line of the Durranis (formerly known as Abdalis), making them the second Pashtun rulers of Kandahar after the Hotak dynasty. The Durranis were very notable in the second half of the 18th century mainly due to the leadership of Ahmad Shah Durrani.
Healthcare in Tiruchirappalli is mainly provided by government-run and private hospitals. The CSI Mission General Hospital at Uraiyur is one of the oldest in the city.  The Divisional Railway Hospital at Golden Rock, which was established by the then South Indian Railway in 1927, caters exclusively to railway staff of the entire Tiruchirappalli Railway Division,   which spreads over 10 districts.   The Mahatma Gandhi Government Hospital—attached to the K.A.P.Viswanatham Government Medical College—and Srirangam Government Hospital offer low-cost facilities.   Major private hospitals that serve Tiruchirappalli include Kavery Medical Centre and Hospital (KMCH),  the 750-bed Chennai Medical College Hospital and Research Centre and Apollo Specialty Hospital.  
Vasan Healthcare, a rapidly growing healthcare chain, is based in Tiruchirappalli.  Tiruchirappalli has 29 nursing homes approved by the Department of Health and Family Welfare.  As of 2011, there are 133 hospitals in the city,  including 10 maternity homes and two urban family welfare centres maintained by the municipal corporation.  Tiruchirappalli is a hub for low-cost medical tourism in central Tamil Nadu.  The doctors of Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Government Hospital (MGMGH) conducted a risky surgery on Parasitic twins to remove their extra limbs on. 
The most commonly used modes of local transport in Tiruchirappalli are the state government-owned Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation (TNSTC) buses, and auto rickshaws.   Tiruchirappalli forms a part of the Kumbakonam division of the TNSTC.  The city has two major bus termini Chatram Bus Stand and Central Bus Stand, both of which operate intercity services and local transport to suburban areas. 
Tiruchirappalli sits at the confluence of two major National Highways—NH 45 and NH 67.  NH 45 is one of the most congested highways in south India and carries almost 10,000 lorries on the Tiruchirappalli–Chennai stretch every night.  Other National Highways originating in the city are NH 45B, NH 210 and NH 227.    State highways that start from the city include SH 25 and SH 62.  Tiruchirappalli has 715.85 km (444.81 mi) of road maintained by the municipal corporation.  A semi-ring road connecting all the National Highways is being constructed to ease traffic congestion in the city.  As of 2013, approximately 328,000 two-wheelers, 93,500 cars and 10,000 public transport vehicles operate with in the city limits,  apart from the 1,500 inter-city buses that pass through Tiruchirappalli daily.  Tiruchirappalli suffers from traffic congestion mainly because of its narrow roads and absence of an integrated bus station.  
Passenger trains also carry a significant number of passengers from nearby towns.  The Great Southern of India Railway Company was established in 1853 with its headquarters at England.  In 1859, the company constructed its first railway line connecting Tiruchirappalli and Nagapattinam.  The company merged with the Carnatic Railway Company in 1874 to form the South Indian Railway Company with Tiruchirappalli as its headquarters.   The city retained the position until 1908 when the company's headquarters was transferred to Madras.  Tiruchirappalli Junction is the second biggest railway station in Tamil Nadu and one of the busiest in India.  It constitutes a separate division of the Southern Railway.  Tiruchirappalli has rail connectivity with most important cities and towns in India.  Other railway stations in the city include Tiruchirappalli Fort, Tiruchirappalli Town, Srirangam, Palakkarai and Golden Rock.  
Tiruchirappalli is served by Tiruchirappalli International Airport (IATA: TRZ, ICAO: VOTR),  5 km (3.1 mi) from the city centre.   The airport handles fivefold more international air traffic than domestic services, making it the only airport in India with this huge variation. It serves as a gateway to immigrants from South-east Asian countries  There are regular flights to Abu Dhabi, Chennai,  Colombo,  Dubai, Kuala Lumpur,  Mumbai and Singapore.  The airport handled more than 1 million passengers and 2012 tonnes of cargo during the fiscal year 2013–14.