Shishunaga Dynasty

Shishunaga Dynasty

The Shishunaga Dynasty (also Sishunaga/Shaishunaga Dynasty) ruled the Magadha Kingdom in ancient India from c. It is said to be the third imperial dynasty of Magadha after the Brihadratha and the Haryanka, though the Brihadratha Dynasty is considered as mythical now. The first ruler of the dynasty was Shishunaga himself after whom it has been named, who came to power when the people revolted against the earlier Haryanka Dynasty in the 5th century BCE. The Shishunaga Dynasty had a very short reign before it was succeeded by the Nandas and then the Mauryas, but it too contributed to the solid foundation of the Magadhan Empire which was to dominate the Indian subcontinent for the upcoming centuries.

India Before the Shishunagas

After the Vedic civilization took its roots in the Indian subcontinent from around 1500 BCE, various political units rose in northern and northwestern India. This changed from the 6th century BCE onwards when some kingdoms rose to the east in the fertile Indo-Gangetic plains. During this time, the Indian subcontinent formed mainly into two political units – the Janapadas (which roughly means foothold of the common people) and the Mahajanapadas (the greater foothold of the people). There were 16 Mahajanapadas, and in the 6th century BCE, four out of them became very powerful – Kosala, Avanti, Vatsa, and finally Magadha. The ancient kingdom of Kosala falls roughly to some parts of the present-day Uttar Pradesh state in India. Avanti was Central India and now the states of Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh, and Vatsa was also another part of modern Uttar Pradesh state.

The most powerful of them was Magadha, which would go on to dominate the entire subcontinent during the time of the Mauryas. All the polities close to Magadha except Avanti were defeated in battle and gradually annexed by the warrior king of Ajatashatru (r. c. 493/492 BCE - c. 462/460 BCE) of the Haryanka Dynasty. He also defeated the powerful confederation of the Vrijjis to the immediate north with their capital at Vaishali after 16 years of ancient Indian warfare from c. 484 BCE to c. 468 BCE. By the time Shishunaga ascended to the throne, Magadha, roughly corresponding to the present-day provinces of Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, Odisha, West Bengal, and the countries of Bangladesh and Nepal, had a very effective system of administration and government, a powerful army and a flourishing trade network.

Shishunaga's Ascension

The common people deposed the last ruler of the Haryanka Dynasty & chose the most qualified official of the kingdom.

Not much is known about Shishunaga's life and childhood. The Buddhist accounts only say that he was a very efficient official of Magadha who surely would have impressed the citizens through hard work and honesty and hence rose to the pinnacle. The literature of those times gives a vivid background story of his rise to power. Before the Shishunagas, the erstwhile Haryanka Dynasty rulers were succeeded to the throne one by one through patricides from the time of the King Ajatashatru. This continuous internal family bloodshed angered the common people who deposed the last ruler of that dynasty, probably by the name of Nagadasaka, and chose the most qualified official of the kingdom.

Conquests

Shishunaga inherited the vast territory and the resources of Magadha. The region of Magadha, which is Bihar today is traditionally rich in mineral resources, iron ores to manufacture weapons, and jungles with its woods and elephants to help the army. Its fields too yielded enough crops to feed huge armies, and the Haryanka kings starting from the rule of Bimbisara, capitalized on this. Shishunaga further strengthened the Magadhan army during his time, and his greatest military achievement, which even surpassed his predecessors, was to successfully fight the Avanti Kingdom and vanquish them in the process. From Shishunaga's time, Avanti became a part of Magadha and the Pradyota Dynasty of Avanti ceased to exist.

Shishunaga was succeeded by his son Kalashoka, but not much is known about his military achievements. He must have basked in the glory of his father's conquests mostly. Kalashoka had ten sons who followed him but the records are very obscure. They were said to have divided the kingdom amongst themselves, instead of selecting one able brother to the throne. This considerably weakened the empire in the later years, and a quick downfall followed.

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Religion

Ever since the advent of the Vedas after 1500 BCE, ancient Indian society had been divided into four main castes of Brahmins, Kshatriya, Vaishyas, and Shudras and turned into a sphere of influence of the Brahmins. However, since the concentration of civilization was mainly focused on the northwest at that time, the east of India remained outside the ambit of the Vedic corpus. This was probably the reason why other philosophies and thoughts developed mainly in this part of India. It is quite important to note that during the time of the politically and militarily aggressive Haryanka Dynasty, both Buddhism and Jainism took its deep roots in the east of the Indian subcontinent.

Both these religions preached peace and asceticism and ironically both were massively supported by the Haryanka rulers. The Magadha Empire continued their support for Buddhism, Jainism, Ajivikaism, and other faiths under the Shishunagas. The Second Buddhist Council took place in Vaishali during their rule (the first probably being held under the aegis of the Haryanka). Future Magadhan emperors continued to support Buddhism and Jainism, much to the consternation of the Brahmins. Though the Magadhan rulers did not oppose Hinduism, it could not take deeper roots there at that time.

Kalashoka's Rule

Not much is known now about the rule of Kalashoka. He initially served as the viceroy of the important city of Varanasi (Kashi) during his father Shishunaga's rule. However, other than the Second Buddhist Council which took place under his rule c. 383 BCE, his reign will also be remembered for the important incident of the final transfer of the Magadhan capital to Pataliputra (modern Patna), a fortified town developed once by Ajatashatru and his son Udaya. It was a time of fast Magadhan expansion, and Kalashoka must have continued the existing system of administration and military, with traditionally the four units of cavalry, chariots, infantry, and elephants.

Decline

The facts are more obscure towards the end of the Shishunaga Dynasty rule than in the beginning. The last Shishunaga king as per the Puranas of Hinduism was Mahanandin. Mahanandin was probably a grandson of Kalashoka; he may have been a son of Nandivardhan, who was one of the sons of Kalashoka, but whether he was one of Kalashoka's sons or a grandson cannot be ascertained without further archaeological evidence.

Shishunaga rose through hard work & intelligence from the position of an officer in the empire.

Tradition says that Kalashoka was brutally murdered by having a knife thrust in his throat by a Shudra, a low caste man who usurped the throne and formed the Nanda Dynasty. If this had indeed been true, it would not have been possible for his sons and his grandson Mahanandin to rule. Some of the Puranas also say that it was actually Mahanandin who was brutally murdered by a Shudra lover of his wife (who was probably assisted by the woman too). That Shudra lover formed the dynasty of the Nandas and became its first ruler by the name of Mahapadma Nanda. This is more likely to be true with Mahanandin as the last Shishunaga ruler. The Buddhist text 'Mahabodhivamsa' also gives the names of the ten sons of Kalashoka; Nandivardhan's name is also mentioned, who was probably Mahanandin's father.

Tradition also says that Mahapadma Nanda, also mentioned as Ugrasena Nanda, was an illegitimate son of the last Shishunaga ruler Mahanandin. Whatever the truth, it is now quite certain that around 345 BCE, the Shishunaga line came to an end. The Nanda Dynasty started with Mahapadma Nanda's rule and was later succeeded by the Mauryas who took the Magadhan Empire to its pinnacle.

Though the Shishunaga Dynasty was a short one and not much is known about them beyond Shishunaga himself, who rose through hard work and intelligence from the position of an officer in the empire, they helped in the process of making Magadha the most powerful kingdom in the Indian subcontinent which saw its greatest extent under Ashoka Maurya. Under the Shishunagas, as under other Magadhan dynasties, various philosophies and religions also flourished, especially Buddhism and Jainism. The rulers were also culturally inclined and supported various vocations. However, the dynasties also saw bloodshed, intrigues, politics, and treacheries. It was a time of change and upheavals, and the various rulers also gave an impetus to their following rulers to expand.


ശിശുനാഗ രാജവംശം

മഗധ വാണിരുന്ന മൂന്നാമത്തെ രാജവംശം ആണ് ശിശുനാഗവംശം എന്ന് വിശ്വസിക്കപ്പെടുന്നു. ശിശുനാഗൻ (ശിശുനാകൻ എന്നും അറിയപ്പെടുന്നു) ആണ് 10 രാജാക്കന്മാർ അടങ്ങിയ ഈ രാജവംശം സ്ഥാപിച്ചത്. മഗധ വാണിരുന്ന ഹരിയങ്ഗ വംശത്തിലെ നാഗദാസക രാജാവിന്റെ ഒരു മന്ത്രിയായിരുന്നു ശിശുനാഗൻ. ക്രി.മു. 413-ൽ ജനഹിതമുള്ള ഒരു എതിറ്പ്പിലൂടെ അദ്ദേഹം മഗധ കിരീടം കീഴടക്കി. രാജഗൃഹം ആയിരുന്നു ആദ്യകാല തലസ്ഥാനം. പിന്നീട് പാടലീപുത്രം തലസ്ഥാനമായി. ഇന്നത്തെ പറ്റ്ന നഗരമാണ് പാടലീപുത്രം. ഇന്ത്യൻ ഉപഭൂഖണ്ഡത്തിലെ ഏറ്റവും വലിയ സാമ്രാജ്യങ്ങളിൽ ഒന്നായിരുന്നു മഗധ സാമ്രാജ്യം.

ബുദ്ധമത ഗ്രന്ഥങ്ങളിൽ പിൽക്കാലത്തെ ശിശുനാഗ രാജാക്കന്മാരെക്കുറിച്ചുള്ള വിവരങ്ങൾ കാണാം. പുരാണങ്ങളനുസരിച്ച് ശിശുനാഗന് ശേഷം പുത്രൻ കാകവർണ്ണൻ രാജാവായി. സിംഹള ഗ്രന്ഥങ്ങളനുസരിച്ച് ശിശുനാഗന്റെ പുത്രൻ കാലശോകനാണ് അടുത്ത രാജാവ്. രണ്ടുപേരും ഒന്നുതന്നെയാണെന്നാണ് ചരിത്രകാരന്മാർ കരുതുന്നത്. അദ്ദേഹത്തിന്റെ പത്ത് പുത്രന്മാർ അദ്ദേഹത്തിന് ശേഷം ഒരേ സമയം വാണിരുന്നു എന്നു കരുതപ്പെടുന്നു. മഹാബോധി വംശം പത്തു പേരുടേയും പേരുകൾ പറയുന്നുണ്ട് - ഭദ്രസേനൻ, കൊരണ്ടവർണ്ണൻ, മാങ്ങൂര, സർവജ്ഞഹ, ജലിക, ഉഭക, സഞ്ജയ, കോരവ്യ, നന്ദിവർദ്ധനൻ, പഞ്ചമകൻ. പൗരാണിക ഗ്രന്ഥങളിൽ നന്ദിവർദ്ധനനെക്കുറിച്ചു മാത്രമാണ് പ്രതിപാദിക്കുന്നത്. നന്ദിവർദ്ധനനായിരുന്നു ഈ വംശ്ത്തിന്റെ അവസാനത്തെ രാജാവെന്ന് കരുതുന്നു.

നന്ദ രാജവംശം തുടങ്ങിയ മഹാപദ്മ നന്ദനാണ് ഈ രാജവംശത്തിന്റെ പിന്തുടർച്ചക്കാർ.

ഇന്ത്യൻ ചരിത്രത്തെ കുറിച്ചുള്ള ഈ ലേഖനം അപൂർണ്ണമാണ്‌. ഇതു വികസിപ്പിക്കുവാൻ സഹായിക്കുക.


Shaishunaga dynasty

The Shaishunaga dynasty (IAST: Śaiśunāga, literally "of Shishunaga") is believed to have been the third ruling dynasty of Magadha, an empire of ancient India. According to the Hindu Puranas, this dynasty was the second ruling dynasty of Magadha, succeeding Nagadashaka of the Haryanka dynasty.

Shishunaga, the founder of the dynasty, was initially an amatya or "minister" of the last Haryanka dynasty ruler Nāgadāsaka and ascended to the throne after a popular rebellion in c. 421 BCE. [3] The capital of this dynasty initially was Rajgir but later shifted to Pataliputra, near the present day Patna, during the reign of Kakavarna. According to tradition, Kakavarna was succeeded by his ten sons. [4] This dynasty was succeeded by the Nanda Empire in c. 345 BCE. [5]


According to the Puranas, Shishunaga was succeeded by his son Kakavarna and according to the Sinhala chronicles by his son Kalashoka. On the basis of the evidence of the Ashokavadana, Hermann Jacobi, Wilhelm Geiger and Ramakrishna Gopal Bhandarkar concluded that both are same. During Shishunaga's reign, he was the governor of Varanasi. Two most significant events of his reign are the Second Buddhist council at Vaishaliin 383BC and the final transfer of capital to Pataliputra. [7] According to the Harshacharita, he was killed by a dagger thrust in to his throat in the vicinity of his capital. [8]

According to tradition, ten sons of Kalashoka ruled simultaneously. The Mahabodhivamsa states their names as Bhadrasena, Korandavarna, Mangura, Sarvanjaha, Jalika, Ubhaka, Sanjaya, Koravya, Nandivardhana and Panchamaka. Only one of them mentioned in the Puranic lists, Nandivardhana. [4] Nandivardhana or Mahanandin was probably the last ruler of this dynasty, his empire was inherited by his illegitimate son Mahapadma Nanda.


Shishunaga Dynasty

Shishunaga dynasty was the successor of the Haryanka dynasty. The founder of the dynasty was Shishunaga (founded it around 413 BCE), who was previously the minister at the last ruler Nāgadāsaka of Haryanka dynasty. He temporarily moved the capital to Vaishali. His greatest achievement was the destruction of the power of Avanti with its capital at Ujjain. This put to an end the 100-years old rivalry between Magadha and Avanti. From now onwards Avanti became the part of the Magadha until the end of Mauryan rule.



Shishunaga was succeeded by his son Kalashoka, whose region is considered important for two reasons.

  • He held second Buddhist Council at Vaishali around 383 BCE.
  • Final transfer of the capital to Pataliputra.

According to the Harshacharita (The biography of Indian emperor Harsha by Banabhatta) he was killed by a dagger thrust into his throat near the capital. Buddhist text states that He had 10 sons, who ruled simultaneously. Purana states only one name from them Nandivardhana was probably the last ruler of his dynasty. Magadha empire then succeed by his illegitimate son Mahapadma Nanda, who founded the Nanda dynasty.


शिशुनाग वंश के बारे में | Shishunaga Dynasty History In Hindi

Shishunaga Dynasty History In Hindi शिशुनाग वंश विकिपीडिया के इस लेख में हम Shishunaga Dynasty History में वंश की स्थापना, राजधानी, वंश के शासकों तथा अंतिम शासक सहित महत्वपूर्ण जानकारी व इतिहास के बारे में संक्षिप्त में जानेगे. मगध पर नंदवंश के शासक के पूर्व बिहार से लेकर बंगाल तक शिशुनाग का राज्य था, जिन्होंने ४१२ई॰ में एक नयें राजवंश की स्थापना की जिन्हें शिशुनाग वंश के नाम से जाना गया था.


The Shishunaga Dynasty ruled Magadha from 412 BC to 344 BC. The two most popular rulers of Shishunaga dynasty are Shishunaga and Kalasoka.

Shishunaga

Shishunaga was the viceroy of Kashi before becoming the king of Magadha. His greatest achievement was that he destroyed the power of Avanti and brought an end to the 100 year rivalry between Avanti and Magadha. Avanti was annexed and it remained part of Magadha through out the magadhan rule. Shisunaga shifted the capital of Magadha to Vaishali.

Kalasoka

Sishunaga was succeeded by his son Kalasoka. During Kalasoka’s rule the capital of Magadha was shifted back to Pataliputra. Kalasoka was the last Shishunaga ruler. He was succeeded by Mahapadma Nanda.


शिशुनाग वंश के बारे में | Shishunaga Dynasty History In Hindi

Shishunaga Dynasty History In Hindi शिशुनाग वंश विकिपीडिया के इस लेख में हम Shishunaga Dynasty History में वंश की स्थापना, राजधानी, वंश के शासकों तथा अंतिम शासक सहित महत्वपूर्ण जानकारी व इतिहास के बारे में संक्षिप्त में जानेगे. मगध पर नंदवंश के शासक के पूर्व बिहार से लेकर बंगाल तक शिशुनाग का राज्य था, जिन्होंने ४१२ई॰ में एक नयें राजवंश की स्थापना की जिन्हें शिशुनाग वंश के नाम से जाना गया था.


Tuesday, 3 February 2015

Shishunaga dynasty

The Shishunaga dynasty is believed to have been the third ruling dynasty of the Magadha, the kingdom in the ancient India. But according to the Puranas, this Shishunaga dynasty is the second ruling dynasty of the Magadha, which succeeded the Barhadratha dynasty.

Shishunaga, the founder of this dynasty was the initially an amatya (minister) of the last Haryanka dynasty ruler Nagadasaka and the ascended to the throne after the popular rebellion in the c. 413 BCE. The capital of this dynasty initially was the Rajagriha but later it shifted to the Pataliputra near the present day Patna during the reign of the Kakavarna. According to its tradition, Kakavarna was succeeded by his 10 sons. This dynasty was succeeded by the Nanda Dynasty in the c.245 BCE.

Later rulers:
According to the tradition,the ten sons of the Kalashoka ruled in dynasty simultaneously. The Mahabodhivamsa states their names as the Bhadrasena, Korandavarna, Mangura, Sarvanjaha, Jalika, Ubhaka, Sanjaya, Koravya, Nandivardhana and Panchamaka. Only one of them mentioned in the Puranic lists, Nandivardhana. Nandivardhana or the Mahanandin was probably the last ruler of this dynasty his empire was the inherited by his illegitimate son Mahapadma Nanda

Shishunaga Dynasty rulers:

Shishunaga:

Shishunaga or the Shusunaga from c. 413-395 BCE was the founder of the Shishunaga dynasty of the Magadha Empire in the present day northern India. Initially, he was the official or an amatya of the Magadha under the Haryanka dynasty. The Puranas tells that he placed his son at the Varanasi and himself from the Girivraja (Rajagriha). He was succeeded by his son at the Kakavarna Kalashoka.

According to the Mahavamsatika, Shishunaga was son of a Licchavi Raja of Vaishali. He was conceived by the nagara-shobhini and brought up an officer of state. At the time of the revolt, he was the viceroy at Varanasi of king Nagadasaka, the last ruler of the Haryanka dynasty.

Kakavarna Kalashoka

According to the Puranas, Shishunaga was succeeded by his son Kakavarna and according to the Sinhalachronicles by his son Kalashoka. On the basis of the evidence of the Ashokavadana, Hermann Jacobi, Wilhelm Geiger and Ramakrishna Gopal Bhandarkar concluded that both are same. During Shishunaga's reign, he was the governor of Varanasi. Two most significant events of his reign are the Second Buddhist council at Vaishaliin383BC and the final transfer of capital to Pataliputra. According to the Harshacharita, he was killed by a dagger thrust in to his throat in the vicinity of his capital.


Fratricide in India – Ashoka, the Great Killed His Brothers to Claim the Magadh Throne

Samrat Bindusara’s third son Ashoka was neither a crown prince nor an apparent heir to the throne. Being a son from a Brahmin mother, he had no chances of sitting on the throne. However, right or wrong, he too killed his brothers to claim the Magadh throne soon after the death of his father Bindusara.

Yes, not just Muslim rulers, even Hindu Kings imprisoned father & killed brothers for the throne in Indian history!


Watch the video: Shishunaga Dynasty: Shishunaga, Kalashoka. In Hindi शशनग, कलशक