Cycladic Kernos

Cycladic Kernos


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Ancient Greece - Part II

I recently blogged about our history curriculum, and studying Ancient Greece. I promised to post pictures after we visit the Ancient Greece section at The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City (aka - The Met). We wandered around about half of the Ancient Greece section, but we only focused on the first two galleries - the earliest periods. We will make followup exhibits for later periods in Ancient Greek art and history. I also want to mention that the links I posted are the ones we are using in our homeschool. There are zillions of other websites, articles, links, and more out there. pick and choose what works best for your family or interests.

Although we visited The Met, and will eventually read The Met's guides to their Ancient Greek collections, for this particular visit, I just wanted to introduce JP to what we would be seeing, the stories and history behind the objects, what Ancient Greek life might have been like, and so on. The Met has two fantastic guides that you should check out (here and here), and could easily adapt for use at home and with The Met's website. But, for this visit, we started with a guide from The British Museum. We started with reading the background information in the Everyday Life guide, and will revisit other guides, and sections of the British Museum website at another time in our studies. (The British Museum has loads of other great resources as well. )

This is the little bull that JP has chosen to study this week. It is terracotta, from the Helladic (Mycenaean), Late Helladic IIIA period, ca. 1400-1300 B.C.. It is about the same height and length as a regular credit card. While this guy isn't available to look at on The Met's website, a similar bull sold at Christie's (the auction house) for $6,875!
Tiny little bronze double axes (only a few inches in size). Minoan or later, said to be from Arkalochori at The Met Ancient Greece exhibit. While The Met has not included a picture of these on their website, they do have a bit more information HERE.

Terracotta vase in the form of a bull's head Minoan, Late Minoan II period, ca. 1450-1400 B.C. Nothing additional on The Met's website, unfortunately.

From the information card: "Although the kernos was used in widely disparate regions during the prehistoric period, particularly impressive examples have come to light in the Cyclades, and this is one of the grandest preserved. The receptacles probably contained foodstuffs of various kinds or perhaps flowers.

From the information card: "The tripod stands on feline-paw feet. Atop the central rod of each leg is a palmette, and above this, on the upper ring, a couchant sphinx. Large horse protomes, each including the forelegs as well as the head, decorate the upper rim above each of the inverted U . -shaped intermediate rods. Below each horse protome is a lotos blossom. The stand would have supported a bronze vessel.


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One of the rare examples of unfinished figurines that have survived from the Early Cycladic period. The various parts of the body (head, torso, legs) have been only crudely carved, showing no details at all. For unknown reasons, no further carving was done and the surface did not undergo the final process of smoothing and polishing. Unfinished figurines, though rare, are nevertheless extremely useful to archaeological research surface analysis of the stone can yield a wealth of information, helping to determine the types and material of tools used to work the stone and the techniques employed in carving, smoothing and polishing a Cycladic figurine.

Unfinished schematic figurine, with rectangular torso, angular projections for the arms, and a large triangular projection for the neck and the head. The surface has not been smoothed and polished and retains a rough texture, the result of both the initial process of abrasion with emery powder and erosion.

This leg, which once belonged to a Cycladic figurine of the canonical type (Spedos variety), belongs to the so called "Keros Hoard". The "Keros Hoard" is an enigmatic assemblage of fragmentary marble figurines, marble and clay vessels and other artifacts which were illicitly excavated in the 1950's and 1960's from the islet Keros, between Naxos and Amorgos. Most of those articats were sneaked out of Greece but the Museum of Cycladic Art managed in 1990 and 1992 to purchase and repatriate 81 of them. The systematic archaeological excavations that were conducted in the area the years 1963, 1966 and 1967 revealed an exceptionally rich deposit of Early Cycladic artefacts, most of them fragmented. In fact, the way in which the objects are broken and the erosion on their fracture surfaces indicate that they were smashed deliberately in Antiquity. On the basis of this evidence it has been proposed that the site was a repository for objects of great symbolic value and that they were broken on purpose in the context of specific rituals.

Schematic figurine from western Anatolia, representing the human figure in a highly abstract way. It belongs to the so-called "Kusura" type and is strongly reminiscent of Cycladic schematic figurines (especially the spade- and violin-shaped ones) not only because of its material but also because of the flat profile and the overall shape. During the Early Bronze Age, marble was used extensively for the manufacture of figurines of flat profile not only in the Aegean but all over the eastern Mediterranean.

Shallow bowl with rolled rim, emphasized inside by a groove. Abundant remains of reddish ochre pigment have been preserved in the interior surface. The bowl was perhaps used as a palette or as a container for pigment. Bowls are the commonest type of marble vessel during the Early Cycladic II period. As a rule they are shallow and range from 10 to 20 cm. in diameter, although smaller or much bigger examples exist, too. A large number of bowls comes from graves, although a limited number has been found in settlements.

Ellipsoidal lekanis mended in many parts. It resembles a shallow trough set on a rectangular base. Two lugs have been preserved on one end of the vase and it is possible that initially there were another two on the other side. They were apparently used to carry the vessel.

Characteristic of the Early Cycladic II period is the great number of variations which can be identified in the shapes of vessels. This deep bowl is provided with a spout on one side and a lug on the other. A thick layer of blue pigment (azurite) is preserved at the bottom of the vase. It is not clear whether the vase was used for preparing pigments for the decoration of other objects - as is suggested by the spout - or if the content was simply meant to satisfy cosmetic purposes. In any case, this bowl adds to the large corpus of evidence testifying to the widespread use of colour decoration in the Early Bronze Age Cyclades.

The calyx-shaped kylix is the commonest variation of this type of marble vessel in the Early Cycladic II period. It has derived from the simple conical cup, to which a trumpet-shaped foot has been added. Sometimes, the walls of the vase are so fine that the marble appears translucent, attesting the skill of the Cycladic craftsmen. Kylikes of this type are usually made of white marble, although examples exist in dark or veined qualities of this material. Several of them preserve traces of red pigment inside, and in some cases traces of deep blue or green.

Pyxis was the most popular closed type of marble vessel in the Early Cycladic II period. Initially, marble pyxides reproduced the shape of clay examples, soon, however, new forms appeared that had no equivalent in pottery. Among them, the biconical pyxis is one of the commonest forms. This particular example preserves also its lid. Pyxides were used as containers for the safekeeping of small personal effects, possibly jewellery or cosmetics. The interior of this vase contained traces of blue pigment (azurite), originally destined for cosmetic purposes.

The spool-shaped pyxis is a development of the simpler cylindrical variant of the Early Cycladic I period. The projecting lid and base together with the successive horizontal grooves that decorate the body, give the vessel the shape of a spool. The body has higher walls, chamfered at the top to receive the lid. In several cases there are one or two pairs of corresponding holes in the projecting sections of the lid and the base, so that the two parts of the pyxis could be fastened with twine, leather thong or string and the vase could be carried or hung safely.

Composite vessels, such as this kernos, are eloquent testimonies to the skills of Cycladic craftsmen. The vase has been carved from a single piece of stone and consists of two bigger and two smaller conical cups, and a slim trumpet-shaped foot. Kernos is a rather common vase-type in the ceramic repertoire of the Early Cycladic III period (2300-2000 BC). This unique marble example dates to the Early Cycladic II period and can be regarded as a precursive form of the type.

The "dove vase", one of the loveliest creations of Cycladic art, is a large, disc-shaped marble plate with low walls and a row of 16 integral doves carved in the round (chisel marks are visible on the sides of the birds), across the bottom. The birds are interpreted as doves, a popular subject in the Cyclades, featured in beads, pendants, pinheads and even vases or pyxis handles. The "dove vase" is the largest and best-preserved example of a rare category of marble vessels at present known only from Keros and specifically the site of Kavos-Daskalio, where fragments of such vases have been found. The presence of the row of birds exactly across the diameter of the bottom obviates a practical function of the vessel. It may have been used for ritual offerings, as some researchers have proposed its possible provenance from Kavos-Daskalio on Keros corroborates such a view, since we know that at this site objects of symbolic significance were deposited and intentionally broken, most probably in the context of specific rituals.

This type of piriform vase is characteristic of the transitional Kampos phase (2800-2700 BC). It is a novel form that presupposes technical knowledge and diligence, in a period when pottery is still handmade. The pot is decorated with incised lines and bears two pierced lugs on the shoulder. Because of their round bases, piriform vases could not be placed on flat surfaces. Most probably they were suspended from the wall or ceiling with leather string passed through the pierced lugs.

This type of clay vase, particularly common in the Cyclades and the Greek mainland in the Early Bronze Age, owes its conventional name to its characteristic shape and not to its use, which is kind of an enigma. "Frying pans" have low vertical or slightly flaring walls and a forked or quadrilateral "handle", while the surface of the "base" usually bears incised or impressed decoration. The illustrated example is decorated with seven concentric circles in the central section surrounded by irregular triangles, the remaining space being filled with dots and incised lines. The motif may represent the sun or a star. Other common motifs include single or running spirals, sometimes with incised boats in between. Vases of this type are mainly found in graves but as they also occur in settlements it is clear that they were used in daily life, too. The interpretations proposed for their function are many: ritual vessels for libations or offerings to the dead, containers for cosmetic objects of the dead, mirrors, drums for funerary rituals, navigational instruments, plates for food, symbolic vessels emphasizing the power of natural elements (sun, sea), etc.

Quadruplet vessel consisting of four small sea-urchin-shaped aryballoi. All four vases are solid and preserve remains of a greenish substance on the mouth. They are decorated with parallel lines on the neck and with double running spirals with impressed dots on the body.

At the closing stages of Early Cycladic II and the transitional phase to the Early Cycladic III period, new pottery shapes make their appearance in the Cyclades. They have dark, highly burnished surfaces, usually without any kind of incised or painted decoration, and form a coherent assemblage, known as the "Kastri group". The new types are believed to have been arrived from Asia Minor, although burnished vessels were made also in the islands of the northeastern Aegean and imported to the Cyclades already from much earlier. The illustrated vase is a characteristic example of the "Kastri group". Beak-spouted jugs were made in earlier periods, too, but the long neck, pronounced spout and burnished surface of this particular example are typical of the "Kastri group". The grey mottling on the surface is due to uneven firing.

This shallow bowl with the rudimentary ring base has been made of hammered metal (silver). Metal objects of the earlier phase of the Early Bronze Age (Early Cycladic I - 3200-2800 BC) are extremely few. It is only during the Early Cycladic II period (2800-2300 BC) that metalworking develops in the islands. The Cyclades had notable sources of metals for the time: copper on Kythnos and possibly Seriphos, lead and silver on Siphnos. Silver, however, had a limited use (mainly in ornaments and small objects), possibly because of technical difficulties in extracting silver from lead-silver ores or because of the low silver-content in such ores.

Bronze dagger with triangular blade, midrib and two small holes on the butt for affixing the wooden or bone handle. Judging from the small amount of bronze objects known from Early Cycladic I graves and settlements, it seems that metalworking really developed in the Cyclades only in the Early Cycladic II period. This is also the period when characteristic and long-lived types of bronze weapons, such as the dagger and the spearhead, made their appearance. The necessary technology was probably introduced from Asia Minor, where metallurgy and the production of bronze weapons had a much longer history. The Cyclades had notable deposits of copper on Kythnos and Seriphos, while it is possible that the copper ores of Laurion in Attica were also exploited. Copper was initially mixed with arsenic and, from the closing stage of Early Cycladic II, with tin creating more durable bronze alloys.


Cycladic Kernos - History

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    Vulci, Osteria Necropolis, Tomb of the Pomegranate (excavations of the 1850s), interred ca. 300 BCE.

    Ceramic, Etruscan production.

    In the collection of the Museo Nazionale Etrusco di Villa Giulia, Rome, Italy (MiBACT en.wikipedia).

    This photo is made available under a Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0) license. You may not use the material for commercial purposes.

    The palace of Malia, dating from the Middle Bronze Age, was destroyed by an earthquake during the Late Bronze Age[4] Knossos and other sites were also destroyed at that time. The palace was later rebuilt toward the end of the Late Bronze Age. Most of the ruins visible today date from this second period of construction. The palace features a giant central courtyard, 48m x 23m in size. On the south side are two sets of steps leading upwards and a maze of tiny rooms. Also here is a strange carved stone called a kernos stone, which looks like a millstone with a cup attached to the side of it. On the north side of the courtyard were storage rooms with giant earthenware pithos jars, up to two metres tall. These were used for holding grain, olive oil and other liquids the floor of these rooms has a complex drainage system for carrying away spilled liquids.

    The palace of Malia was discovered in 1915 by Joseph Hadzidakis, a Greek archaeologist. It was fully excavated from 1922 onwards by the French School at Athens in collaboration with Greek scholars. In 1921 the French School of Athens was invited to continue its work, where under the direction of Jean Charbonneaux 1930 Central Court was exposed. After the First World War, the excavations were continued under the direction of Fernand Chapouthier and Pierre Demargne and they uncovered the palace, and dug the surrounding residential neighborhood. Only after the 2nd World War in the 50s Micheline and Henri van Effenterre made the excavations at the "Crypt" and "Agora", Andre Dessene and Olivier Pelon on Quartier E, and Jean-Claude PourSat (from 1965) on important "Quartier Mu ". 1981, Pascal and Claude Darcque Bourrain further investigated the NO corner of the palace. The soundings in the years 1981 and 1982, conducted by Olivier Pelon have brought new insights into the precursors of the palace. Since 1988, the excavations of Alexandre Farnoux and Jan Driessen have been continued.

    The Palace of Malia has a floor area of 7,500 m2 and is oriented as all Minoan palaces to NS. With regard to design and equipment, it is smaller and more modest (rustic) compared to Knossos and Phaestos.

    Vulci, Osteria Necropolis, Tomb of the Pomegranate (excavations of the 1850s), interred ca. 300 BCE.

    Including a silvered ceramic calyx krater, eight miniature ollas, a terracotta pomegranata, multiple Black Gloss vessels, two impasto loomeights, and a ceramic kernos with plastic decoration.

    In the collection of the Museo Nazionale Etrusco di Villa Giulia, Rome, Italy (MiBACT en.wikipedia).

    This photo is made available under a Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0) license. You may not use the material for commercial purposes.


    Definition of Aegean Sculpture

    The period of Aegean art encompasses works from the Greek area, in particular the Mycenaean, Cycladic and Minoan art. Therefore, Aegean art comprises these local arts that were located around the Aegean Sea. Likewise, the importance of this art includes architecture, painting, murals, sculpture and other art forms. Some critics claim that it is required to put together the art of these very different civilizations, because they were located very close to each other and were created in the same way. Because of this, it is difficult to make statements about this art and its effects on the movement of society. However, it can be said that all of them have influenced later art movements, including those of the present day.

    The Aegean peoples were from seafaring and agricultural island cultures that valued aquatic life and nature. These three cultures, however, differed greatly in how they expressed their values in art forms: the Cycladics were minimalist, the Minoans were influenced by beauty, and the Mycenaeans were influenced by war and hunting. Each of these cultures produced smaller sculptures, mainly figures. The Cycladic culture produced sculptures very similar to modern sculpture, such as the Oscar figure and the Minoans went in the opposite direction with intricately carved or cast figures. The Mycenaeans focused on heavy metal worked into their sculptures. Homer is said to be from this area, which is why he plays this art has a prominent place in his works. He spoke of some of the major works of art from these islands that would not be seen for many years until they were rediscovered in the 19th century.


    On Naxos: Preserving the Everlasting Art of Ceramics and Pottery

    Walk into the Greek section of any museum around the world, and chances are you will see ancient artifacts of pottery and other ceramic works from past civilizations.

    Walk into the workshop of Manolis Lybertas in the village of Damalas, Naxos and be just as impressed, if not more.

    The 4th generation of a family of ceramic artisans, Lybertas is doing his best to preserve the everlasting art and tradition of Naxos pottery. In doing so, he invites visitors into his workshop and the chance to see him at work. With shelves lined with scores and scores of ceramics, it will be hard to choose what to see first, let alone buy.

    The selection includes replicas of Cycladic pottery such as the elaborate kernos (a vase for multiple offerings), table and floor based pots and vases. Museum piece replicas are here too as are the sfouni, a jug for pouring wine and the tyromethira, a holed jar for drying cheese.

    Take the opportunity to watch him work and ask questions about this ancient old skill and craft.

    Interesting side note about pottery and ceramics on Naxos: The myriad of relics discovered in tombs at Grotta (just above the port and main town Chora) as well as other areas throughout the island, documents the island’s significant use of ceramics and pottery during that era.


    Cyclades Cultural Artefacts from the Louvre Museum, Paris

    Cyclades Cultural Artefacts

    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source: Original, Musée du Louvre

    Amorgos, 2 700 BC - 2 300 BC

    This leaf-shaped spearhead is characteristic of Cycladic objects dating from the third millennium BC. It was fitted onto a wooden shaft via holes in the lower part. The object is believed to have been found in a grave on the island of Amorgos. It may derive from Neolithic prototypes that also had a slightly raised central ridge.

    This bronze spearhead entered the collections of the Louvre as part of the Delamarre donation in 1903, and is thought to come from a grave discovered on the island of Amorgós in the Cyclades islands. It is crafted in the shape of a leaf, with a slightly raised central ridge running its length. It fitted onto a wooden shaft, now lost, via two holes made in the lower part of the tang. The metal was cast and worked by hammering.

    The shape of the object probably derives from a Neolithic prototype that would also have had a central ridge. It is characteristic of works made in the Cyclades in the third millennium BC. This spearhead is related to a similar type discovered in Cyprus that was produced up to the end of the third millennium BC. The Cypriot spearheads have a rat's-tail-shaped tang. The Louvre spearhead may therefore be considered as one of the oldest proofs of contact between the Aegean world and the eastern Mediterranean.

    This type of weapon, which has been found on several of the Cyclades islands, is sometimes mistakenly identified as a type of dagger blade dating from the same period, whose leaf or triangular shape is indeed very similar.

    This object was made in a period of the Bronze Age during which craftsmen made considerable progress in metalwork and when metallurgy was burgeoning. The metals most often used were probably copper and silver, to which were sometimes added lead, pewter and gold (these being no doubt imported). In the Cyclades, bronze was used primarily for the making of everyday objects (knives, drills, scissors, tongs, needles) and weapons (spears, daggers, arrowheads).

    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Catalog: Br 1459
    Source: Original, Musée du Louvre
    Text: https://www.louvre.fr/en/mediaimages/pointe-de-lance, https://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/spearhead


    Seated female figurine, Syros group

    Ancient Cycladic II, 2 700 BC - 2 300 BC, marble.

    This figurine of the Spedos type, remarkable for its fine craftsmanship and pose, is a rare example of a three-dimensional approach to sculpture in the Third Millenium BC.

    Catalog: Ma 4992
    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source & text: Original, Musée du Louvre
    Additional text: http://cartelfr.louvre.fr


    Female figurine of the Syros group, Spedos type Ancient Cycladic II, 2 700 BC - 2 300 BC, marble.

    The type of figurine with crossed arms of the Spedos variety marks the apogee of Cycladic creation in the third millennium BC.

    Catalog: Ma 4998
    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source and text: Original, Musée du Louvre
    Additional text: http://cartelfr.louvre.fr


    Cycladic female figurine with crossed arms, Syros group, Spedos type

    Ancient Cycladic II, 2 700 BC - 2 300 BC, marble.

    Catalog: Ma 4999
    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source and text: Original, Musée du Louvre
    Additional text: Wikipedia, http://cartelfr.louvre.fr


    Cycladic female figurine with crossed arms, Syros group, Spedos type

    Ancient Cycladic II, 2 700 BC - 2 300 BC, marble.

    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source and text: Original, Musée du Louvre


    Ancient Cycladic II, 2 700 BC - 2 300 BC, marble.

    The statuettes presented in this showcase belong to the type of figurines with crossed arms of type Spedos which marks the apogee of the Cycladic creation in the 3rd millenium BC.

    The Spedos type is named after an Early Cycladic cemetery on the island of Naxos.

    Catalog: Ma 4997
    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source and text: Original, Musée du Louvre
    Additional text: http://cartelen.louvre.fr

    The Spedos type, named after an Early Cycladic cemetery on Naxos, is the most common of Cycladic figurine types. It has the widest distribution within the Cyclades as well as elsewhere, and the greatest longevity.

    The group as a whole includes figurines ranging in height from miniature examples of 80 mm to monumental sculptures of 1500 mm. With the exception of a statue of a male figure, now in the Museum of Cycladic Art Collection, all known works of the Spedos variety are female figures.

    Spedos figurines are typically slender elongated female forms with folded arms. They are characterised by U-shaped heads and a deeply incised cleft between the legs.

    Text above from Wikipedia


    Cycladic female figurine, Syros group.

    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source & text: Original, Musée du Louvre


    Female figurine, head, Syros Group, Spedos Type, found in a tomb at Kornovegli.

    Ancient Cycladic II, 2 700 BC - 2 300 BC, marble.

    These heads, Ma 3095 and Ma 3094 (below) were found in a tomb at Kornovegli, between Arcosine and Minoa, with the knife blade Br 1460. This head, Catalog Ma 3095, is attributed to the 'Master of Goulandris'.

    Catalog: Ma 3095
    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source & text: Original, Musée du Louvre


    Female figurine, head, Syros Group, Spedos Type, found in a tomb at Kornovegli.

    Ancient Cycladic II, 2 700 BC - 2 300 BC, marble.

    These heads, Ma 3095 (above) and Ma 3094 were found in a tomb at Kornovegli, between Arcosine and Minoa, with the knife blade Br 1460.

    Catalog: Ma 3094
    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source & text: Original, Musée du Louvre
    Additional text: Wikipedia

    Ancient Cycladic II, 2 700 BC - 2 300 BC, Syros Group, Spedos Type, marble

    This figurine is similar to works of the 'Goulandris Master', characterised by sloping shoulders and curved lines beneath the neck and abdomen. The Goulandris Master carved Cycladic marble female figures sometime in the period from 2500 to 2400 B.C. He is the most prolific Cycladic sculptor known to scholars: over fifty surviving figures can be assigned to him. All the figures display distinctive features of the artist's style: a rounded back strongly sloping shoulders small, widely spaced breasts and a line running across the abdomen forming the top of the pubic triangle.

    Like all artists in this early period, the Goulandris Master's real name is unknown, and he is identified only by the style of his work. The sculptor takes his name from the Goulandris Museum of Cycladic Art in Athens, Greece, which contains several of his works.

    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Catalog: Ma 5010
    Source & text: Original, Musée du Louvre
    Additional text: http://www.getty.edu


    Cycladic female figurine from Paros

    Ancient Cycladic II, 2 700 BC - 2 300 BC, Syros Group, Spedos Type, marble

    Catalog: Ma 2708
    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source & text: Original, Musée du Louvre


    Cycladic female figurine, from Paros

    Ancient Cycladic II, 2 700 BC - 2 300 BC, Syros Group, Spedos Type, marble.

    Catalog: Ma 2707
    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source & text: Original, Musée du Louvre


    Female figure, Syros Group, Chalandriani type.

    Naxos, Ancient Cycladic II, 2 700 BC - 2 300 BC, marble

    This figurine is an elegant illustration of the Chalandriani type, which differs from the Spedo type in displaying a geometric stylisation based on the triangle. It is attributed to the 'Stafford master', whose work is characterised by the large symmetrical arcs described by the lines running from the top of the head to the tips of the shoulders, and by long noses and very slender, straight profiles.

    Catalog: Ma 3093
    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source and text: Original, Musée du Louvre
    Additional text: http://cartelfr.louvre.fr


    Female figure, Syros Group, Chalandriani type.

    Ancient Cycladic II, 2 700 BC - 2 300 BC, marble

    Catalog: Ma 5003
    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source & text: Original, Musée du Louvre


    Female figure, Syros Group, Chalandriani type.

    Ancient Cycladic II, 2 700 BC - 2 300 BC, marble

    Catalog: Ma 5007
    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source & text: Original, Musée du Louvre


    Female figure, Syros Group, Chalandriani type.

    Ancient Cycladic II, 2 700 BC - 2 300 BC, marble

    Catalog: Ma 5004
    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source & text: Original, Musée du Louvre
    Additional text: http://cartelfr.louvre.fr

    Ancient Cycladic II, 2 700 BC - 2 300 BC, marble

    Catalog: Ma 4842
    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source & text: Original, Musée du Louvre
    Additional text: http://cartelfr.louvre.fr

    Ancient Cycladic II, 2 700 BC - 2 300 BC, marble

    Catalog: Ma 5012
    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source & text: Original, Musée du Louvre
    Additional text: http://cartelfr.louvre.fr

    Ancient Cycladic II (?), 2 700 BC - 2 300 BC, marble

    Catalog: Ma 5008
    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source & text: Original, Musée du Louvre
    Additional text: http://cartelfr.louvre.fr

    Beginning of the Ancient Cycladic II, circa 2 750 BC, marble

    The figurine belongs to the Apeiranthos type, named after a village in Naxos. The Apeiranthos type is a development of the spade type of the Early Cycladic I period (3 200 BC - 2 800 BC), but differs in that the head is outlined both in frontal view and in profile and the figurine is not completely flat. In some cases the head is tilted back, while the torso can take various shapes, such as rectangular, rhomboid, triangular etc. Apart from marble, Apeiranthos type figurines were also made of shell.

    Catalog: Ma 4988
    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source & text: Original, Musée du Louvre
    Additional text: http://cartelfr.louvre.fr, https://cycladic.gr/en/exhibit/ng0352-schimatiko-idolio?cat=kikladiki-techni

    Ancient Cycladic II, 2 700 BC - 2 300 BC, marble

    Syros culture, Spedos type.

    Catalog: Ma 5002
    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source & text: Original, Musée du Louvre
    Additional text: http://cartelfr.louvre.fr

    Beginning of Early Ancient Cycladic II, 2 700 BC - 2 300 BC, steatite

    (A Pyxis is a box for personal possessions such as cosmetics)

    Catalog: Ma 3564
    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source & text: Original, Musée du Louvre
    Additional text: http://cartelfr.louvre.fr

    Ancient Cycladic II, 2 700 BC - 2 300 BC, marble.

    Catalog: Ma 5026
    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source & text: Original, Musée du Louvre
    Additional text: http://cartelfr.louvre.fr

    Ancient Cycladic II, 2 700 BC - 2 300 BC, marble.

    Height 85 mm. ( note that a lid exists for this Pyxis, and the height given may include the lid and its handle - Don )

    Catalog: Ma 4841
    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source & text: Original, Musée du Louvre
    Additional text: http://cartelfr.louvre.fr

    Ancient Cycladic II, 2 700 BC - 2 300 BC, marble.

    Catalog: Ma 4531
    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source & text: Original, Musée du Louvre
    Additional text: http://cartelfr.louvre.fr

    Ancient Cycladic II, 2 700 BC - 2 300 BC, marble.

    Catalog: Ma 3545 c
    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source & text: Original, Musée du Louvre
    Additional text: http://cartelfr.louvre.fr

    Heraklion (?) Ancient Cycladic II, 2 700 BC - 2 300 BC, terra cotta.

    Height 158 mm, diameter 196 mm.

    Catalog: MNE 995
    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source and text: Original, Musée du Louvre
    Additional text: http://cartelfr.louvre.fr

    Ancient Cycladic II - III, circa 2 300 BC, terra cotta.

    Height 173 mm, diameter 161 mm.

    Catalog: MNE 996
    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source and text: Original, Musée du Louvre
    Additional text: http://cartelfr.louvre.fr

    Ancient Cycladic II, 2 700 BC - 2 300 BC, marble.

    (right) Diameter 109 mm., height 33 mm.

    Catalog: (left) Ma 3545 a, (right) Ma 5024
    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source and text: Original, Musée du Louvre
    Additional text: http://cartelfr.louvre.fr


    Kernos, from Melos, terra cotta.

    Ancient Cycladic III, 2 000 BC

    Height 190 mm, diameter 303 mm.

    Found mainly in tombs, this type of vase was perhaps used for funerary rituals. In the typology of ancient Greek pottery, the kernos is a pottery ring or stone tray to which are attached several small vessels for holding offerings. Its unusual design is described in literary sources, which also list the ritual ingredients it might contain. The kernos was used primarily in the cults of Demeter and Kore, and of Cybele and Attis.

    The form begins in the Neolithic in stone, in the earliest stages of the Minoan civilisation, around 3 000 BC. They were produced in Minoan and Cycladic pottery, being the most elaborate shape in the latter, and right through ancient Greek pottery.

    Catalog: Sèvres 3552
    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source and text: Original, Musée du Louvre
    Additional text: http://cartelfr.louvre.fr, Wikipedia

    Ancient Cycladic I, 3 200 BC - 2 700 BC, Plastiras type, marble.

    'Plastiras'type figurines are characterised by a degree of naturalism in the rendering of anatomical detail (distinctly pronounced hips and rounded breasts, belly and knees). The hands are joined at the finger-tips, the legs are rendered separately, and the feet are placed flat against the ground.

    Catalog: Ma 4987
    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source & text: Original, Musée du Louvre
    Additional text: http://cartelfr.louvre.fr


    Female figurine, Plastiras type.

    Ancient Cycladic I, 3 200 BC - 2 700 BC, Plastiras type, marble.

    This figurine is probably unfinished.

    ( note the interlaced fingers which help to define this figurine as of the Plastiras type - Don )

    Catalog: Ma 3520
    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source & text: Original, Musée du Louvre
    Additional text: http://cartelfr.louvre.fr

    Ancient Cycladic I, 3 200 BC - 2 700 BC, marble.

    (left) Height 123 mm, diameter 121 mm, Catalog Ma 3507

    (centre) Height 120 mm, diameter 81 mm, Catalog Ma 3502

    (right) Height 154 mm, diameter 121 mm, Catalog Ma 5019

    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source & text: Original, Musée du Louvre
    Additional text: http://cartelfr.louvre.fr

    Ancient Cycladic I, 3 200 BC - 2 700 BC, marble.

    (left) One handled bowl, traces of red pigment.

    Diameter 235 mm, Catalog Ma 4838

    (right) Two handled bowl, traces of pigments.

    Height 76 mm, diameter 202 mm, Catalog Ma 5020

    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source & text: Original, Musée du Louvre
    Additional text: http://cartelfr.louvre.fr

    Ancient Cycladic I, 3 200 BC - 2 700 BC, marble.

    (left, rear) The traces of red colours, as on this palette, Ma 5022, and blue on some similar specimens suggest that these objects could have been used to mix pigments.

    Height 45 mm, width 85 mm, length 165 mm, Catalog Ma 5022.

    (right, front) Palette, Catalog Ma 5021

    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source & text: Original, Musée du Louvre
    Additional text: http://cartelfr.louvre.fr

    Ancient Cycladic I, 3 200 BC - 2 700 BC, marble.

    Kandelas, or Kegelhalsgefäß, or cone neck vessels, which were comparatively numerous at this time, usually of marble, can be described as the signature object of the Plastiras group.

    Catalog: Ma 4706
    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source & text: Original, Musée du Louvre
    Additional text: http://cartelfr.louvre.fr

    Ancient Cycladic I, 3 200 BC - 2 700 BC, marble..

    Height 280 mm, width 280 mm.

    This vessel, like similar Kandelas, could be placed on its foot or suspended by cords passing through the perforated vertical lug handles. Its exact use is unknown. It is called a Kandela (candle) because of its shape, resembling a modern lamp. Marble vases of this type were found in tombs with figurines, especially at Plastiras on the island of Paros.

    Catalog: Ma 4839
    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source & text: Original, Musée du Louvre
    Additional text: http://cartelfr.louvre.fr

    Ancient Cycladic I, 3 200 BC - 2 700 BC, marble.

    Catalog: Ma 5018
    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source & text: Original, Musée du Louvre
    Additional text: http://cartelfr.louvre.fr

    Ancient Cycladic I, 3 200 BC - 2 700 BC, marble.

    Height 130 mm, diameter 145 mm.

    Catalog: Ma 3096
    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source & text: Original, Musée du Louvre
    Additional text: http://cartelfr.louvre.fr

    Ancient Cycladic I, 3 200 BC - 2 700 BC, marble.

    This type of tripartite vase with foot, belly (in the shape of a sea urchin test) and neck has vertical perforated lugs that could be interpreted as a suspension device. Mostly found in a funerary context, the kandela is associated with naturalistic figurines, of the Plastiras type, figurines whose hands meet at the ends of the fingers, rather than the arms being crossed over the chest or abdomen, as in later figurines.

    ( this is a particularly finely proportioned and finished specimen - Don )

    Catalog: Ma 5017
    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source & text: Original, Musée du Louvre
    Additional text: http://cartelfr.louvre.fr


    Glass case of Cycladic artefacts.

    Cycladic Civilisation, 3 200 BC - 2 300 BC

    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source: Original, Musée du Louvre


    Figurine in the shape of a violin, Pelos Group.

    Ancient Cycladic I, 3 200 BC - 2 700 BC, marble.

    Catalog: Ma 4993
    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source & text: Original, Musée du Louvre
    Additional text: http://cartelfr.louvre.fr


    Figurine in the shape of a violin, Pelos Group.

    Ancient Cycladic I, 3 200 BC - 2 700 BC, marble.

    Catalog: Ma 4986
    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source & text: Original, Musée du Louvre
    Additional text: http://cartelfr.louvre.fr


    Figurines in the shape of a violin, Pelos Group.

    Ancient Cycladic I, 3 200 BC - 2 700 BC, marble.

    Catalog: (left) Ma 3505, (right) Ma 3508
    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source & text: Original, Musée du Louvre
    Additional text: http://cartelfr.louvre.fr

    Ancient Bronze I - II, 3 200 BC - 2 300 BC, marble.

    The Kiliya Type, from Western Anatolia, is characterised by an oval head where the nose and ears are plastically noted, and a small body shaped like a willow leaf.

    The perforation of the neck is probably due to an ancient reuse.

    Catalog: Ma 4549
    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source & text: Original, Musée du Louvre
    Additional text: http://cartelfr.louvre.fr

    Ancient Bronze II, 2 700 BC - 2 300 BC, marble.

    Kusura type, western Anatolia

    Schematic figurine from western Anatolia, representing the human figure in a highly abstract way. It belongs to the so-called 'Kusura' type and is strongly reminiscent of Cycladic schematic figurines (especially the spade- and violin-shaped ones) not only because of its material but also because of the flat profile and the overall shape.

    During the Early Bronze Age, marble was used extensively for the manufacture of figurines of flat profile not only in the Aegean but all over the eastern Mediterranean.

    Catalog: Ma 5016
    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source & text: Original, Musée du Louvre
    Additional text: http://cartelfr.louvre.fr, https://cycladic.gr/en/exhibit/ng0961-schimatiko-idolio-tipou-kusura


    Schematic figurine, head, Kusura type, western Anatolia.

    Ancient Bronze II, 2 700 BC - 2 300 BC, marble.

    The Kusura type consists of a very schematic representation of the human figure with a disc-shaped head resting on a long neck and a body represented by a simple rectangle.

    Catalog: Ma 3269 f
    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source & text: Original, Musée du Louvre
    Additional text: http://cartelfr.louvre.fr


    Schematic figurines, Lebedos

    Ancient Bronze II, 2 700 BC - 2 300 BC, marble.

    Kusura type, western Anatolia.

    The Kusura type consists of a very schematic representation of the human figure with a disc-shaped head resting on a long neck and a body represented by a simple rectangle.

    Catalog:
    Left: Ma 3269 c
    Right: Ma 3269 b
    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source & text: Original, Musée du Louvre
    Additional text: http://cartelfr.louvre.fr


    Schematic figurines, Lebedos

    Ancient Bronze II, 2 700 BC - 2 300 BC, marble.

    Kusura type, western Anatolia

    The Kusura type consists of a very schematic representation of the human figure with a disc-shaped head resting on a long neck and a body represented by a simple rectangle.

    Catalog:
    Left: Ma 3269 e
    Centre: Ma 3269 d
    Right: Ma 3269 a
    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source & text: Original, Musée du Louvre
    Additional text: http://cartelfr.louvre.fr

    Ancient Bronze II, 2 700 BC - 2 300 BC, Copper alloy.

    These blades were fixed by rivets to handles of perishable material (wood or bone). The item Br 1455 has retained its rivet. This set came from the same grave as the figures Ma 3269 f, Ma 3269 c, Ma 3269 b, Ma 3269 e, Ma 3269 d, Ma 3269 a.

    Catalog:
    Left: possibly one of Br 1456, Br 1457
    Left centre: Br 1454
    Right centre: Br 1453, length 175 mm.
    Right: Br 1455
    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source & text: Original, Musée du Louvre
    Additional text: http://cartelfr.louvre.fr

    Ancient Cycladic I, 3 200 BC - 2 700 BC, terra cotta.

    Height 162 mm, width 186 mm.

    Catalog: MNE 994
    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source & text: Original, Musée du Louvre
    Additional text: http://cartelfr.louvre.fr

    (Right) Cylindrical Pyxis with incised decoration.

    Ancient Cycladic I, 3 200 BC - 2 700 BC, Pelos group, terra cotta.

    Height 75 mm, width 130 mm, diameter 112 mm.

    Catalog: CA 6989
    Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
    Source & text: Original, Musée du Louvre
    Additional text: http://cartelfr.louvre.fr

    References

    1. Horst K., Schulze H., Steinmann B., 2015: Kykladen, Frühe Kunst in der Ägäis, Kykladen, Frühe Kunst in der Ägäis, Edited by Rupert Gebhard - Harald Schulze © 2015 by Archäologische Staatssammlung Munich - Museum for Prehistory and Early History ISBN 978-3-927806-39-9, Accompanying book to the exhibition in the Archäologische Staatssammlung München 13.2.2015 - 7.7. 2015
    2. Pressekonferenz, 2011: zur großen Sonderausstellung 'Kykladen. Lebenswelten einer frühgriechischen Kultur', Freitag, 16. Dezember, 11 Uhr, Badisches Landesmuseum, Schloss. URL: http://www.landesmuseum.de/website/dyndata/Sammelmappe_Kykladen.pdf

    Table des illustrations

    Légende Fig. 1. A procession including an aulete on a Boiotian exaleiptron. Courtesy of Antikensammlung, Staatliche Museen Preussischer Kulturbesitz, inv. F 1727. Photo: Isolde Luckart.
    URL http://books.openedition.org/pulg/docannexe/image/199/img-1.jpg
    Fichier image/jpeg, 175k
    Légende Fig. 2. Caeretan hydria with a female aulete. Courtesy of the Department of Near Eastern and Classical Antiquities, the National Museum, Copenhagen, inv. MN 13,567. Photo: Lennart Larsen.
    URL http://books.openedition.org/pulg/docannexe/image/199/img-2.jpg
    Fichier image/jpeg, 384k
    Légende Fig. 3a. Four musicians, two auletes and two kitharists, in a sacrificial procession on a belly-amphora by the Painter of Berlin 1686 (name-vase). Courtesy of Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Pergamonmuseum, inv. F 1686. Photo: Rosa Mai.
    URL http://books.openedition.org/pulg/docannexe/image/199/img-3.jpg
    Fichier image/jpeg, 288k
    Légende Fig. 3b. Four musicians, two auletes and two kitharists, in a sacrificial procession on a belly-amphora by the Painter of Berlin 1686 (name-vase). Courtesy of Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Pergamonmuseum, inv. F 1686. Photo: Rosa Mai.
    URL http://books.openedition.org/pulg/docannexe/image/199/img-4.jpg
    Fichier image/jpeg, 274k
    Légende Fig. 4a. A salpinx-player confronts a procession with horsemen, a large bull and a sacrificer. Red-figured kylix. Courtesy of Soprintendenza di Archeologia di Firenze, inv. 81600.
    URL http://books.openedition.org/pulg/docannexe/image/199/img-5.jpg
    Fichier image/jpeg, 257k
    Légende Fig. 4b. A salpinx-player confronts a procession with horsemen, a large bull and a sacrifices Red-figured kylix. Courtesy of Soprintendenza di Archeologia di Firenze, inv. 81600.
    URL http://books.openedition.org/pulg/docannexe/image/199/img-6.jpg
    Fichier image/jpeg, 243k
    Légende Fig. 5a. An aulete in a procession on a black-figure amphora by the Affecter. Courtesy by Staatliche Antikensammlungen, München, inv. 1441. Photo: Fachlabor F. Zingel & R. Rehm, München.
    URL http://books.openedition.org/pulg/docannexe/image/199/img-7.jpg
    Fichier image/jpeg, 302k
    Légende Fig. 5b. An aulete in a procession on a black-figure amphora by the Affecter. Courtesy by Staatliche Antikensammlungen, München, inv. 1441. Photo: Fachlabor F. Zingel & R. Rehm, München.
    URL http://books.openedition.org/pulg/docannexe/image/199/img-8.jpg
    Fichier image/jpeg, 371k
    Légende Fig. 6. Black-figure hydria. Courtesy of Musées du Louvre, inv. F 10. Photo: Musées Nationaux, Paris.
    URL http://books.openedition.org/pulg/docannexe/image/199/img-9.jpg
    Fichier image/jpeg, 379k
    Légende Fig. 7. Herakles and Bousiris on a red-figured kalpis by the Kleophrades Painter. Courtesy of Musées du Louvre, Ν 3376 (MN 401). Photo: Musées Nationaux, Paris.
    URL http://books.openedition.org/pulg/docannexe/image/199/img-10.jpg
    Fichier image/jpeg, 271k
    Légende Fig. 8. Sacrificial scene, with an aulete playing to the left. Red-figure bell-krater in the manner of the Kleophon Painter. Courtesy of Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Catherine Page Perkins Fund, inv. 92.25.
    URL http://books.openedition.org/pulg/docannexe/image/199/img-11.jpg
    Fichier image/jpeg, 385k
    Légende Fig. 9a. Sacrificial scene, with a non-playing aulete. Red-figure stamnos by the Eucharides Painter. Courtesy of Musées du Louvre, C 10754. Photo: Musées Nationaux, Paris.
    URL http://books.openedition.org/pulg/docannexe/image/199/img-12.jpg
    Fichier image/jpeg, 403k
    Légende Fig. 9b. Sacrificial scene, with a non-playing aulete. Red-figure stamnos by the Eucharides Painter. Courtesy of Musées du Louvre, C10754. Photo: Musées Nationaux, Paris.
    URL http://books.openedition.org/pulg/docannexe/image/199/img-13.jpg
    Fichier image/jpeg, 355k
    Légende Fig. 10. Sacrificial scene, with a playing aulete. Red-figure bell-krater by the Nikias Painter. Courtesy of Lecce Museum, inv. 630.
    URL http://books.openedition.org/pulg/docannexe/image/199/img-14.jpg
    Fichier image/jpeg, 314k
    Légende Fig. 11. Sacrificial scene, with a playing aulete. Red-figure stamnos by Polygnotos. Courtesy of the Trustees of the British Museum, inv. Ε 455.
    URL http://books.openedition.org/pulg/docannexe/image/199/img-15.jpg
    Fichier image/jpeg, 384k
    Légende Fig. 12. Sacrificial scene with a playing aulete. Red-figure bell-krater by the Pothos Painter. Courtesy of the Trustees of the British Museum, inv. 504.
    URL http://books.openedition.org/pulg/docannexe/image/199/img-16.jpg
    Fichier image/jpeg, 407k
    Légende Fig. 13. Panathenaic amphora by the Princeton Painter. Courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Rogers Fund (53.11.1).
    URL http://books.openedition.org/pulg/docannexe/image/199/img-17.jpg
    Fichier image/jpeg, 724k

    Contributions particulières

    45 B aitinger Holger, « Commemoration of War in Archaic and Classical Greece. Battlefields, Tombs and Sanctuaries », in Maurizio G iangiulio , Elena Franchi , Giorgia P roietti (dir.), Commemorating War and War Dead. Ancient and Modern , Stuttgart, Steiner, 2019, p. 131–145.

    46 Bierl Anton, « Agonistic Excess and its Ritual Resolution in Hero Cult: the Funeral Games in Iliad 23 as a mise en abyme », in Cynthia Damon , Christoph Pieper (dir.), Eris vs. Aemulatio . Valuing Competition in Classical Antiquity , Leiden/Boston, Brill, 2019 ( Mnemosyne , suppl. 423), p. 53–78.

    47 G ourmelen Laurent, « Thésée et les Amazones (Plutarque, Vie de Thésée , 26–28). Mythe et histoire : construction d’un récit biographique », in Pierre Maréchaux , Bernard M ineo (dir.), Plutarque et la construction de l’Histoire. Entre récit historique et invention littéraire. Actes du colloque organisé les 13 et 14 mai 2016 à l’Université de Nantes , Rennes, Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2020 ( Histoire ), p. 105–125.

    48 Ladynin Ivan, « The Burial of Seleucus I Nicator in Appian ( Syr . 63): A Replica of the Ptolemaic Eponymous Cult? », in Roland Oetjen (dir.), New Perspectives in Seleucid History, Archaeology and Numismatics: Studies in Honor of Getzel M. Cohen , Berlin/Boston, De Gruyter, 2019 ( Beiträge zur Altertumskunde , 355), p. 46–58.

    49 Lambrinoudakis Vassilis, « Cycladic Figurine from the Sanctuary of Apollo Maleatas in Epidauria », in Marisa Marthari , Colin Renfrew , Michael J. Boyd (dir.), Beyond the Cyclades: Early Cycladic Sculpture in Context from Mainland Greece, the North and East Aegean , Philadelphia, Oxbow Books, 2019, p. 119–125.

    50 Mauduit Christine, « Le suffrage d’Athéna. Réflexions sur le vote dans la tragédie grecque », in Aldo Borlenghi et al. (dir.), Voter en Grèce, à Rome et en Gaule : Pratiques, lieux et finalités, Lyon, MOM Éditions, 2019, p. 73–92.

    51 Osborne Robin, « Unruly Women and Greek Sanctuaries. Gendered Expectations and their Violation », in Karl-Joachim Hölkeskamp et al. (dir.), Die Grenzen des Prinzips. Die Infragestellung von Werten durch Regelverstöße in antiken Gesellschaften , Stuttgart, Steiner, 2019, p. 47–62.

    52 Palagia Olga, « The Gold and Ivory Cult Statues of Pheidias in Athens and Olympia », in Olga Palagia (dir.), Handbook of Greek Sculpture , Berlin/Boston, De Gruyter, 2019 ( Ancient Greek and Roman Art and Architecture , 1), p. 328–359.

    53 S chelske Oliver, « ‘Seeherrschaft’ in Dichtung und Mythos. Pindars 4. Pythie und der Argonautenmythos », in Oliver S chelske , Christian W endt (dir.), Mare nostrum – mare meum. Wasserräume und Herrschaftsrepräsentation , Hildesheim/Zürich/New York, Olms, 2019 ( Spudasmata , 181), p. 3–29.

    54 Van den Kerchove Anna, « Un “sage égyptien” chez les auteurs chrétiens de l’antiquité : Hermès Trismégiste », RHR (2019–4), p. 657–701.

    55 W illey Hannah, « Religion », in Gunther M artin (dir.), The Oxford Handbook of Demosthenes , Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2019, p. 271–282.


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